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The International Hydrofoil Society:

2017 Mandles Prize

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Last updated: September 13, 2016

News Flash!
2017 Mandles Prize Competition Announcement!


International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Mandles Prize for Hydrofoil Excellence
2017 Mandles Prize Background
2017 Rules and Application Form

Last updated September 12, 2016



log1 Announcement:


September 6, 2016

International Hydrofoil Society (IHS)

Mandles Prize for Hydrofoil Excellence - 2017



The International Hydrofoil Society is pleased to announce that thanks to the generosity of Mr. Martinn Mandles, a long-time member of IHS and his wife Connie, IHS will once again sponsor the Mandles Prize for Hydrofoil Excellence competition.   The competition, now entering its 4th year, includes up to $4,500 annually in IHS hydrofoil achievement prizes for students, with a $2,500 First Prize and up to two $1,000 Honorable Mention awards.

In order to open the competition to a wider spectrum of qualified entries, submissions by students based on work completed since 2012 will be eligible for the Mandles Prize.   The due date for Application Forms is May 1st, 2017.

This is an outstanding opportunity for the next generation of hydrofoil developers to be acknowledged for their efforts to advance the state of the art in hydrofoil and hydrofoil-assisted craft engineering, design and construction.  Background on the Mandles Prize and Rules for the competition can be downloaded from the IHS website (

Based on the 2016 entries and award winners, we anticipate a very exciting competition and look forward to receiving many high-quality entries.  Questions on the Mandles Prize can be e-mailed to Mark Bebar at: or Ray Vellinga at:


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ANNOUNCING: The International Hydrofoil Society 2017

Mandles Prize for Hydrofoil Excellence.

By Ray Vellinga and Mark Bebar



Martinn Mandles and his wife Connie

Martinn Mandles and his wife Connie have funded up to $4,500 a year in IHS hydrofoil achievement awards for students commencing in 2014. What was once just a dream of our late past president, John Meyer, is now a reality due to the contributions of the Mandles and the creative efforts of several IHS members including Vice-President Mark Bebar, President Ray Vellinga, and a dedicated team of judges. 

The Mandles Prize itself includes an annual total of $4,500 in awards in recognition of hydrofoil engineering, design or construction achievement by college and university students (undergraduate and graduate level) worldwide. The award of the Prize will be based on submissions from individual students or groups of up to six students with the signature of a faculty adviser endorsing each submission. Submissions must be specific to hydrofoils, and publishable by IHS. Submissions will be solicited on the IHS website, by contacting faculty at educational institutions internationally, and by advertisement, cost permitting, in applicable professional and trade publications (e.g., SNAME’s Marine Technology, ASNE’s Naval Engineers Journal, etc.). Submissions will be due on or before June 1st of each year, with the Prize winner selected, announced and awarded no later than early August of that year. The awards consist of the $2,500 First Prize with a commemorative plaque, and as many as two optional Honorable Mention prizes of $1,000, each with a commemorative plaque. IHS will appoint a panel of no less than five (5) judges, free from any real or perceived conflict of interest, to evaluate the submissions and recommend the Prize winners.  Depending on the submissions received, it may be necessary to add other judges who are Subject Matter Experts.


In a past email of thanks to Martinn and Connie, IHS member Bill Hockberger captured the spirit of this competition: “I was really pleased when I learned of your generous offer to establish a student competition with monetary awards. I think it will motivate young people studying ship design to consider hydrofoils in a way that a mere award certificate or plaque can never do. And if they jump in, by necessity it will also motivate their professors to learn about hydrofoils so they can oversee their students’ projects. That’ll be a significant extra bang for the buck! A big part of the problem getting people to consider hydrofoils when they might be the best alternative is that so few know enough about them.”


Many of our members know Martinn and something about his accomplishments. For others, here is a summary: Martinn started as a hydroplane racer in high school and became both an airplane and hydrofoil “pilot” before earning an engineering degree from Stanford University in 1964. As such, he was the first co-pilot of Boeing’s Aqua-Jet hydrofoil research hydroplane, and on the first flight crew of the Boeing built FRESH-1 high-speed research hydrofoil. Upon his return from Vietnam in 1967, Mandles became the Navy’s first captain of Boeing’s first hydrofoil gunboat, USS Tucumcari. After completing five years of military service in 1969, Mandles commenced a 37-year career at ABM Industries (NYSE: ABM), where he was Chairman of the Board from 1997-2006.

An accomplished aviator and avid adventurer, Martinn was the first non-NASA American pilot to graduate from the Russian Cosmonaut Basic Training Program at Star City near Moscow, and has visited both the North and South Poles, as well as the North Face Base Camp of Mt. Everest in Tibet and countless other challenging destinations worldwide. Two of these adventures are illustrated here.

IHS member


Martinn and his wife Connie reside in Los Angeles, where he now serves as an executor and trustee of several major trusts.



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Last updated: October 3, 2016

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log1 Rules

IHS Mandles Prize Rules

International Hydrofoil Society (IHS)
Mandles Prize for Hydrofoil Excellence
2017 Competition Rules

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(Last Update September 12, 2016)


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Mandles Prize Award Winning Papers

International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Mandles Prize for Hydrofoil Excellence

Last updated August 9, 2016

2016 Awards

First Prize 2016

Subject:A Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis of Vertical-Lift-Producing Daggerboards” 
Casey Brown and Cody Stansky

Webb Institute – Glen Cove, New York
Faculty Adviser: Dr. Adrian Onas


This thesis analyses the steady state fluid structure interactions, FSI, of high-performance sailing hydrofoils. This was performed by evaluating an isotropic, CV-style sailing hydrofoil, similar to those being used on the AC 50's, which will be competing in the 2017 Americas Cup. The FSI analysis was completed using the multi-physics simulation software, StarCCM+. The results from the FSI study are compared to a CFD analysis of the un-deformed foil, to determine the value of the FSI study. The deformed foil performance varied significantly enough at speeds of 30 knots and above to warrant a FSI study..

A recent development in yacht design is the addition of a horizontal wing element on daggerboards to help produce vertical lift, while simultaneously providing the required side force. The advantage of this type of arrangement is the effective reduction in displacement, and subsequent reduction of resistance, because of the vertical lift produced by the daggerboard. This horizontal wing element can also significantly increase heave stability, even when a minimal amount of vertical lift is being generated.


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Honorable Mention 2016

Subject:On the Design and Manufacturing Choices to Obtain a Stable Canard Hydrofoil System for a Low Speed Solar Boat
Elijah Thompson, Caleb Tanner, Caleb Jacobson, Kevin Harmon,

John Hopkins and Kyle Mary Cedarville University – Cedarville, Ohio                                                                   

Faculty Adviser:  Prof. Timothy Dewhurst


The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design decisions made in order to obtain a stable hydrofoil system for a solar powered boat. Cedarville University has won the Solar Splash Collegiate World Championship of Solar Boating nine times. Furthermore, Cedarville University was the top university in the Top Class of the 2012 DONG Energy Solar Challenge in the Netherlands (renamed DSC, Dutch Solar Challenge). In addition to this year’s Solar Splash, Cedarville University will be participating in the DSC with an overall objective to achieve first place. The DSC is a bi-annual week-long race known also as the World Cup for Solar Powered Boats that is open to both universities and companies. This race consists of long endurance portions and sprint portions.

Based upon previous competition winners, it was determined that hydrofoils are necessary to complete this objective. Hydrofoils provide a unique advantage by lifting the hull of the boat out of the water, and decreasing the drag above the takeoff speed. The following paper will describe the design of elliptical hydrofoils with the key design parameters being strength, drag, lift, and stability of the system. The creation and use of two complex Matlab codes for the design of hydrofoils will be touched upon. The front assembly and articulation design to manage height will be discussed. The combination of the lower gear unit of the drive train and the rear hydrofoil articulation in the same pod will be explored. Finally, the manufacturing methods of the strut and hydrofoils using a CNC machine will be explained.

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Honorable Mention 2016

Subject:Parametric Optimization of a Kiteboarding Hydrofoil Using Computational Fluid Dynamics” 
Zachary Backas  

Webb Institute – Glen Cove, New York                             

Faculty Adviser:  Dr. Adrian Onas


Kitefoils are a form of hydrofoil that enables a kiteboarder to ride above the surface of the water on the lift of the appendage alone. Kitefoils are designed to produce a lift and moment to support and stabilize a rider across a wide range of operating speeds. The interconnectivity between the aspects of geometry that are significant to a kitefoil’s performance means that choosing the design parameters that maximize the foil’s efficiency is a complex challenge. As such, this hydrodynamic problem lends itself well to a parametric optimization procedure, in which the performance-critical aspects of the hydrofoil geometry are varied in search of an optima. In order to analyze design variants in the optimization process, a computational fluid dynamics analysis is employed and coupled to the process for automated geometry variant analysis. Ultimately, the performance of a base hydrofoil geometry may be improved through parametric optimization, though the effectiveness of the optimization is dependent upon sufficient parameter refinement and design space exploration.

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2015 Awards

First Prize 2015

Subject: A Multiphase RANSE-Based Computational Tool for the Analysis of Supercavitating Hydrofoil
Luca Bonfiglio

University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy / Visiting PhD student at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Faculty Adviser:  Prof. Stefano Brizzolara


Hydrofoils have been traditionally used in marine systems for propulsion and stabilization purposes. During 20th Century plan- ning crafts started to be partially sustained by lift forces devel- oped by immersed hydrofoils with the aim to decrease the wetted area, and hence the resistance. It is clear that hydrofoil design be- comes a very important aspect for very high speed crafts. For this reason the flow have to be accurately solved to capture the com- plex hydrodynamic phenomena. A complete simulation frame- work consisting of an automatic grid generation module, a high fidelity CFD solver and a post-processing tool has been devel- oped with the final goal to be included in a shape optimization process, specifically designed for cavitating or super-cavitating hydrofoils. The simulation framework has been coded to deal with any foil geometry with the minimum requirement of input data. The major complexities of hydrofoil fluid dynamic such as cavitation, laminar-turbulent transition, flow separation and vortex shedding are solved by a non-linear fully viscous method based on URANS equations, which has been carefully tuned for the solution of the flow around 2D foil geometries. The frame- work has been designed to post-process results which are given in terms of lift and drag coefficient. The grid strategy and the CFD solver setting have been specifically studied with the goal to obtain a relatively fast computational method which could still maintain high level of accuracy. The simulation framework has been validated with two different geometries at different angles of attack, tested at Caltech high-speed cavitation tunnel over a wide range of cavitation indexes. Interesting results are critically discussed involving fully cavitating flow over the entire hydro- foil (super-cavitating) and the unsteady behavior of the hydrofoil working at partially cavitating conditions. The multiphase flow is numerically solved considering water and vapor as a single fluid of characteristics that depend on an indicator scalar function as in the volume of fluid approach. Results have been verified on suc- cessively refined grid to understand the influence of mesh resolu- tion on capturing the dynamic of the cavity. The main advantage of these methods is that there is no boundary condition on the cavity surface and the vapor flow is fully resolved allowing for a better solution of the pressure recovery at the cavity closure.

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Honorable Mention 2015

Subject: A Comparative Analysis of Low-Aspect-Ratio Conventional and Single-Slotted Circulation Control Foils Intended for Marine Hydrodynamic Applications
Sam Granger and Randall Neureuter  

Webb Institute                                                                           

Faculty Adviser:  Prof. Richard A. Royce


Lifting surfaces are used in various marine applications that require high lift generation with minimal drag. This thesis investigates the application of circulation control (CC) on a submerged wing using the circulating water channel in Haeberle Laboratory at Webb Institute. The objective of this thesis is to design and construct a CC foil within established parameters from previous work and to determine the increase in lift and analyze three-dimensional effects on the CC foil compared with a conventional foil. Two model foils were developed. The first is a conventional NACA 65-015 foil, and the second is the same section with a modified CC trailing edge. The lift and drag forces developed by each foil were compared for testing with and without endplates. Moderate blowing from the CC slot at zero angle of attack exceeded the lift force generated by the conventional foil throughout the test matrix. As expected, endplate testing yielded an increase in lift, but further improvement could be made by using a larger endplate to further mitigate tip vortices.

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Honorable Mention 2015

Subject: Design, Construction, and Testing of a Hydrofoil Rowing Shell
Lily Van Steenberg  

United States Naval Academy

Faculty Adviser:  Prof. Gregory White


This goal of this project was to develop a hydrofoil rowing craft. A set of hydrofoils was designed and built to attach to a conventional single-person crew shell. The foils were designed through a combination of numerical modeling and standard foil calculations. A spreadsheet was written to perform hydrofoil calculations and optimizations, accounting for a foil geometry, spray drag, junction drag, and surface effects. The foils were optimized for aspect ratio and planform area, and constructed out of carbon fiber using a hand layup with vacuum bagging technique. The foil performance matched the predictions of the spreadsheet over a range of speeds and angles of attack. When tests were conducted on the river, the shell foiled successfully with several different rowers of different heights and weights. By adjusting the angles of attack of the foils, the shell can be adjusted so that almost anyone can fly.

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2014 Awards

First Prize 2014

Subject: Speed Sailing Design and Velocity Prediction Program
Author: Dane Hull
Australian Maritime College, UTAS. Tasmania
Faculty Adviser:  Dr. J. R. Binns


In recent years the performance of high speed sailing craft has been increasing rapidly. One reason for this rapid development is the introduction of hydrofoils to high speed sailing craft, this has allowed sailing craft such as l’Hydroptere to reach speeds in excess of 60 knots, Hydroptere [2010]. The International Moth Class dinghy is perhaps the most significant example of these high performance craft. The performance of these craft is to be determined by the development and use of a Velocity Prediction Program (VPP). This investigation uses experimental and theoretical studies to estimate the gravitational, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces acting on the moth while sailing. Lift and drag data for the lifting foils is predicted using experimental results by Binns et al. [2008], at the Australian Maritime College, Tasmania. These forces are used in a force balance to predict the performance of the moth sailing dinghy, the program used to solve for equilibrium conditions is FutureShip Equilibrium. The results of the VPP are validated using Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a race tracking website, TracTrac [2011]. Boat speed and true wind angle (TWA) data is obtained from the race tracking website, TracTrac [2011] and wind speed data from a weather history website, Wunderground [2010].

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Honorable Mention 2014

Subject:Design and Assessment of a Super-High Speed, Surface-Piercing, Supercavitating Hydrofoil Craft
Authors: Vasileios Georgiadis, Leon Faison and Kyle Miller
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Faculty Adviser: Prof. Stefano Brizzolara


The need to expeditiously transfer personnel from shore to oil platforms exists within the offshore oil industry. A concept design for a high-speed vehicle called Wavecutter is proposed as a solution and assessed. Wavecutter is a hybrid design that would combine the advantages of a SWATH design with those of surface-piercing (SP), super-cavitating (SC) hydrofoils. In high sea states, the vessel travels at lower speeds in displacement mode, taking advantage of the seakeeping characteristics of the SWATH design. At lower sea states, the vessel will travel in excess of 80 knots in foil borne mode, taking advantage of the high lift to drag ratio of the hydrofoils. The hydrofoil design began with preliminary weight estimations and calculations of the lift forces needed to support the vessel in foil borne mode. Sizing and foil profile considerations were examined based on the speed profile determination. A feasibility assessment was then conducted on the hydrofoils by determining the structural loading and stress response. A hybrid SP-SC hydrofoil, based on a new SC section blended with a partial NACA 4412 section was designed and chosen as the preferred type of hydrofoil for this craft. Finally, static stability and seaworthiness in head waves was evaluated at maximum speed. The vessel demonstrated positive longitudinal static stability and acceptable seakeeping behavior. Future studies should focus on CFD seakeeping analysis, global structural analysis, and determination of an exact seakeeping operational safety envelope. Overall, Wavecutter presents a viable option for super-high speed crew transport comparable to other means of transportation.

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Honorable Mention 2014

Subject: On the Design, Construction and Testing of a Fully-Submerged Canard Hydrofoil System for a Low-speed Solar Boat
Authors: Neola Putnam, Gregory Dickert, Caleb Wagner
Cedarville University, Ohio
Faculty Adviser: Dr. Timothy Dewhurst


A competition team project to design and build a fully-submerged canard hydrofoil system for a 6 m (18 ft) solar boat was completed to improve craft performance by reducing overall drag. The project focused on three main areas: developing approaches to hydrofoil design using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), improving the manufacture of hydrofoils using infused molding, and achieving foil articulation and flight control with a surface follower mechanism. The CFD work focused on single-phase 2D and 3D analysis of Eppler 420 and Eppler 396 hydrofoil models at low to intermediate Reynolds number using ANSYS Fluent 14.0’s inviscid, laminar, and Spalart-Allmaras turbulent models. The half-span of a single hydrofoil was modeled using symmetry to investigate tip vortices and winglet performance. The hydrofoil manufacturing focused on developing a reliable method of manufacturing carbon fiber foils using a vacuum infusion closed-mold process. Medium-Density Fiberboard (MDF) was used for the mold material, and two types of products were tested for mold coating: polyurethane and gelcoat. The foils were composed of aluminum and foam core inserts wrapped in carbon fiber. A lightweight and adjustable mechanical feedback control system actively articulated the front hydrofoils’ angle-of-attack and consequently, set boat flying height and maintained craft stability for sustained and self-leveling flight. Independent variable height follower arms attached to water-following skis controlled the angle-of-attack of the font foils. A four-bar linkage system was synthesized to articulate the foil precisely through the full range of motion, from take-off to flying angle-of-attack. Key results of this project were the advancement of the team’s CFD hydrofoil modeling practices, the establishment of a reliable carbon fiber foil manufacturing process that yielded foils with excellent surface finish, and a sophisticated foil articulation mechanism. The fully-submerged hydrofoil system as designed and built for the solar boat succeeded as a proof-of-concept design by achieving flight.

Neola Putnam recently completed her Master of Engineering degree in Mechanical Engineering at Cornell University. Starting summer 2014, she will be working as a Research and Development Engineer for Proctor and Gamble’s FemCare department. She received her bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Cedarville University.

Gregory Dickert worked as a manufacturing engineer transitioning into the shop operations manager at JMS Composites of Springfield, OH the past year after graduating from Cedarville University with a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering. He recently accepted a position with Fujitec America Inc. in Mason, OH as a Mechanical Designer for elevators. He plans to pursue a MBA in engineering management in the near future.

Caleb Wagner is currently working as a crew systems engineer for the United States Air Force at Wright- Patterson AFB. Beginning fall 2014, he will be attending Purdue University, pursuing a M.S.M.E. His work on hydrofoil control at Cedarville University inspired him to focus his graduate studies on dynamics, controls, and design.

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US Navy PHMs and early R&D hydrofoils

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