Design of Vessels: Hull-Machinery-Costs-Performance/Ops

Design of Vessels: Hull-Machinery-Costs-Performance/Ops


 

The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Message: Chats, Info Sharing, Networking

Searching the Archived Data Base of the
International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Message: Chats, Info Sharing, Networking
returned these results:

 

Design of Vessels: Hull-Machinery-Costs-Performance/Ops      Top

 

Archived Messages

Count,MessageID,category,ShortTitle,Message,Date,UserName,MsgPswd,Phone,Email,ParentMsgId

“1”,”912645″,”3″,”Re; Re; Re; A faster pontoon boat||912645″,”FYI: Several people around the USA are working on adding foils to pontoon boats… hobbyists, not manufacturers. Their correspondence with IHS is archived and accessible. Go to the main IHS page at www.foils.org and use the PicoSearch Engine to look for the word “pontoon.” That will lead you to several citations.”,”2005-10-12″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”911944”

“2”,”911944″,”3″,”Re; Re; A faster pontoon boat||911944″,”There’s a company in Canada www.u-fabboats.com that I have shared what I learnedand are planning to offer a foil kit on there pontoon boats. It will be a hydro-foil assisted with a fixed foil in the tunnel. Which will reduce wetted surface I guess thats what it’s all about? I been playing around with a fixed foil and have had much luck with it I was focusing on slow speed. 12 mph and she’s on a plane and thats at gross weight I am planing a motorsailing cat around this concept.”,”2005-10-12″,”Mike”,”nopswd”,” “,”info@buildboats.info”,”888662″

“3”,”888662″,”3″,”Re; A faster pontoon boat||888662″,”I have thought about this as well. Trick is, don’t get too high out of the water. It is tempting to want to run the hull 3 feet out of the water to skim through wakes, but a sudden drop will be more than the hull was designed for. Lifting the hull 10 inches will give you speed and fuel economy, with less structural risk. Raising and lowering an outboard is a great way to accomplish powering the boat. I would be concerned about what will happen when the foils hit something (and they will). A front foil centered between the hulls could pivot back up between the hulls. The rear foil or foils could be fixed to the structure behind the hulls, and pivot up when trailering or running shallow. The trick (as I have learned from my dynafoils) is to have the rear strut mounted so that the foil is in front of the pivot point. That is, the rear strut(s) would go from the pivot point at an angle, the bottom of the strut forward of the top of the strut. Helps keep weeds off too. Why is this important? If the rear strut is vertical and operates on a pivot, after striking debris the strut would begin to pivot backwards. As it does the foils angle of attack changes. At some point in the travel the foil will be perpendicular to the drag load placed on it and it will not rotate up out of the water. Kiss your transom goodbye, keep pliers handy to pull your teeth out of the dashboard. If the foil is forward of the pivot things change. The foil will become perpendicular to the direction of travel while still well below the axis point. By the time the strut rotates far enough to line the center of drag up with the centerline of the structure, the foil is now operating backwards with positive lift. This forces the strut to continue rotating up and out of the water, saving you a lot of pain.
If you would like to take a look at the dynafoil system, or just talk, feel free to drop me a line. I just moved up from Miami to Stuart. By the way, a lot of talk goes into how to control roll in hydrofoils. While this is a concern with ships, I am convinced it is far less complicated with smaller boats. If you have ever ridden a bicycle I’m sure you have learned that you already have the ability to overcome roll issues with steering. After a while you don’t even realize you are doing it.”,”2005-09-05″,”Scott Smith”,”nopswd”,” “,”boatswithwings@adelphia.net”,”3″

“4”,”853019″,”3″,”Re; Re; A faster pontoon boat||853019″,”Good luck with your project. Hope this helps.

Bob’s Machine Shop make the motor lifting plates you need. You can find them at.

Home

Several catamaran builders and designers make the keel mounted foils systems you are talking about. See for instance the Hysucat Hydrofoil System.

http://admin.sun.ac.za/kie/unistel/technologies/foiltech.htm”,”2005-06-29″,”william white”,”nopswd”,” “,”whitewn@speakeasy.net”,”0″

“5”,”852923″,”3″,”Re; A faster pontoon boat||852923″,”I’ve been fighting that problem for some time. The easiest technique would be to jack the outboard motor up/down with spring-loaded and hydraulic jackplate. The rear foil which fits between the tubes, would move with the motor. A similar arrangement for the bow. If you allow the tubes to just skim the water that will keep the boat more stable. Make sure that going aground won’t be catastrophic. I’d love to find someone “local” to work with on my pontoon project. barry_steele@yahoo.com”,”2005-06-29″,”Barry Steele”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”0”

“6”,”852922″,”3″,”Re; A faster pontoon boat||852922″,”I’ve been fighting that problem for some time. The easiest technique would be to jack the outboard motor up/down with spring-loaded and hydraulic jackplate. The rear foil which fits between the tubes, would move with the motor. A similar arrangement for the bow. If you allow the tubes to just skim the water that will keep the boat more stable. Make sure that going aground won’t be catastrophic. I’d love to find someone “local” to work with on my pontoon project. barry_steele@yahoo.com”,”2005-06-29″,”Barry Steele”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”0”

“7”,”852376″,”3″,”A faster pontoon boat||852376″,”Living in Florida I spend a lot of my time on the water and most of it in the shallows. Pontoon boats offer the best way to take the party with me, slowly. A pontoon with retractable foils would be the best of both worlds. Any body out there tried this? I have given this a great deal of thought and have many ideas how to achieve this but expert advice is always welcome. Any advice where to look for info besides this excellent website would be greatly appreciated. Opinions on this would be welcomed aswell. “,”2005-06-28″,”Brian Scott”,”nopswd”,” “,”brian.scott.ctr@hurlburt.af.mil”,”0″

“8”,”792474″,”3″,”TUCUMCARI||792474″,”Hello,

For the past 26 years I have served as a project supervisor creating museum exhibits in honor of U.S. vets and those of our allies. Some of the venues I have done work for include the USS Intrepid Sea Air Space Museum and the Museum of Polish Military Heritage in America, both in New York City. Load my name Mike Dobrzelecki into a Google Search Engine and you’ll see examples of some of my work on two continents over the years.

I saw your name & email on the IHS website and hope you can provide some help on a research project concerning the Tucumcari PGH-2.

I built the old Aurora kit when it first came out in the late 1960’s early 1970’s (?) and not too long ago picked up a derelict unpainted damaged built-up, as well as a pristine complete kit still in the original box. I even still have some parts from my original build model.

My intent is to build one ‘flying’ and one in the water with its struts and foils folded up and possibly write a good article on the Tucumcari.

I have everything available on the internet for this fascinating hydrofoil, as well as, the old Sea Clasics issue with the Tucumcari on the cover. Recently, I obtained a copy of the History Channel Mail Call episode with the world’s most famous D.I. narrating exquisite video of the this fast-fighting boat in action – great footage, BTW. I have even manage to track down some of its crew for personal interviews. Most frustratingly, the crew I talked to so far all stated that their photos went missing during moves over the years.

I am looking for more photos including details of the interior, the exterior fit on the cockpit/bridge and upper surface of the hull and an answer to what’s in the large opening aft of the .50 cals and masts/antennae. I would also like to track down some more crew and any other books or naval history magazine articles on the the Tucumcari. Any leads would be appreciated.

Mike Dobrzelecki
3040 Clayton Street
Easton PA 18045
“,”2005-03-07”,”Mike Dobrzelecki “,”members”,” “,”Michael_Dobrzelecki@fwc.com”,”0″

“9”,”737553″,”3″,”Foil or Log?||737553″,”I don’t know what calculator you’re using, but if it’s telling you you can get good results from a section with a 50% thickness ratio and 25% “profile curvature” (camber?), I think you need to get a new calculator. These numbers sound like your foil section is a half-circle. Might there be just a little bit of flow separation coming off such a shape? “,”2004-11-13″,”Tom Speer”,”nopswd”,” “,”me@tspeer.com”,”0″

“10”,”737001″,”3″,”Hydrofoil Design Validation||737001″,”I downloaded a hydrofoil simulation calculator and wanted to verify the results I am getting.
Can someone tell me if the following numbers are accurate? I am trying to get the highest amount of lift I can for a constant water velocity over hydrofoil of 20m/sec or 38.9Knots. I am also trying to keep the foil span as short as possible.

Here are the input numbers:
Foil Area Square Meters: 1 Sq M (1M span X 1M chord)
Speed M/sec: 20 M/sec
density of water kg/m^3: 1000
thickness of foil divided by chord: 0.5
Aspect ratio (Foil span/chord): 1 “This is a square foil I know”
Angle of attack: 14.32 degrees
Profile Curvature: 0.25

The calculation is claiming that the hydrofoil would produce 53690 pounds of lift with these numbers. I need to make sure this is true and also that the wing is not in a stalled state on these numbers.
Greatly appreciated. Sidenote: Would anything change if I put a rectangular ducting around the hyrdrofoil? I know in airfoils and fans, the ducting produces more volume of airflow.
BE”,”2004-11-12″,”Foiled Again”,”nopswd”,” “,”mirequest@yahoo.com”,”0″

“11”,”732177″,”3″,”Re: planing hull seakeeping||732177″,”I don’t have a copy of these articles, but I would suggest contacting the Davidson Laboratory via their web page at:
http://www.stevens.edu/engineering/cms/
“,”2004-11-03″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”barney@alum.mit.edu”,”0″

“12”,”722280″,”3″,”planing hull seakeeping||722280″,”I am looking for copies of Gerard Fridsma’s two publications:

Fridsma, G., “A Systematic Study of the Rough-Water Performance of Planing Boats,”Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology Report 1275, Nov. 1969.

Fridsma, G., “A Systematic Study of the Rough-Water Performance of Planing Boats – Irregular Waves Part II,”Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology Report 1495, March. 1971.

Can anybody supply me with copies of these?”,”2004-10-12″,”Gunther Migeotte “,”nopswd”,” “,”gunther@cae.co.za”,”0″

“13”,”699947″,”3″,”Re: Engine Torque||699947″,”I have several small hydrofoils, probably similar to what you are trying to do. They are called Dynafoils (a search of the archive will turn up pics for you)and are about 8′ long, similar to a one-person sit-down waverunner. They were available in two HP’s, a 26hp model, and a 36hp model. Neither used a torque convertor. They used 2 cylinder, 2 stroke snowmobile engines, direct coupled to a 90 degree gearbox, to a downshaft with an evinrude outboard lower unit. The 26hp unit used a 9-1/4″ dia. by 7″ pitch prop, the 36hp unit uses a 9×9 prop. My 36hp Dynafoil leaps out of the water pretty well, and does about 35 mph. If you like, I can send you pictures, videos, or you can stop by in Miami and go for a test ride 🙂

If you are considering a 4-stroke, also consider a rev-limiter.”,”2004-08-26″,”Scott Smith”,”nopswd”,” “,”ssmith@syntheon.com”,”0″

“14”,”694448″,”3″,”Re; Re; Re; Engine Torque||694448″,”Barry,
Thank you for the information. What make is the prop…
“,”2004-08-13″,”Philip”,”nopswd”,” “,”kernowii@sympatico.ca”,”0″

“15”,”693009″,”3″,”Re; Re; Engine Torque||693009″,”For my application I have purchased a variable pitch prop for my mercruiser outdrive. The 3 blades to the prop are spring loaded with a lower pitch (around 16) for getting out of the hole and up on the foils. When the engine picks up speed, centrifugal force rotates the blades for up to about 25 pitch. This keeps the engine running within a fairly tight speed range. They are available for outdrives, outboards and inboards.”,”2004-08-11″,”Barry Steele”,”nopswd”,” “,”barry_steele@yahoo.com”,”0″

“16”,”692414″,”3″,”Re; Engine Torque||692414″,”Philip,

I would have expected that torque converters would rarely be required for small craft such as you describe. These devices result in a loss of power between the engine and the propeller and so a more efficient solution would be to select an outboard and propeller combination with an optimum gear ratio and propeller pitch to diameter ratio.

Hydrofoils have a resistance versus speed curve that means they require a relatively high thrust at takeoff speed and after that the resistance curve is more flat. Some larger hydrofoils (such as the Supramar PT 150) therefore had torque convertors of some form fitted to cope with this characteristic such that the engine would not be overloaded during takeoff but would run near optimally at cruise speed. For a smaller hydrofoil, there would typically be a surplus of power across the full speed range, but you may be adopting an outboard with relatively low power output so the takeoff condition may become critical for your boat.

Note that when using gearing in an outboard, the following relationship applies:

Power = (Torque) x (Rotational Speed)

Metric units for this equation are Watts, Nm and rad/s respectively.

Put another way, if you use a reduction ratio of 2:1 then the propeller shaft RPM will be half the engine RPM but the torque available at the propeller will be double that at the engine output shaft (neglecting any losses in the gearing due to friction). You can play with gearbox ratios until you obtain the required torque and RPM combination you need at the propeller. “,”2004-08-10″,”Martin Grimm”,”nopswd”,” “,”seaflite@alphalink.com.au”,”0″

“17”,”687245″,”3″,”Engine Torque||687245″,”I’m currently reviewing a design for a small one-person hydrofoil powered by a 15hp-25hp long shaft outboard. The question of engine torque has arisen and the need for an engine mounted torque converter however; in reading a lot of the design material on these pages (excellent guidance by the way) I have yet to come across this issue being discussed. Is torque a major design consideration on small (<9 feet) hydrofoils?”,”2004-07-30″,”Philip”,”nopswd”,” “,”kernowii@sympatico.ca”,”0″

 

Propulsors

Arneson Drive For Sale

      • [2 Feb 02] This asd 6 drive is for sale. I think it would be a good drive for a hydrofoil. The drive is like new. Price $1,900. Credit cards OK. — Fred Rodolf (

FREDRODOLF@aol.com

      • )

[Date/Time=03-23-2002 – 12:33 AM]

    Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237120]
    Safety
    Safety Rules

        • [2 Sep 97] I read in the Summer ’97 issue of the IHS Newsletter about the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) rules for high speed craft and will order a set. Do you know if there is a set of Coast Guard rules for safety? –Stan Siegel (

    stansiegel@aol.com

        • ).
        • Response…
        • [2 Sep 97] The U. S. Coast Guard publishes a multi-volume “Marine Safety Manual” which can be downloaded from their website in Adobe Acrobat format. The Table of Contents does not mention high speed craft specifically, but there may be info buried in the individual chapters. The USCG (and IHS) participated actively in reviewing the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO’s) safety standards for high speed craft, published as Chapter X of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), available from from various booksellers. See the IMO home page for more info. — Barney C. Black (

    webmaster@foils.org

        • ).

    [Date/Time=03-23-2002 – 12:35 AM]

      Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237121]
      Archive; Bigger Wakes For Wakeboards
      Click Below to Open.

      http://archive.foils.org/bigwake.htm


      [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 2:07 AM]

        Name:Webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237510]
        Archive; Design Texts, Software, Sources
        Click Below to Open

        //archive.foils.org/texts.htm


        [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 3:30 PM]

          Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237692]
          Archive; Ultra-Hi Speed Hydrofoils
          Click below to Open

          http://archive.foils.org/knots.htm


          [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 4:09 PM]

            Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237699]
            Archive; Info on Books, Films, Articles
            Click Below to Open this Archive.

            http://archive.foils.org/media.htm


            [Date/Time=03-25-2002 – 2:52 PM]

              Name:Webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=238065]
              Archive; Engines Sources, Maint, Repair
              Click Below to Open this Archive.

              http://archive.foils.org/engine.htm
              [Date/Time=03-25-2002 – 3:10 PM]

                Name:Webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=238073]
                Archive; Commercial Operating Costs
                Click Below to Open this Archive.

                http://archive.foils.org/opcost.htm
                [Date/Time=03-25-2002 – 3:45 PM]

                  Name:Webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=238096]
                  Archive; Drag Reduction

                  Click below to Open Arcive:

                  http://archive.foils.org/drag_reduction.htm


                  [Date/Time=04-20-2002 – 6:22 PM]

                    Name:webmaster@foils.org webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=249644]
                    Archive; Seakeeping / Motion Sickness

                    Click below to Open Archive:

                    http://archive.foils.org/seakeeping.htm


                    [Date/Time=04-20-2002 – 6:33 PM]

                      Name:webmaster@foils.org webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=249650]
                      science fiction

                        ViewThread

                            • I have written a science-fiction novel on an imaginary watery planet and have included hyrofoil vessels.
                            • I’d like to know if my fictional use and description of hyrofoils seems possible and accurate.
                            • Floatplanes with hydrofoil struts: These planes are about the size and speed of a Piper Cub although lighter due to use of carbon fiber components. It can also fly as a glider. The hydrofoil struts fold while the craft is in air flight. The wing fold when the craft opperates as a boat. A propulsion device, which runs off of a hydrogen fuel cell delivers periodic burst of power. The cadence of the burst can be adjusted to coordinate with air and water conditions. This planet has no fossel fuels and so energy efficency is of utmost importance, thus the importance of a engine that can be turned off when not needed.
                            • Sail hydrofoils: I imagine them as small and lightweight for carrying two people with no cargo. They have auxilary power provided by the same propulson device that is on the aircraft. The propulsor is used get onto step quickly.
                            • I’d like to know about how tacking works with hyrofoils. How close to the wind do you need to be to stay on step? A friend of my thought it would only work on a reach.
                            • My story includes a scene with a battle between a guy in the aircraft and a bunch of guys in the sail hyrofoils. The guys in the sail hyrodfoils mounted howitzers onto their crafts (they were not designed for this usage) If they shoot in the wrong direction, while healed over, the boat capsizes. The guy in the aircraft has a laser cutter which doesn’t do much unless he strikes sensitive parts of the hydrogen tanks.(His craft can’t carry the batteries or other power source for a big laser)
                            • Does this sound reasonable?

                        [Date/Time=08-30-2002 – 4:20 PM]

                          Name:Lizzie Newell lizzie-n@gci.net, [Msgid=303576]
                          science fiction

                              • All sounds well, with a few small points. Sailboats rely on momentum to carry them through a tack. The same momentum keeps the boat foilborne. Some hydrofoil sailboats like the Windrider have trouble staying up while tacking, but that is because of the control system, not the foils. The Hobie Tri-foiler tacks while foilborne with no trouble. Also, recoil from a gun would not cause the boat to capsize. Foils can pull down on one side of the boat as well as push up on the other, which also means that a well designed hydrofoil sailboat doesn’t heel. Plus the recoil is so short lived it would be absorbed by the mass of the hull and the foils wouldn’t even need to react. However, such a recoil would likely damage the structure of the boat. Fire a large caliber rifle, it doesn’t have time to push you off your feet, but it will hurt like hell if it’s not tight to your shoulder. A more troublesome device for a hydrofoils would be something that induce prolonged thrust, like a mini-gun (electric gatlin gun). A high power rifle will not knock you over, but a 9mm machine gun (much lower power) will certainly push you off your feet if you are not braced for it. Fired forward it would produce a reaction thrust that would slow a boat down. Backwards it would add to the thrust of the boat (not a problem for a foil). Sideways would be like being on a reach in a strong wind. The foils would have to adjust, and the extra angle of attack would induce drag. But if the direction of fire is slightly to the rear, the pressure on the hull would increase it’s speed, just as the pressure on the sail in a reach adds to the hull speed. You might want to look up something called a “gyro jet”. It was a pistol cartridge invented a while back that used a sort of spin-stabilized rocket propulsion. Artillery is too heavy for a hydrofoil sailboat. Simply put, twice the weight, four times the drag. The Gyro jet was almost recoiless, required a much lighter gun, and I believe is the technique used by many hand-held flareguns today. As far as how close to the wind you can sail a hydrofoil boat, wind direction is only a problem as it relates to hull speed. If a sailboat can achieve 20 knots 15 degrees into the wind, so can a foilborne sailboat. The most likely problem would be going downwind. A sailboat is always slower than the wind going downwind. A 10mph wind would not be likely to keep any hydrofoil sailboat up on it’s foils, not matter how efficient it is.
                              • Hope this was of some use,
                              • Scott

                          [Date/Time=09-03-2002 – 9:09 AM]

                            Name:Scott Smith ssmith@syntheon.com, [Msgid=304776]
                            science fiction/fact

                                • Some additional sailing hydrofoil information: there is a whole new type of sailing hydrofoil(though Monitor was actually the first) being developed around the world: the monofoiler. These boats are stabilized(generally ,but not always) by the crew; they are basically monohulls not multihulls such as the Rave and Trifoiler.You can see an overveiw of some of these boats at:http://www.monofoiler.com These boats can sail on as few as two foils and are a new wave in sailng hydrofoils.
                                • Sailing hydrofoils most certainly can sail downwind at speeds substantially higher than wind speed: they do it by tacking downwind(actually and technically-gybing) .A well designed foiler can point as well as “normal” sailboat and at any rate it’s VMG(speed made good to windward) will be better.
                                • At least one new monofoiler, the Dancer, has been designed to jump: the flying system is controlled by the skipper and ,at will, he can twist the hiking stick, pull the trigger and jump clear of the water(!)–just for the fun of it!

                            [Date/Time=09-24-2002 – 9:37 AM]

                              Name:Doug Lord lorsail@webtv.net, [Msgid=313865]
                              Hydrofoils are more than speed

                                  • Why is speed always the focus when reading about hydrofoils? Consider the following:
                                  • 1. Today in Sweden (Scandinavia, EU) the price/US gallon of diesel is about USD3.90 to USD4.00 due to tax
                                  • 2. 95 % of all running time of pleasure boats takes place in smooth weather with moderate wave sizes (in fact the waves that cause irritation, not problems, are those generated by other boats, not the weather/wind. This is due to the large protected water areas by the archipelagoes surrounding Scandinavia and also due to rather low statistic average wind (force 2-3, Baltic coast areas)
                                  • 3. The trend for pleasure boats is not always towards larger size but more towards comfort and luxury, etc., which makes the boats heavier. A 25-ft powerboat costs almost double the price in 2002 compared to the price of the same length craft a few years ago (including correction for inflation)
                                  • 4. The average cruising speed is 22-26 knots even if top speed is 32 -40 knots. In fact, the average speed very seldom surpasses 22 – 26 knots. Rather often you see powerboats in the size 25 to 40 ft operated at 12 – 17 knots albeit they are built for higher cruising speeds. When I ask people why they are running their boat this way, frequent answers are: for comfort and/or economy/mileage reasons. The comfort factor is important (i.e. not to have to reduce speed frequently when meeting waves from other boats/ferries etc. which in fact now is the case. It is not due to poor performance of the boat – it is for better comfort, sometimes noise factor, compared to cars.
                                  • Having these aspects in mind, the relatively simpler design task of hydrofoils for smaller boats compared to ferries may be could open up opportunities if comfort, noise, and mileage are focused on instead of just the high speed performance.

                              [Date/Time=10-15-2002 – 7:16 PM]

                                Name:Tomas Järnmark Tomas.Jarnmark@electrum.se, [Msgid=324184]
                                Read a Good Book Lately?

                                    • Are there today any sort of updated standard “bible” books (for designers, producers, students, etc.) that summarize what is acknowledged know-how (R&D, field experiences, truths & myths, designs, developments, costs, performances, bench marking comparisons etc)? If so where can I order these?

                                [Date/Time=10-15-2002 – 7:17 PM]

                                  Name:Tomas Järnmark Tomas.Jarnmark@electrum.se, [Msgid=324185]
                                  Do Foils Equal Comfort?

                                    ViewThread

                                        • Is a hydrofoil-based boat in the size of 27 ft more comfortable (cut through larger waves with better comfort, movements, splashes, etc.) at 25 knots than a surface-planing boat of the same size and speed?

                                    [Date/Time=10-15-2002 – 7:20 PM]

                                      Name:Tomas Järnmark Tomas.Jarnmark@electrum.se, [Msgid=324187]
                                      Do Foils Equal Comfort?

                                          • Yes,

                                      [Date/Time=10-27-2002 – 7:30 PM]

                                        Name:Harry Larsen hlarsen0@gte.net, [Msgid=329671]
                                        Yes, Foils Equal Comfort!

                                            • Harry should know. Visit his most interesting website at

                                        http://home1.gte.net/hlarsen0/
                                        [Date/Time=10-29-2002 – 7:13 PM]

                                          Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=330715]
                                          Fibreglass Ship Manufacturing

                                              • I am writing on behalf of one of my friends who lives in Iran. He is an inventor and would like to inquire for some information on manufacturing a fibreglass ship with 500 tonnes capacity in the merchant sector. It would be a greatly appreciated if you would alert me to any information resources on modeling, manufacturing (ship and or fibreglass). and the possibility of using fibreglass in this case?

                                          [Date/Time=12-20-2002 – 3:37 AM]

                                            Name:Mehrdad Tavana m30tavana@yahoo.com, [Msgid=353812]
                                            NACA 0015 Pressure Distribution

                                              ViewThread

                                                  • I’m looking for the theoretical pressure distribution (considering an
                                                  • invicid flow) for different angles of attack, for the NACA 0015.

                                              [Date/Time=03-25-2003 – 7:43 PM]

                                                Name:R. Sosa rsosa@fi.uba.ar, [Msgid=403003]
                                                Re; NACA 0015 Pressure Distribution

                                                    • I have access to a program called WingAnalysis Plus which is able to calculate the pressure coefficients for a range of foil types. You can purchase a copy of that program via the internet though I don’t have the website address at hand.
                                                    • I have calculated the distribution of pressure coefficients for the NACA 0015 foil at a range of angles of attack from 0 to 10 degrees at 2 degree increments. The results are attached as an Excel spreadsheet.
                                                    • Remember that these results are obtained from a theoretical method and so don’t represent measured test data. I can’t promise the results are accurate. I believe it should also be possible to derive the Cp distribution around a NACA 0015 foil at various incidence angles by reference to the text book “Theory of Wing Sections” but I have not yet done so myself. If you have found better (experimental) data, perhaps you can post a message letting people know where that data can be found.

                                                [Date/Time=05-28-2003 – 11:54 AM]

                                                  Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=442981]
                                                  Attached File  “NACA0015CpvsAoA~xls.zip” – size 54784   Click Here To Download
                                                  X-Craft Press Release

                                                    ViewThread

                                                        • Titan Wins Contract To Build Navy’s X-Craft
                                                        • San Diego – Feb 26, 2003 – The Titan Corporation of San Diego said Tuesday that it has been awarded a $59.9 million contract by the U.S. Navy’s Office of Naval Research (ONR) to develop and build the Navy’s “X-Craft”.
                                                        • The X-Craft will be a high-speed aluminum catamaran consisting of an advanced hull geometry, designed to give the craft speeds of 50 knots or more. Initially it will be used by ONR for purposes of hydrodynamic experimentation to include the addition of advanced lifting bodies and polymer drag reduction techniques.
                                                        • The X-Craft’s deck will have two helicopter landing spots capable of handling a variety of aircraft up to the size of the H-60 helicopter series. With a design displacement of approximately 1,100 long tons, the 80m. long by 22 m. wide X-Craft will be self-deployable and of flexible design for spiral technology insertion. A Combined Gas Turbine or Diesel (CODOG) propulsion plant will propel the X-Craft to speeds of 50 knots or more. The CODOG propulsion plant is expected to consist of two GE LM-2500 gas turbine engines totaling 50,000 hp and two MTU 16V595 16-cyl 4380 kW diesels driving KaMeWa 125SII waterjets through Renk gearboxes.
                                                        • The vessel’s Mission Module Bay will be capable of fully supporting multiple mission packages simultaneously.
                                                        • Titan also announced that it is awarding to Nichols Bros. Boat Builders, Inc., a subcontract to provide hull, mechanical, and electrical ship systems for the U.S. Navy’s new X-Craft.
                                                        • This award to Nichols Bros. completes an RFI and RFP effort initiated by Titan less than six months ago. Nichols Bros. Boat Builders, headquartered in Freeland, (Whidbey Island) WA, specializes in the building of high-speed catamarans and other vessels.
                                                        • Work on the X-Craft was expected to begin in May 2003 and deliver in August 2004.
                                                        • A later phase of the program will add a lifting mid-body and a polymer injection system.

                                                    [Date/Time=07-26-2003 – 8:18 AM]

                                                      Name:Greg Bender glbender@erols.com, [Msgid=476489]
                                                      Re; X-Craft Press Release

                                                          • See the Hydrofoils:Military category of this BBS for a thread of recent discussion on the X-Craft.

                                                      [Date/Time=07-27-2003 – 8:58 AM]

                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=476922]
                                                        Hydrofoils vs Tunnel Hulls?

                                                          ViewThread

                                                              • Given that the two are of similar weight and power, which is generally faster and has less drag, a hydrofoil, or a tunnel hull (like raceboats)?
                                                              • I know that the two work very differently, and am very intersted in finding the answer to this question.

                                                          [Date/Time=12-31-2003 – 6:15 PM]

                                                            Name:Timothy Shaw slickmod@hotmail.com, [Msgid=565242]
                                                            Re; Hydrofoils vs Tunnel Hulls?

                                                                • Hi Timothy,
                                                                • Although I am a hydrofoil enthusiast, my gut feeling is that for relatively calm water powerboat racing applications, the tunnel hull (such as unlimited hydroplanes) would come out as having less drag and hence translating to more speed than a hydrofoil design for the same installed power.
                                                                • Tunnel hulls seem to just skim over the water on the ends of their three(?) planing surfaces when at speed, so it is hardly a case of them having excessive wetted surface area which is what leads to frictional resistance. On the other hand, a hydrofoil design, even with only the very small hydrofoils that would be needed to support a relatively light boat at such high speeds, would still incur the additional drag of the supporting struts. The high speed would also mean that supercavitating foils are likely to be required and these don’t tend to have particularly high lift to drag ratio’s. Some means of surface sensing would probably also be required to control the foil angle of incidence so that the craft remains stable. This would probably mean using a planing surface sensor with associated drag as well.
                                                                • I would be delighted to hear that the opposite is that case, but then why are there no hydrofoils competing in “unlimited” powerboat races? Surely it is not just as simple as that nobody has thought about trying this idea or that hydrofoils are not permitted by the rules of an “unlimited” race!?
                                                                • By the way, hydroplanes do seem to make use of hydrofoils of sorts (probably also supercavitating foil sections?), in way of high aspect ratio skegs mounted on one side of the hull as a means of aiding in getting a “grip” when going around the circuit. They don’t help lift the boat, if anything they stop it from toppling over in a sharp turn. At least that is my understanding. Perhaps you can enlighten us more about those devices?

                                                            [Date/Time=01-01-2004 – 10:40 AM]

                                                              Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=565409]
                                                              Re; Re; Hydrofoils vs Tunnel Hulls?

                                                                  • Martinn,
                                                                  • I am aware of at least one person who was involved with hydroplane racing that looked at putting supercavitating foils on the sponsons. I believe he petitioned APBA (American Power Boat Association) but do not know the outcome. This individual died last year, he was in his late 90s. He was also involved in the Boeing High Speed Test Craft in its early trials.
                                                                  • Sumi Arima

                                                              [Date/Time=01-02-2004 – 1:05 PM]

                                                                Name:IS. Arima arimas1@juno.com, [Msgid=565775]
                                                                Re; Re; Hydrofoils vs Tunnel Hulls?

                                                                    • It doesn’t seem likely that anyone using a hydrofoil will successfully compete against tunnel hulls, unless they come up with something radically different. It doesn’t really matter whether you are discussing the small, sheltered water tunnels (commonly called a pickle fork), or the big, open water cats. Both of these boats are now capable of very high speeds. Since at these speeds they are no longer pushing a bow wave, the induced drag is very low. The drag from any foil system at 100mph+ becomes very high, regardless of how well designed or made the struts and foils are. Ask one of the open water boat designers how much drag force the skegs have to handle, you might be surprised at the answer. But a large part of the problem is control systems. Even with a good, fast system for controlling the foils, at those speeds the slightest glitch would be a disaster. The occaisional rogue wave has destroyed many a racers dream for victory. I remember when a 40 foot cat nosed into a rogue wave and was driven straight to the bottom, killing both crew members while doing almost no damage to the boat. Imagine what could happen if you managed to get a negative angle of attack on a foil for even a fraction of a second at 100mph. It would be catastrophic. And the smaller sheltered water boats can easily pull more than a G in a fast corner, the slightest tracking error induced by a foil or strut would be equally destructive. But being a foil enthusiast as I am, I would love for someone to prove me wrong. 🙂

                                                                [Date/Time=01-23-2004 – 8:19 AM]

                                                                  Name:Scott Smith ssmith@syntheon.com, [Msgid=576707]
                                                                  Re; Re; Hydrofoils vs Tunnel Hulls?

                                                                      • Timothy and Scott
                                                                      • From my perspective at speeds of 100knots and up the US Navy in the Seventy’s built Two 100 Ton, 85 ft Surface Effect Craft to explore the potential. One was powered by Partially Submerged Supercaavitating Propellers (most racing surface drives are direct descendants of these) and the other powered by two stage axial waterjets. Both these craft were essentiall very fine hulled catamarans at high speed. Just a couple of feet of the aft length of their hulls were in the water at speed, and then only a couple of inches deep. This along with aft fins/rudders provided directional stability. The lift fans and Skirts kept the hulls out of the water at lower speeds, say 0 to 60kts), but at very high speed thay almost operated like a pure tunnel hull with a very wide tunnel.
                                                                      • Both these vessels used the air cushion to control the heave and pitch of ride at very high speeds. They had response frequencies of up to 100hz and needed it. But they worked very successfully.
                                                                      • To prevent the catastrophic pitch-ins you desribed, the Navy did a lot of research in shaping the above water shape of the Cat hulls and the Bow cross structure ramps between the hulls. One of them even had above water anti pitch foils attached at the bow that were a last resort to prevent pitch-ins. During there 10 year lifetimes they operated in all sea conditions offshore (greater 10+ significant wave height). The only reason they ever slowed down was for visibility or the crew got tired of the beating when in severe seas.
                                                                      • Most Hydrofoilers consider that the Navy’s PHM hydrofoils had the highest performance, but they only went about half the speed of these SES. The great benefit of the hydrofoil especially the fully sbmerged type on the PHMs was the ability of the active ride control system on those foils to level out the ride in waves less than 10 ft significant height. They could also operate in even higher seas but would start to countour the swells in these very high seas.
                                                                      • I worked on the ride control systems for all these craft and it was indeed state of the art then and easily now to control the actuators at the very high frequencies needed to keep them safe.
                                                                      • As for resistance.
                                                                      • Both Hydrofoils and Tunnel Hulled Cats can be very efficient or very Inefficient according to the skils of the designer. On average. most tunnel hulled cats at high speed (100kts) are close to fifty percent more efficient than hydrofoils. There are a lot of people in IHS who would disagree with me there. The reason why is that the propulsion efficiency has to be accounted for too.
                                                                      • In the PHM the waterjets were mounted very high 12 feet above the water and had lots of losses especially in the zee shaped water inlets.
                                                                      • The two Navy SES 100 ton vessels had about a twenty percent speed difference for about the same power due also mostly to the difference between the Waterjet (lower efficiency) and the Partially Submerged Supercavitating Propellers (high efficiency and no struts or exposed prop shafts).
                                                                      • Design is all about choices, and a good Naval Architect can make any of these hull forms into a reasonably well performing vessel.
                                                                      • Enjoyed your comments
                                                                      • Bill White

                                                                  [Date/Time=01-26-2004 – 8:31 AM]

                                                                    Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=578306]
                                                                    Transport Efficiency of Hydrofoils etc

                                                                        • Hi Bill,
                                                                        • Good to see we are not all only passionate about hydrofoils and can see merit in other forms of high speed marine craft.
                                                                        • Naval Engineers Journal, February 1985, page 211 indicates that the maximum speed of SES 100A was 80 knots (approx) and SES 100B was 90+ knots. Displacements were 289,650 lb (129.3 tons) and 206,000 lb (92.0 tons) respectively while total installed power (lift and propulsion) was 15,000 HP and 15,360 HP respectively.
                                                                        • In comparison PHM displacement was 249.7 tons (NEJ, Feb 85, page 173) and power was 17,000 HP (page 161). Speed was 50 knots plus.
                                                                        • Comparing calm water transport efficiency (displacement x speed / power) we have approximately:
                                                                        • SES 100A = 0.690 ton.knots/HP
                                                                        • SES 100B = 0.539 ton.knots/HP
                                                                        • PHM = 0.734 ton.knots/HP
                                                                        • So it could be said that SES 100B was roughly 30% more efficient than the PHM even given its higher maximum speed.
                                                                        • The question I have is how do hydrofoils, SES, monohulls, catamarans etc compare when it comes to sustained speed for a given power in a seaway? Also in the February 1985 issue of the Naval Engineers Journal on page 57 Michael Eames presents charts of sustained speed in a seaway for 200 ton and 1000 ton vessels of various types. These charts indicate that the achieved speed of a low length to beam ratio ACV or SES falls rapidly with increasing wave height (from 80 knots in calm water to 40 knots in 2 metre significant wave height), while the notional 200 ton hydrofoil has a far more gradual speed degradation with increasing seastate (remains close to 50 knots in up to 4 metres significant wave height). It would be good to get some more specific data on the relative performance of various craft types as sea state increases.

                                                                    [Date/Time=01-31-2004 – 9:51 AM]

                                                                      Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=581470]
                                                                      Transport Efficiency of Hydrofoils etc

                                                                          • Hi Martin,
                                                                          • I agree fully with your comparison of hydrofoils and SES. An interesting document was published called “Hull Form and Propulsor Technology for High Speed Sealift revised: 13 February 1997”. Contact Chris Mckesson for a copy. The whole document is 45MB. Perhaps we can put it in the IHS website? The document compared the transport efficiency of different kinds of craft and their conclusions wer very similar: for state ofthe art vessels of each type, SES and air cushion vehicles offer the best transport efficiency. Hydrofoils were superior to planing, semi-planing and semi-displacement craft for volume Froude numbers (Fnd) of about 3.0. I have compared the hydrofoil-assisted catamaran data I have and it turns out they offer improved transport efficiency compared to regular hydrofoils -about 30% better – and offer improvement in transport efficiency from Fnd=2.20.
                                                                          • No data was given in the report for varying sea states and I agree it would be very interesting to know how these compared for differing sea states.

                                                                      [Date/Time=02-02-2004 – 3:56 AM]

                                                                        Name:Gunther Migeotte gunther@cae.co.za, [Msgid=582312]
                                                                        Transport Efficiency of Hydrofoils etc

                                                                            • Martin and Gunther
                                                                            • Thanks for the feed back. The Speeds quoted in the Naval Engineers Journal for all these vessels (100A, B and PHM were all under quoted by about five knots here and almost everywhere else during their active duty times. Since the diferrential was just about constant accross the board your efficiency comparisons should stay the same.
                                                                            • The speed impact of sea state on the vessels was never reported in the public domain with any accuracy. The PHM hydrofoils had by far the smoothest ride. They could maintain foilborne operations through sea state five. (10ft sig wave ht) And with care during operations they could often stay foilborne up well into sea state 6. But if you came off of foils in high sea states 10 ft sig wave and above it was difficult to get them foilborne again. Their hull borne sea keping was excellant as well but at speeds of 10kts or less.
                                                                            • The SES and ACVs were also very good in rough seastates. When cushionborne, they would slow down due to the added wave resistance while still at full power through SEA State 5 the same as the PHMs. In Sea State 6 and up they would usually reduce speed for personnel safety. The ride was never as smooth as the PHMs but they still went faster through most of the operating envelope of sea state (0-6).
                                                                            • We have very little operational information in even higher sea states, but the SES 200 which was closer to the PHMs in size, did operate at 20+ kts in a Hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico while performing a rescue mission with the Coast Guard when none of the Monohull 100 plus foot Cutters would go out. I can attest to the SES 200’s excellent seakeeping having been aboard for a nonstop voyage from Norfolk to Halifax in early winter. The effect of the ride control system on that vessel was very impressive.
                                                                            • Most of the published seakeeping papers on these craft were severly compromised by politics and arbitrary motion limits on the feasible operating envelope. Even the SWATH papers often were conservative.
                                                                            • Thanks again
                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                        [Date/Time=02-03-2004 – 8:06 PM]

                                                                          Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=583540]
                                                                          Transport Efficiency of Hydrofoils etc

                                                                              • Gunther and Bill,
                                                                              • Thanks for your comments and additional insights on this subject.
                                                                              • I am looking at transport efficiency data at the moment as a personal interest which was also prompted by a recent paper which briefly compared hydrofoil supported catamarans against other types of high speed craft.
                                                                              • The document on high speed sealift sounds like one that would be worthwhile reading, though my interest is in passenger-only craft at the moment. These are more suited to application of hydrofoils than multi-thousand tonne sealift ships.

                                                                          [Date/Time=02-10-2004 – 10:22 AM]

                                                                            Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=594015]
                                                                            hull choices

                                                                                • ive sailed moths for a while and am considering a new hull for foiling, i only have one question:
                                                                                • does a planing hull beat a displacement hull to 10 kts boat speed in lighter wind conditions.
                                                                                • what im trying to acheive is lift off in a wind range between 5 – 10 kts and after that i would like a low aerodynamic drag hull. im thinking of something similar to a formula sailboard for its planing but am concerned about the wetted surface area as opposed to a displacement hull similar to a rowing skull. although i only have 11 feet of LOA (width currently runs around 1ft)
                                                                                • ps: consider the weight of each hull to be the same.

                                                                            [Date/Time=02-11-2004 – 9:02 AM]

                                                                              Name:glen oldfield compositedesign@hotmail.com, [Msgid=594722]
                                                                              Transport Efficiency of Hydrofoils etc

                                                                                  • THe sea lift paper is quite good as it covers wide range of ships from passenger vessels right up to the USS “United States” and covers all the different concepts in high speed craft including, semi-displacement craft, planing craft, hydrofoils, air cushion craft, hydroplanes, sea sleds etc. It also gives state of the art examples of each.
                                                                                  • I would bery much like to see your paper on transport efficiency comparisons of different types of craft. Can you post it on the IHS website?

                                                                              [Date/Time=02-12-2004 – 11:44 AM]

                                                                                Name:Gunther Migeotte gunther@cae.co.za, [Msgid=595556]
                                                                                Transport Efficiency of Hydrofoils etc

                                                                                    • Gunther,
                                                                                    • I am still collating and cross checking the vessel performance data where possible. When I have completed it as far as I can go, I will see how it can be made available via the website.

                                                                                [Date/Time=02-14-2004 – 9:04 AM]

                                                                                  Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=596590]
                                                                                  Effect of Marine Groth on Hydrofoil Craft

                                                                                    ViewThread

                                                                                        • I have recently had some discussions with fellow hydrofoil enthusiasts about the subject of marine growth on the foils of hydrofoil craft and how best to protect against this. It has been an aspect of hydrofoil operation that has always been a bit of a mystery to me.
                                                                                        • On several occasions I have read or heard that it is necessary to regularly clean the foils (and presumably also the hull) if hydrofoil craft are to maintain good take-off and foilborne performance. Without such regular cleaning, I recall reading that the Rodriquez hydrofoils on Sydney Harbour could even experience difficulty taking off with a full passenger load. More recently I have been told that a European operator of hydrofoils prefers to clean the foils every four weeks, either by lifting the craft out of the water or by sending a diver down to do this work underwater. Of course, either option adds to the running expenses and could become costly. A review of hydrofoil operations in the November 1969 issue of Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil magazine also indicated that a Scandinavian operator also docked each hydrofoil every four weeks for two days of cleaning and overhaul.
                                                                                        • I would be interested to hear whether any rule-of-thumb or more precise means of assessing the impact of marine growth on the performance of a hydrofoil is available?
                                                                                        • For displacement vessels, a rule-of-thumb allowance for the effect of marine growth is to add 0.1% to the total frictional resistance for each day in service after the vessel has received a fresh anti-foul paint coat. After 6 months, that equates to about 18% additional frictional resistance at a given speed, or more realistically, a speed reduction for a given engine power output. None the less, due to the form of the resistance curve for monohulls and catamarans, this additional drag will probably slow the vessel down in a fairly linear fashion with each day out of dock.
                                                                                        • In the case of hydrofoils, I can imagine the power margin available to become foilborne when fully loaded could be relatively small and so the craft may struggle to become foilborne with only moderate fouling. To further complicate matters, marine growth may cause a reduction in lift of the foils at a given speed in addition to the increase in frictional resistance. The analogy to this situation is the build up of ice on aircraft wings, which can have a drastic impact on both lift and drag.
                                                                                        • I am also interested to hear views on the best means of minimising marine growth on the foils so that the period between cleaning of the foil surfaces can be maximised. For example, would highly polished stainless steel foils (as used on many Russian hydrofoils, Jetfoils and some Supramar hydrofoils) offer better resistance to marine growth than the more typical high tensile steel which requires some form of surface coating to prevent corrosion? If a surface coating is to be used, has any information been published on that subject with specific application to use on the foils of hydrofoil craft?

                                                                                    [Date/Time=02-28-2004 – 8:43 AM]

                                                                                      Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=604934]
                                                                                      rtiEffect of Marine Groth on Hydrofoil Craf

                                                                                          • Dear Martin, the most useful reference on hydrofoil fouling that I have found is in Marine Technology:
                                                                                          • Experimental Investigation of {Eneromorpha Clathrata} biofouling on Lifting Surfaces of Marine Vehicles, Marine Technology 38(1) pp31-50, January 2001.
                                                                                          • I think that paper will answer most of your questions. If you are a SNAME member you should be able to download it off their website.

                                                                                      [Date/Time=03-01-2004 – 10:20 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Gunther Migeotte gunther@cae.co.za, [Msgid=605863]



                                                                                        This board has been viewed 21676 times since Apr-20-2002 .
                                                                                        (Total Views Since Board Creation on Mar-21-2002 is 22410.)


                                                                                        Questions about this board, email: bbs@foils.org
                                                                                        System Support, Email: support@bulletinboards.com

                                                                                        To Learn About Bulletin Boards:  Click Here
                                                                                        Bulletin Board Management Site: Click Here

                                                                                        (321) 984-9080
                                                                                        © 1997 – 2004 P.A. Corp. V7.1

                                                                                        Models

                                                                                        Models

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                        The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Correspondence Archives

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Updated last August 20, 2006

                                                                                        Hydrofoils: Models
                                                                                         

                                                                                        Hydrofoils: Models      Top

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Archived Messages

                                                                                        Count,MessageID,category,ShortTitle,Message,Date,UserName,MsgPswd,Phone,Email,ParentMsgId

                                                                                         

                                                                                        “1”,”937916″,”7″,”Water jet system of my RC pegasus ||937916″,”Excellent photos and attachment… an inspiration to others!”,”2005-11-25″,”Barney C Black”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”934934”

                                                                                        “2”,”936876″,”7″,”‚vater jet system of my RC pegasus ||936876″,”Yoichi,

                                                                                        Congratulations on the successful construction of a waterjet powered hydrofoil model. You may be the first person who has done this!

                                                                                        I see from your photographs that you have made the inlet ducts larger than scale size in order to reduce frictional losses. At some stage please write more about the design and how well it runs. For example, you could tell us about the source of waterjet pump, motor voltage and current and running time of the model.”,”2005-11-22″,”Martin Grimm”,”nopswd”,” “,”seaflite at alphalink.com.au”,”934934″

                                                                                        “3”,”934934″,”7″,”‚vater jet system of my RC pegasus ||934934″,”It introduces the water jet system of the RC pegasus model ship of me who succeeds in surfacing in the first launching introduced in the summer of this year. The secret of the success in my RC pegasus was to have reproduced the research of the pegasus of the thing, and building in the miniaturization and the RC system faithfully. The principle of not the mimicry of the style but the thing was reproduced. The water duct system was researched according to the material of IHS. The water duct system with a little resistance demonstrates the ability of the water jet pump enough. This concludes my report. “,”2005-11-19”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”7″

                                                                                        “4”,”923354″,”7″,”Model Magazines and Plans for sale||923354″,”I put a big batch of hydrofoil magazines with articles on hydrofoil models up for auction on ebay.com. Search for item number: 6985656455. Bidding starts at 6.95 USD. Auction ends Nov-09-05 10:34:41 PST. In addition to the magazines, there are three large, separate full size plans for building hydrofoil models. Both sail and motor powered models are represented, as are display and working models. Some of the working models can be radio-controled; others you just set the rudder for a circular or straight course.

                                                                                        This would be a good instant collection for any modeler interested in hydrofoils. It could also be a resource for a high school science teacher or scout leader interested in offering kids a chance to build and test a hydrofoil as a school project.
                                                                                        “,”2005-10-31″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”7”

                                                                                        “5”,”921349″,”7″,”Re; Hegi police Hydrofoil||921349″,”Hello,
                                                                                        If your in europa please mail me at info@dutchhydrofoils.com
                                                                                        about he hegi.
                                                                                        Regards Mark”,”2005-10-27″,”Mark van Rijzen”,”nopswd”,” “,”info@dutchhydrofoils.com”,”916576″

                                                                                        “6”,”920909″,”7″,”Hydrofoil Models||920909″,”This is a website I found with some scale hydrofoil models. Check it out. www.scalespeed.com”,”2005-10-26″,”Rick”,”nopswd”,” “,”1chef987@comcast.net”,”7″

                                                                                        “7”,”920905″,”7″,”Re; Hegi police Hydrofoil||920905″,”If you are interested in selling this boat please contact me.”,”2005-10-26″,”Rick”,”nopswd”,” “,”1chef987@comcast.net”,”916576″

                                                                                        “8”,”917254″,”7″,”Re; Hegi police Hydrofoil||917254″,”This sounds like a good candidate to be offered for sale internationally at auctioni on eBay.com”,”2005-10-20″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”916576”

                                                                                        “9”,”916576″,”7″,”Hegi police Hydrofoil||916576″,” I have a Hegi Police Hydrofoil Model , the box is not in the best condition, but the model is in New condition. Everyhting appears to be there along with the Tube of Glue, witch I sure is no longer any good.I would like to sell or trade for other Boats. I’m into Fast attack. Thank you Marc “,”2005-10-19″,”Marc Tieben”,”nopswd”,” “,”marc17mach4@aol.com”,”7″

                                                                                        “10”,”894281″,”7″,”My three RC hydrofoil craft introduction.||894281″,”It introduces each part of my PHM.
                                                                                        It concentrated on the research of the hydrofoil system of the pegasus, not my ruining the function when producing it though I faithfully attempted simplifying by it as a radio controller model, and reproduction. The waterway duct of the hydrofoil that the surfacing power influences is a result of the research.
                                                                                        After all, there was a Japan and United States distances, too and it was impossible though it actually went to the museum and the locale in the United States where the pegasus was put and it had wanted to do a detailed observation.
                                                                                        However, abundant images of IHS served as a reference very much.
                                                                                        “,”2005-09-14”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”888238″

                                                                                        “11”,”889917″,”7″,”My three RC hydrofoil craft introduction.||889917″,”Thank you. Barney san
                                                                                        I will continue, be fresh, produce the RC model of the surprise, and introduce it with
                                                                                        this BBS.
                                                                                        “,”2005-09-07”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”888238″

                                                                                        “12”,”888238″,”7″,”My three RC hydrofoil craft introduction.||888238″,”Awesome!”,”2005-09-04″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”884437”

                                                                                        “13”,”884437″,”7″,”My three RC hydrofoil craft introduction.||884437″,”It introduces the work of me current adds the latest work pegasus.
                                                                                        NO,1 Missile boat PG|‚O‚P of JSDMF¡
                                                                                        NO,2¤Boing JET FOIL 929.
                                                                                        NO,3¤USS PHM “PEGASUS”
                                                                                        The original hydrofoil control system that uses both of these all Submarged type hydrofoil boats entire small giros with making by oneself is installed.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-28”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”7″

                                                                                        “14”,”882561″,”7″,”Gunze Sangyo ||882561″,”I have a few vintage Gunze Sangyo Super Comet Hydrofoil kits for sale if anyone is interested. They are a recent warehouse find. Sale price is $525 + shipping anywhere in the world. Payment by PayPal (we have a business account so you can use your credit card via PayPal as well) or money order. Pictures are below. I am a reputable seller specializing in RC cars and trucks. Hence, the sale of these boats which for obvious reasons do not fit in my collection.

                                                                                        References:
                                                                                        My website (with phone number) is www.InetRC.com

                                                                                        You can view my Ebay feedback here:
                                                                                        http://feedback.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewFeedback&userid=toyinc.com

                                                                                        Most of my private collection and contact information can also be found here:
                                                                                        http://www.tamiyaclub.com/member.asp?id=5861

                                                                                        Pictures of kits for sale:

                                                                                        Thank you,

                                                                                        – Alex
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-24″,”Alex Oliva”,”nopswd”,” “,”Inquiries@InetRC.com”,”7″

                                                                                        “15”,”882560″,”7″,”Gunze Sangyo ||882560″,”I have a few vintage Gunze Sangyo Super Comet Hydrofoil kits for sale if anyone is interested. They are a recent warehouse find. Sale price is $525 + shipping anywhere in the world. Payment by PayPal (we have a business account so you can use your credit card via PayPal as well) or money order. Pictures are below. I am a reputable seller specializing in RC cars and trucks. Hence, the sale of these boats which for obvious reasons do not fit in my collection.

                                                                                        References:
                                                                                        My website (with phone number) is www.InetRC.com

                                                                                        You can view my Ebay feedback here:
                                                                                        http://feedback.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewFeedback&userid=toyinc.com

                                                                                        Most of my private collection and contact information can also be found here:
                                                                                        http://www.tamiyaclub.com/member.asp?id=5861

                                                                                        Pictures of kits for sale:

                                                                                        Thank you,

                                                                                        – Alex
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-24″,”Alex Oliva”,”nopswd”,” “,”Inquiries@InetRC.com”,”7″

                                                                                        “16”,”880301″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||880301″,”Snap introduction in test Sou of my RC pegasus.
                                                                                        It reports on the snap testing my RC pegasus hydrofoil missile boat
                                                                                        launch.
                                                                                        It is an impellent of the water jet and an image in surfacing Sou.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-20”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”879209″

                                                                                        “17”,”880300″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||880300″,”Snap introduction in test Sou of my RC pegasus.
                                                                                        It reports on the snap testing my RC pegasus hydrofoil missile boat
                                                                                        launch.
                                                                                        It is an impellent of the water jet and an image in surfacing Sou.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-20”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”879209″

                                                                                        “18”,”879209″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||879209″,”Thank you. !Umi
                                                                                        I made three hydrofoil crafts (submargide foil type) succeed in this pegasus. I do not
                                                                                        stop the challenge to the radio controller technology not exhausted.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-18”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”879094″

                                                                                        “19”,”879208″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||879208″,”Thank you. !Umi
                                                                                        I made three hydrofoil crafts (submargide foil type) succeed in this pegasus. I do not
                                                                                        stop the challenge to the radio controller technology not exhausted.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-18”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”879094″

                                                                                        “20”,”879094″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||879094″,”Takahashi san,
                                                                                        Omedeto gozaimasu.

                                                                                        You make this look too easy. I am currently struggling with power vs heat and running time. I believe I have the motor and pump configured. The next step for me is to water cool it and some slight foil changes. I still feel like the boat is struggling to get lift and planing speed.

                                                                                        “,”2005-08-18″,”Umi_Ryuzuki”,”nopswd”,” “,”umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”878596″

                                                                                        “21”,”878596″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||878596″,”Thank you1. @Barney san
                                                                                        The development period of about one year was necessary for the modeling
                                                                                        of this pegasus.
                                                                                        My being very satisfied with result before
                                                                                        The pegasus who was the active service is very glad to reproduce the RC
                                                                                        model Sou appearance.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-17”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”877873″

                                                                                        “22”,”877873″,”7″,”Re; introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||877873″,”Fantastic… Great modeling (and photography!)”,”2005-08-16″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”877240”

                                                                                        “23”,”877321″,”7″,”introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS-2||877321″,”The image of introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS is added.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-15”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”7″

                                                                                        “24”,”877240″,”7″,”introduces RC hydrofoil PEGASUS||877240″,”The brave figuer of the success “PEGASUS” to the RC modeling of PHM1 again.
                                                                                        It introduces RC hydrofoil missile boat PHM1 “PEGASUS” of my latest work.
                                                                                        It is a radio controller model of hydrofoil missile boat PHM1 “PEGASUS” that had
                                                                                        attached to the patrol of the Caribbean sea with USS that I produced in the original
                                                                                        before that introduces here.
                                                                                        The feature of this model ship surfaces by using the hydrofoil by the same water jet
                                                                                        propulsion principle as the thing and starts.
                                                                                        Water is jetted at high speed with the micro water jet pump developed in the original,
                                                                                        it surfaces from the surface of the water with the hydrofoil at the reactionary speed,
                                                                                        and Sou ..
                                                                                        The stability when surfacing achieved a steady running by a small giro by the
                                                                                        hydrofoil automatic control theory originally developed.
                                                                                        1:50 main spec = scale scales of this boat
                                                                                        8.4V?Piezo-electric vibration giro control hydrofoil system and total length = ..820mm..
                                                                                        above equipped with Ni-Cd battery, balsa monocoque hull, 500 faction electric motor,
                                                                                        and original production water jet pump
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-15”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”7″

                                                                                        “25”,”862106″,”7″,”Sparviero update||862106″,”Not as much accomplished as Takahashi-san, but the boat runs.
                                                                                        I need much more speed to even get the hull to plane up and out of the water. More design work on the pump, speed and size. I hope to get it foil borne before the end of the Summer season.

                                                                                        “,”2005-07-17″,”Umi_Ryuzuki”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “26”,”851276″,”7″,”scale model hysrofoil, need some advice||851276″,”Hello Divyam,

                                                                                        How are you going with your model in the meantime? Have you started on the hull or selected a motor yet?

                                                                                        If I understood your plans correctly, you will have foils at the front of the model only and the back will not be supported by a foil?

                                                                                        The size of motor you select will depend on the weight of the model and how fast you would like it to go. It is important to keep the weight of the model as light as possible by using light weight materials for the hull and foils. Thin plywood (preferably no more than 2mm) could be suitable and you could also consider using balsa wiid, but in that case you need to be careful to waterproof it carefully with varnish. To propel such a model, an inclined shaft driven directly from the motor is probably most easy. A typical DC electric motor used on electric race cars should be OK if your model is light enough.

                                                                                        If you are able to give us more details of the geometry and expected weight of your model, then that will help when you are seeking further advice. It is a good idea to use a set of kitchen scales to weigh the various parts of the model you are planning to use, for example the hull materials, motor, batteries, propeller shaft, foils, radio control receiver and servos etc. You can then get a better estimate of the expected total weight the model.

                                                                                        Regards

                                                                                        Martin”,”2005-06-26″,”Martin Grimm”,”nopswd”,” “,”seaflite@alphalink.com.au”,”0″

                                                                                        “27”,”848065″,”7″,”Re; Lines/Plans for PHM Pegasus?||848065″,”You can get plans for the Boeing PHMs at
                                                                                        http://floatingdrydock.com/
                                                                                        They have plan view, outboad profile, hull lines, and some detail sheets showing sections, and mechanical. The plans are in Metric and English measurements.”,”2005-06-19″,”Umi_Ryuzuki”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “28”,”843240″,”7″,”Re; Lines/Plans for PHM Pegasus?||843240″,”Hi! Markus san
                                                                                        Your Spabiero class model is wonderful.
                                                                                        It was a log of past BBS, there was writing the drawing of the PHM pegasus from Mr. Barney, and
                                                                                        look once, please. MsgidNO,
                                                                                        =790044

                                                                                        “,”2005-06-09”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “29”,”842581″,”7″,”Lines/Plans for PHM Pegasus?||842581″,”Dear Sirs,

                                                                                        I have recently built the Italian Hydrofoil Sparviero as none working
                                                                                        modell in 1/72nd. (see picture following).

                                                                                        (See attached file: Sparviero_frontsideview2.jpg)

                                                                                        I´d like to build next the PHM Pegasus also as none working display modell
                                                                                        scale 1/72nd.

                                                                                        Do you know where to get accurate plans / drawings including line drawings
                                                                                        of the hull?

                                                                                        Best regards

                                                                                        Markus Schott
                                                                                        Germany”,”2005-06-08″,”Markus Schott”,”nopswd”,” “,”Markus.Schott@LBBW.de”,”0″

                                                                                        “30”,”819370″,”7″,”Re; Re; Re; Nikko Shockwave wanted||819370″,”Hi Rod, thanks… there is no wiser voice than the voice of experience. Good advice!”,”2005-04-27″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “31”,”815834″,”7″,”Re; Re; Nikko Shockwave wanted||815834″,”Be careful that u get a good one. I have 3 of them. Only 1 actually gets up on the foils and scoots. The others work ok but the motor does not seem to develop the necessary power. The one for sale on ebay now has a broken propellor. And I don’t think u can change it even if it comes with an extra. I wud be happy to sell you one of mine.”,”2005-04-19″,”Rod Clayards”,”nopswd”,” “,”rodbev@shaw.ca”,”0″

                                                                                        “32”,”814199″,”7″,”Re; Nikko Shockwave wanted||814199″,”There is a Nikko Shockwave up for auction on www.ebay.com right now. Search for item # 5969570866. Starting bid is 99 cents. Auction closes in 5 days. The following link will take you directly to the item listing:
                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&category=2564&item=5969570866&rd=1″,”2005-04-16″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “33”,”811816″,”7″,”scale model hysrofoil, need some advice||811816″,”You should definitely read through the historical correspondence in the IHS archives on models. See the following pages:
                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm
                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/models.htm

                                                                                        Also, a number of modelers are members of IHS, so hopefully one or more of them will see your posted message and will respond to you.”,”2005-04-11″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “34”,”811810″,”7″,”Re; Nikko Shockwave wanted||811810″,”I have seen them up for sale at auction on eBay from time to time. I don’t know if you are an eBay member, but if you are, you can set up an automatic search in the “My eBay” section of the website. It will execute your search every day and send you an email if it finds anything new. Your search could be: +nikko +shockwave.”,”2005-04-11″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “35”,”810414″,”7″,”Nikko Shockwave wanted||810414″,”Does anyone know where I can get a Nikko Shockwave model hydrofoil? I’ve searched the web but it seems that this product is not currently available. “,”2005-04-09″,”Jason”,”nopswd”,” “,”Jasonracer33@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “36”,”809683″,”7″,”scale model hysrofoil, need some advice||809683″,”Respected Sir/Madam,

                                                                                        I am Divyam Nagpal residing in New Delhi , India and was keen on seeking information on hydrofoils.I have developed designs of a scale model of a hysrofoil and would like some advice on it.
                                                                                        My design is basically based on a rigid hull with two foils on either sides and a meachanism following the principle of aerofoil in the front for lift.It would be about 200 cm in length and 15 cm wide at the centre. Firstly i would like to know what kind of motor would be suitable.Also i would like to know what material can be used as a hull.I have already obtained the R/C set and is ready to be installed.
                                                                                        I would be highly obliged if you could answer soon as this project is already delayed by a long time.

                                                                                        Regards
                                                                                        Divyam”,”2005-04-07″,”Divyam”,”nopswd”,” “,”divyamnagpal515@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “37”,”805186″,”7″,”Robbe F-1 Skiboot||805186″,”I just happened upon a kit of the Robbe F-1 Skiboot high speed hydrofoil. Has anyone built this kit. I know it is not like most of the hydrofoil kits since it is not scale but is there any interest in this kit? I also have a model by Hydrofoils Inc. (not making models any more). Has anyone built this one either?”,”2005-03-30″,”Rick”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “38”,”794425″,”7″,”radio controller high-speed SEStype ship||794425″,”Thank you. !@Mr. Bill White san
                                                                                        I am producing the radio controller model of PHM Pegasus besides this SES type
                                                                                        now. It introduces it with IHS again when launched.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.
                                                                                        “,”2005-03-11”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “39”,”794416″,”7″,”Re; R/C high-speed SES ship||794416″,”Thank youI. Mr. Barney.
                                                                                        I can be going to keep offering an interesting topic to the IHS member in the future. Please expect it in the future.
                                                                                        Moreover, please sometimes look at URL that treats my work. There is a possibility that a new work is recorded. The image of the aircraft and the hovercraft was up-loaded recently.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.
                                                                                        “,”2005-03-11”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “40”,”792471″,”7″,”TUCUMCARI||792471″,”Hello,

                                                                                        For the past 26 years I have served as a project supervisor creating museum exhibits in honor of U.S. vets and those of our allies. Some of the venues I have done work for include the USS Intrepid Sea Air Space Museum and the Museum of Polish Military Heritage in America, both in New York City. Load my name Mike Dobrzelecki into a Google Search Engine and you’ll see examples of some of my work on two continents over the years.

                                                                                        I saw your name & email on the IHS website and hope you can provide some help on a research project concerning the Tucumcari PGH-2.

                                                                                        I built the old Aurora kit when it first came out in the late 1960’s early 1970’s (?) and not too long ago picked up a derelict unpainted damaged built-up, as well as a pristine complete kit still in the original box. I even still have some parts from my original build model.

                                                                                        My intent is to build one ‘flying’ and one in the water with its struts and foils folded up and possibly write a good article on the Tucumcari.

                                                                                        I have everything available on the internet for this fascinating hydrofoil, as well as, the old Sea Clasics issue with the Tucumcari on the cover. Recently, I obtained a copy of the History Channel Mail Call episode with the world’s most famous D.I. narrating exquisite video of the this fast-fighting boat in action – great footage, BTW. I have even manage to track down some of its crew for personal interviews. Most frustratingly, the crew I talked to so far all stated that their photos went missing during moves over the years.

                                                                                        I am looking for more photos including details of the interior, the exterior fit on the cockpit/bridge and upper surface of the hull and an answer to what’s in the large opening aft of the .50 cals and masts/antennae. I would also like to track down some more crew and any other books or naval history magazine articles on the the Tucumcari. Any leads would be appreciated.

                                                                                        Mike Dobrzelecki
                                                                                        3040 Clayton Street
                                                                                        Easton PA 18045
                                                                                        “,”2005-03-07”,”Mike Dobrzelecki “,”members”,” “,”Michael_Dobrzelecki@fwc.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “41”,”791941″,”7″,”radio controller high-speed SEStype ship||791941″,”Great pictures of your model.

                                                                                        I got to see the full sized version about a year ago as the Vessel visited the US for joint exercises with the US Navy. It was a very impressive vessel. It was the largest Foam sandwich fiberglass ship that I have ever seen. The workmanship was supurb throughout.

                                                                                        Go to IHS web site at http://archive.foils.org/restore.htm

                                                                                        Under Restoring a PHM in Missouri There is a briefing on the Norwegian Surface Effect Ship (SES) Fast Patrol Boat (FPB) KNM SKJOLD where you can download: skjold brief.pdf
                                                                                        to download a skjold Presentation with photos.

                                                                                        It was twice as efficient as any of the US Navy’s proposed new LCS.

                                                                                        The Model is very impressive as well. Does it have a working model RIB like the big one does?

                                                                                        Bill White”,”2005-03-07″,”Bill White”,”nopswd”,” “,”whitewn@speakeasy.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “42”,”791409″,”7″,”R/C high-speed SES ship||791409″,”This is a very interesting and sophisticated model at
                                                                                        http://d.hatena.ne.jp/skyex/20050112

                                                                                        Thank you Yoichi for posting this. Several IHS members have worked on other Advanced Marine Vehicles (AMVs) besides hydrofoils and will be interested in this!”,”2005-03-05″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”barney@alum.mit.edu”,”0″

                                                                                        “43”,”790044″,”7″,”PHM Model Plans||790044″,”There have been many requests for plans to model PHMs. There is an interesting auction of 1:107 scale model PHM plans on eBay, Item number: 5960815691, ending March 7. This is only a one page sheet with three views, not much detail, but a start. Description says the plans are from Morrison Repla-Tech by Robert C. Morrison. I googled that and got one hit, a posted thread. Excerpt: “REPLA-TECH INTERNATIONAL P.O.Box 461000 Cole Branch Los Angeles, CA 90046-1000 Alain Proteau now owns Repla-Tech. Good source of scale documentation on your favorite airplane. 3-view drawings and photos galore! Bob Morrison’s plans range from his own to imports. Especially good coverage of race planes. Catalog $ 2.50. More than one person has tried to phone Alan to no avail. Try a post card first before risking yer $2. 50. Keep me posted. SCALE MODEL RESEARCH is now handling the Repla-Tech collection of photos.””,”2005-03-03″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”bcblack@erols.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “44”,”784147″,”7″,”radio controller high-speed SEStype ship||784147″,”The third radio controller high-speed ship series bounce. Stately missile boat
                                                                                        Skyol launch

                                                                                        The radio controller model production of a high-speed ship is started and

                                                                                        Northern Europe Norway naval forces this time for , five ..earliness.. years.

                                                                                        It is the state-of-the-art, high-speed missile boat { Skyol }

                                                                                        With the hovercraft named SES = Sarfasefectoshipp (surface of the water effect boat)

                                                                                        It has the high speed and the control stability in the high Bullitt type of the

                                                                                        catamaran ship.

                                                                                        ¡ It is a light hull made of composite materials and a water jet bimotored of
                                                                                        the gas turbine drive.

                                                                                        ¡ Thorough Stealth shape is deeply moved by the fjord camouflage there is power
                                                                                        and with the hull and the feature.

                                                                                        ¡ There is fan air intake for surfacing on the deck.
                                                                                        ¡ Equipped with two storage missile container eight2
                                                                                        ¡ This hull is reproduced by 1:50 scales.
                                                                                        800mm in the total length

                                                                                        2250 weight = G

                                                                                        Equipped with 500 faction electric and drive self-made water jet device

                                                                                        Niccad and lithium Polymer battery drive

                                                                                        >>Please ..following.. refer to URL of publishing for the article and the image
                                                                                        of details.

                                                                                        URL:http://d.hatena.ne.jp/skyex/20050112″,”2005-02-19″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “45”,”770509″,”7″,”vs8 pictures||770509″,”I am looking for any pictures of the vs8 particularly on the prop rudder area – I can not contact challenge publications to see if they had an old copy of the scale modeler magazine from july 82 which showed photos of the 32nd parallel kit”,”2005-01-25″,”David Short”,”nopswd”,” “,”davidsh@internode.on.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “46”,”768757″,”7″,”Re: simple hydrofoil plans?||768757″,”Here are some pages of interest:
                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/content/experimental%20models.html
                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/content/mk1%20hydrofoil.html
                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/content/rapier%20page.html
                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm
                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/gallery/models.htm
                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/popmags.htm#mod

                                                                                        I note that on eBay, there is a recurring offer to sell a set of CDs with model boat plans. The current notice is item #5950983858, titled SIXTY THREE Model Boat Plans on Four CD Set. One of the models is described as “Electric Hydrofoil.”
                                                                                        “,”2005-01-22″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”bblack11@cox.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “47”,”760909″,”7″,”propose simple model hydro foil||760909″,”Hi! Conor Davies san
                                                                                        I am a modeler of the radio controller ship of Japan.
                                                                                        I propose the idea of the hydrofoil craft that remodels the electric model boat marketed to you.
                                                                                        The hydrofoil craft is Shupramarl type with good stability. I think that it can easily make the hydrofoil craft when it is this method. However, a slight balance of the area, the angle, the impellent, and the weight of the hull of the hydrofoil is necessary for the hydrofoil craft of the model. It is necessary to make it run making it, and it adjusts, it cuts, and to try in the result. I think that it also studies the student by the process.
                                                                                        PS :BBS server of this is up-loaded and the image cannot be up-loaded by full!!. Therefore, please give your E-mail Address.
                                                                                        The image is sent to that.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.

                                                                                        “,”2005-01-08”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “48”,”760908″,”7″,”propose simple model hydro foil||760908″,”Hi! Conor Davies san
                                                                                        I am a modeler of the radio controller ship of Japan.
                                                                                        I propose the idea of the hydrofoil craft that remodels the electric model boat marketed to you.
                                                                                        The hydrofoil craft is Shupramarl type with good stability. I think that it can easily make the hydrofoil craft when it is this method. However, a slight balance of the area, the angle, the impellent, and the weight of the hull of the hydrofoil is necessary for the hydrofoil craft of the model. It is necessary to make it run making it, and it adjusts, it cuts, and to try in the result. I think that it also studies the student by the process.
                                                                                        PS :BBS server of this is up-loaded and the image cannot be up-loaded by full!!. Therefore, please give your E-mail Address.
                                                                                        The image is sent to that.
                                                                                        This concludes my report.

                                                                                        “,”2005-01-08”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “49”,”760904″,”7″,”propose simple model hydro foil||760904″,”Hi! Conor Davies san
                                                                                        I am a modeler of the radio controller ship of Japan.
                                                                                        I propose the idea of the hydrofoil craft that remodels the electric model boat marketed to you.
                                                                                        The hydrofoil craft is Shupramarl type with good stability. I think that it can easily make the hydrofoil craft when it is this method. However, a slight balance of the area, the angle, the impellent, and the weight of the hull of the hydrofoil is necessary for the hydrofoil craft of the model. It is necessary to make it run making it, and it adjusts, it cuts, and to try in the result. I think that it also studies the student by the process.
                                                                                        “,”2005-01-08”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “50”,”760245″,”7″,”simple hydrofoil plans?||760245″,”Hello,

                                                                                        I am a physics teacher in Harrogate, England. Some of my students have been asking about building a model hydrofoil boat, powered by some batteries and a small electric motor.

                                                                                        Our main difficulty is finding simple, understandable plans for the hydrofoil part itself, (materials to use, angles of attack, dimensions, position on hull etc.)

                                                                                        The boat will be fairly small and the hydrofoils will have to be simple, i.e. no moving surfaces.

                                                                                        Is this type of project possible? Are the hydrofoils easy to construct? Do such plans/instructions exist?

                                                                                        I would be grateful for any advice you can give or any websites you can point me to for information.

                                                                                        Ideally I would then send the students off to research further and come up with a project plan.

                                                                                        Thanking you in advance for any assistance.

                                                                                        Regards

                                                                                        Conor Davies”,”2005-01-06″,”Conor Davies”,”members”,” “,”conor.davies@ntlworld.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “51”,”755708″,”7″,”Thank you! Barney||755708″,”Thank you! Barney san. — I am very glad to put a picture on BBS with your help . The sequel of the Pegasus manufacture is also due to be reported from now on.”,”2004-12-25″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “52”,”755619″,”7″,”Photos: PHM Model in Progress||755619″,”Click the following link to see photos of this model under construction: http://www.exigent.info/PHMyoichi.pdf”,”2004-12-24″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”bcblack@erols.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “53”,”755397″,”7″,”Jetfoil Dimensions, Plans, Profiles||755397″,”I have posted information about Jetfoil dimensions, plans, profiles, fittings, hull access openings, etc. that may be of interest to people who want to model this vessel. The information shows differences between Model 929-100 (Hull Numbers 001 thru 0010) and 929-115 (0011 and on). Go to the following webpage to find the link: http://www.exigent.info”,”2004-12-23″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”bcblack@erols.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “54”,”754247″,”7″,”Local Interest in Hydrofoil/Portland, Oregon||754247″,”I am interested to form a local activity group here in Portland, Oregon.
                                                                                        This can be informal and maybe those people interested could meet once a month. My interests are as follows:

                                                                                        1) Historical Issues
                                                                                        2) Theoretical and computational aspects related to
                                                                                        hydrodynamics and hydrofoils in particular

                                                                                        This message was motivated by the most recent article on model development of radio controlled hydrofoil boats. In particular the one by Aimee Eng and Cliff Shaw.
                                                                                        Please feel free to contact me at:
                                                                                        dpsace21@aol.com

                                                                                        With regards, Axel Mainzer Koenig”,”2004-12-20″,”Axel Mainzer Koenig”,”nopswd”,” “,”dspace21@aol.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “55”,”753597″,”7″,”Under RC Pegasus construction||753597″,”The radio control hydrovane patrol guided missile (Pegasus) which I am building now is introduced. I think that I wants to reproduce sailing of Pegasus of an active-service time with S= 1:50 and the hull RC made from a full length =800mm balsa. It is a brave figure again !”,”2004-12-18″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “56”,”735242″,”7″,”Re: Introduction of my R/CHydrofoilsModels ||735242″,”Hello1 Wolfgang Lam san
                                                                                        Your mail was read.
                                                                                        Thank you for having my radio control jetfoil praised.
                                                                                        and Although I have understood your intention generally, there is a
                                                                                        point which is not known well yet. There is a question. Do you want to
                                                                                        develop an amphibious, completely new hydrofoil type radio control
                                                                                        automobile model like the image data of a trial product? . Or do you
                                                                                        want to develop the radio control scale model of the jetfoil high-speed
                                                                                        pure Boeing ship? . I have not done understanding which it is yet.
                                                                                        Please give me the reply of the above question. Above
                                                                                        — “,”2004-11-09”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “57”,”735236″,”7″,”Re: Introduction of my R/CHydrofoilsModels ||735236″,”Hi! Wolfgang Lam san
                                                                                        I to the E-mail by which it came from you put once again the contents of the reply taken out to Fri and 05 Nov 2004 repeatedly here last week.
                                                                                        >
                                                                                        Above
                                                                                        — “,”2004-11-09”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “58”,”735168″,”7″,”Re: Introduction of my R/CHydrofoilsModels wo||735168″,”Dear Yoichi Takahashi san

                                                                                        So excited receiving your message, it is so great meeting you Hydrofoil Jetfoil lovers. In our mail, you mentioned that you have replied last Saturday. I think I missed it, did you send directly to my e-mail account or post it on IHS message board ? Do you mind send it over again, are there more photos/video that you would like to share with us ?

                                                                                        We are a small radio toy manufacturing company and have been manufacturing such for Taiyo and Tamiya. Recently we want to develope a Hydrofoil or Jetfoil toy, of course, cost is a very important factor as our marketing sector is in toys but not hobbies that we would be excited if we can find working partners for consultation or joint venture.

                                                                                        If you have any suggestions, we would be delighted to hear.

                                                                                        Thanks and rgds,

                                                                                        Wolfgang Lam
                                                                                        “,”2004-11-09″,”Wolfgang Lam (Hong Kong)”,”nopswd”,” “,”wavecon@netvigator.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “59”,”734680″,”7″,”JETFOIL model||734680″,”Good evening!
                                                                                        . Wolfgang Lam san It is very interested in your project.
                                                                                        Since the mail from you was contained in my mail last weekend, although I was allowed to ask a question, has it arrived? Since there was writing when it visited the IHS board today, it is replying also by this IHS. Now, development of my RC jetfoil model took in three years. Many were repetitions of an experiment, a try, and an error. All rejection type hydrofoils are very difficult things, such as stability, maneuverability drivability, and a propultion system, so much. I was able to acquire some physical numerical values and know-how required for a design by this development. If your picture is seen, some subjects can see. Selection of a water jet system etc. needs a design and technical choosing the optimal for the area of in-its-hands wings, form, a control system, and propultion. Moreover, weight, the hydrovane for stability reservation, the size of a hull, etc. serve as a conclusive factor. The theory and the solution method of a model are a method of at a model. Above”,”2004-11-08″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “60”,”732651″,”7″,”Re: Invite modeller on Jetfoil project||732651″,”Your photos are most interesting. Take a look at the Flying DUKW on my webpage at http://www.exigent.info/FlyDUKW.pdf”,”2004-11-04″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”barney@alum.mit.edu”,”0″

                                                                                        “61”,”732178″,”7″,”Source of RC Hydrofoils||732178″,”I see used RC Hydrofoils come up for auction on www.ebay.com from time to time.”,”2004-11-03″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”barney@alum.mit.edu”,”0″

                                                                                        “62”,”732176″,”7″,”Re: Introduction of my R/CHydrofoilsModels wo||732176″,”Mr. Yoichi Takahashi san

                                                                                        My name is Wolfgang Lam from Hong Kong, I saw your beautiful Jetfoil model picture and your introduction, they looked brilliant.

                                                                                        We would like to invite you participate in our project of re-modelling an amphibian toy car to a Jetfoil using centrifugal fan for the waterjet propulsion system.

                                                                                        The car measures about 360 x 140 mm, estimated payload is around 1100 gm with motors, servos, battery etc.

                                                                                        I am attaching a photo for your quick browsing and if you are interested in know more, I can send you movie file of size about 10 MB.

                                                                                        Looking forward to hear you again.

                                                                                        Tks n Rgds”,”2004-11-03″,”Wolfgang Lam (Hong Kong)”,”nopswd”,” “,”wavecon@netvigator.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “63”,”732116″,”7″,”Jetfoil Hydrofoil modelling||732116″,”Hi, all Jetfoil Hydrofoil lovers We are looking for helper to re-constructing an amphibian toy car into a Jetfoil, it measures about 360 x 140 mm, estimated payload is 1100 gm with batteries, motors, servos. Attached is a slide/video clip which shows real one flying and the car standing on its struts. Thank you “,”2004-11-02″,”Wolfgang Lam (Hong Kong)”,”nopswd”,” “,”wavecon@netvigator.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “64”,”731709″,”7″,”Invite modeller on Jetfoil project||731709″,”Please see attached for another photo of the (ex amphibian car) for rebuilding into a Jetfoil.

                                                                                        Thanks.

                                                                                        Wolfgang Lam”,”2004-11-02″,”Wolfgang Lam (Hong Kong)”,”nopswd”,” “,”wavecon@netvigator.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “65”,”731698″,”7″,”Invite modeller on Jetfoil project||731698″,”Hi, Jetfoil/Hydrofoil lovers

                                                                                        We would like to seek a helper for building a Jetfoil model from a toy ship hull (an ex-amphibian car) using a centrifual fan as the propulsion system, the toy ship hull measures 360 x 140 mm, estimated payload with batteries, motors, servos etc is 1100 gm.

                                                                                        We can send you the hull, the fan, and required motor for assembling.

                                                                                        Please see attached photos of the ship hull with the centrifual fan and posted on its 3 struts.

                                                                                        Thank you”,”2004-11-02″,”Wolfgang Lam (Hong Kong)”,”wavecon”,” “,”wavecon@netvigator.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “66”,”722798″,”7″,”Looking for.||722798″,”Is there anyone that is selling RC Hydrofoils?”,”2004-10-13″,”Jim Myers”,”nopswd”,” “,”jrm16@zoomtown.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “67”,”721717″,”7″,”hydro foils for kiteboard||721717″,”I have recently competed in Weymouth speed week on a kitesurf kite and standard board and have posted a speed of 30.97 knots.
                                                                                        I wish to increase the speed and the only thing I believe is stopping me is the boards resistance. I wish to try out hydrfoils on my board that will lift the board approx 5-10 cm off the surface of the water. I have thoght about using hydrfoils off model boats.
                                                                                        The hydrofoils will have to be made of metal I think. Has anyone got any suggestions of where I could get such things from or made?
                                                                                        The board I am using is 130cm long and 37cm wide.
                                                                                        I look forward to your suggestions
                                                                                        Richard Gowers
                                                                                        Uk”,”2004-10-11″,”Rich Gowers”,”nopswd”,” “,”info@surf-skate-ride.co.uk”,”0″

                                                                                        “68”,”709950″,”7″,”Re: Tucumcari Model e-bay||709950″,”Here is a third Tucumcari Model.
                                                                                        It says a couple pieces are missing.
                                                                                        Item Number 5921479181

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&category=2590&item=5921479181&rd=1″,”2004-09-16″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “69”,”708393″,”7″,”Another Tucumcari Sept 13th, 2004||708393″,”Here is another e-bay auction for one of these model kits.

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&category=4248&item=5920973946&rd=1

                                                                                        or Item Number 5920973946″,”2004-09-13″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “70”,”703922″,”7″,”Re: board ease of use||703922″,”Aimee

                                                                                        We have tried to make to make the board a little simpler to use. If we messed up and made it worse, let me know what bothers you and we can fix it.

                                                                                        Bill White
                                                                                        Moderator”,”2004-09-03″,”Bill White”,”foilsadm”,” “,”whitewn@speakeasy.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “71”,”703833″,”7″,”Tucumcari Model e-bay||703833″,”If anyone is interested, there is an Aurora model of the Tucumcari on e-bay.
                                                                                        Item number 5918286328

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&category=2590&item=5918286328&rd=1

                                                                                        Aimee

                                                                                        (did this bbs get more difficult to access since I was last here?)”,”2004-09-03″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “72”,”694827″,”7″,”want to take lease russian hydrofoil||694827″,”Falcon sea trans company would like to lease russian built hydrofoil if u have any information please mail me as soon as possible”,”2004-08-15″,”Ruman Barua”,”nopswd”,” “,”rum27m@yahoo.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “73”,”689422″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||689422″,”Konbanwa Takahashi san,

                                                                                        Here are the fiberglass struts after one week of work.
                                                                                        The Struts came out very well and I am happy with the work.

                                                                                        The right strut is still solid, with the foam core still in place.
                                                                                        The left strut has had the foam melted out with acetone.

                                                                                        I will reinforce the uptake with a vertical piece of styrene, This will also help keep the water running straight as it passes through the strut.

                                                                                        Mata aimasho,

                                                                                        Aimee Eng.”,”2004-08-04″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “74”,”688884″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||688884″,”I have decided to try to fiberglass the rear struts.
                                                                                        Here are the foam cores fiberglassed and vacuum bagged.
                                                                                        “,”2004-08-03″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “75”,”684342″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||684342″,”konbannwa! Aimee.Eng
                                                                                        san
                                                                                        . The thin aluminum board which constitutes the strike rat is pasted up by epoxy adhesion material. Since it is very difficult, aluminum welding is not used. Above”,”2004-07-25″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “76”,”683895″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||683895″,”Konbanwa Takahashi san,

                                                                                        How did you assemble the aluminium plates?
                                                                                        Is the aluminium TIG welded or epoxied(glued) into shape?

                                                                                        I am Sailing boats this weekend, So no new work until next week.

                                                                                        Mata ne.”,”2004-07-24″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “77”,”683816″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||683816″,”konnichiwa!. Aimee Eng san
                                                                                        The struts is made with the 0.3‚‚ thin aluminum board in order to serve as a waterway duct. Foil is shaving and making ramin wood to the wings type.
                                                                                        “,”2004-07-23”,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “78”,”683143″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||683143″,”konbanwa Takahashi san,

                                                                                        The temperature is 26-32C here.
                                                                                        The planking is 1.5mm balsa wood. After sanding the hull lost 20 g but I am trying to smooth the hull right now so it may stay about 290g when finished. Hopefully your diagrams and pictures will keep this project from taking three years to complete.

                                                                                        I am not sure I understand the joint development question.
                                                                                        Is that you helping me develop my model? I welcome your help.
                                                                                        Also, I would be happy to help anyone start or build a model if it is within my means.

                                                                                        I am thinking that I will build the jet pump not buy one.
                                                                                        How did you build your struts?
                                                                                        Are the struts and foils balsa?
                                                                                        “,”2004-07-22″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “79”,”682771″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||682771″,”CONBANWA. Aimee Eng san!

                                                                                        This place, intense heat continues every day, and, as for Japan, it is very hot (39-degree Centigrade). You live. How are
                                                                                        and the temperature at the time? . It is leaf surprise at the speed of your modeling speed! Thank you for showing a beautiful hull. Judging from a hull size, the almost same size as my hydrovane patrol guided missile is conjectured. Getting, if you say, a jet pump and a hydrovane think that they are difficult to be sure. Finishing as lightly as possible is important for a hull. Mind should attach to seldom become weight over just because it thinks a feeling of a scale as important. By the way, is the Planck wood of a hull a balsa? The jet pump spent also for me to research and development in three years. Although the jet pump for models out of which electric power comes was looked for among the world, there is anywhere, and it was made personally. [ no ] Then, although it is a proposal, how is collaborating on your on-going R/C MODELE-SUPABIERO class by two persons? Mutual favorite technology is shared and it is international joint development. If you avoid, since it may offer the technology of an electric jet pump and I will also want to have subject nature as a modeler which plays an active part internationally.
                                                                                        Please inquire.”,”2004-07-21″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “80”,”682646″,”7″,”Re; RHS 160 F- Foil Arrangement||682646″,”Well apparently there are some file limits for accounts so if you need a larger file of the RHS140 plans e-mail me, and I will send you the best copy I have.

                                                                                        Also, I have not extrapolated any frame/station drawings for the 140 series yet, so that information is not available at this time.”,”2004-07-21″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “81”,”682641″,”7″,”Re; RHS 160 F- Foil Arrangement||682641″,”How about an RHS 140
                                                                                        (Courtesy of Martin Grimm)

                                                                                        Perhaps you can modify the superstructure, length and beam to match the RHS 160″,”2004-07-21″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “82”,”682329″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||682329″,”Ohaiyo Takahashi san,

                                                                                        Building a boat hull is the easy part. (Boat hull wa muzukashii ku nai.)
                                                                                        Building the jet pump and foils will be difficult. I would like to make this electric powered. Any assistance will be greatly appreciated. (Jet pump to foils wa taskete onegaishimasu.)

                                                                                        The Sparveiro class is
                                                                                        Length x width x draught
                                                                                        23m x 7m x 1.5m

                                                                                        The model is
                                                                                        637mm x 185mm x 40mm
                                                                                        Currently the rough fiberglass hull weighs 288.5g
                                                                                        I will sand it and finish the hull today.

                                                                                        Aimee Eng

                                                                                        Here is todays hull image
                                                                                        “,”2004-07-20″,”Aimee Eng”,”nopswd”,” “,”Umi_Ryuzuki@hotmail.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “83”,”682268″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||682268″,”CONBANWA! Aimee ENG san

                                                                                        Thank you for having the picture of your spa BIERO class shown. By the way, is the speed of your work very Quicly? . Would you teach the size of the scale of a hull, and the full length of an actual ship, if it avoids? Is it engine? Is it an electric motor drive? . Above”,”2004-07-20″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                        “84”,”682267″,”7″,”Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels||682267″,”CONBANWA! Aimee ENG san

                                                                                        Thank you for having the picture of your spa BIERO class shown. By the way, is the speed of your work very Quicly? . Would you teach the size of the scale of a hull, and the full length of an actual ship, if it avoids? Is it engine? Is it an electric motor drive? . Above”,”2004-07-20″,”yoichi takahashi “,”nopswd”,” “,”skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp”,”0″

                                                                                         

                                                                                        2004

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Archive; Model Kits, TUCUMCARI/Others

                                                                                        Click below to Open

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/models.htm
                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 3:15 PM]

                                                                                        Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237685]
                                                                                        Archive; Radio-Controlled Hydrofoil Models
                                                                                        Click below to Open

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm
                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 3:22 PM]

                                                                                        Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237690]
                                                                                        Flying Keelboat

                                                                                            • microSAIL! (

                                                                                        www.microsail.com

                                                                                            • ) ia about to introduce a revolutionary RC sailing model: the aeroSKIFF. This boat is the first production model sailboat to be offered with a canting keel which is very fast: 0 to 52 degrees in one second. Most revolutionary of all is that the boat is also available with hydrofoils(!): one on the daggerboard just ahead of the canting keel strut and one on the rudder(thats right–only two!). She uses a variation of Dr. Sam Bradfieds altitude control system. So far as we know the aeroSKIFF is the FIRST BALLASTED KEELBOAT–either model or fullsize to fly on fully submerged foils(or any other kind of foils). We are pursuing a patented version of this model technology for use on full size boats like Open 60’s…
                                                                                            • If you have ever heard of or seen –and can substantiate it-another keelboat on foils please contact Doug Lord at:

                                                                                        lorsail@webtv.net

                                                                                            • The aeroSkiff pictures will be posted on our website in a month or so…

                                                                                        [Date/Time=04-21-2002 – 12:56 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Doug Lord lorsail@webtv.net, [Msgid=249867]
                                                                                        PHM Radio Controlled Model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • For those interested in the model of the

                                                                                        USS AQUILA

                                                                                            • (PHM-4) by Ronald Swart, Look at:

                                                                                        http://home.wanadoo.nl/~hydrofoils1/phm.htm

                                                                                            • .
                                                                                            • When more info shows up, I will make a update.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-12-2002 – 7:56 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Mark van Rijzen dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl, [Msgid=258425]
                                                                                        PHM Radio Controlled Model

                                                                                            • Additional photos provided to IHS by Mark

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-22-2002 – 9:02 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=262735]
                                                                                        Test Rig for R/C Model CURL CURL

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • See the image of my model R/C hydrofoil with a ‘test rig’ catamaran owned by a friend of mine (pictured). Actually, the catamaran has been used for solar boat races in recent years but is ideal for towing models. The idea was that this could be used to do experimental tests of transverse stability of the model while foilborne on a calm day. We just have not got far enough with the idea yet! Far more ideal of course would be to perform the tests in a towing tank! — Martin Grimm (

                                                                                        seaflite@alphalink.com.au

                                                                                            • )

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-27-2002 – 6:35 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=264347]
                                                                                        Wing In Ground Effect Models

                                                                                            • Wing In Ground Effect Models
                                                                                            • Dear W.I.G enthusiast
                                                                                            • This is just a note to tell you that I have added some more photos of WhizzyWig models to my web site, which you might like to see.
                                                                                            • Visit :

                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/index%20ekranoplan%20man.html

                                                                                            • or go direct to the WhizzyWig Gallery :

                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/whizzywig1/whizzywig%20gallery.html

                                                                                            • to see the pictures.
                                                                                            • Also a new video clip of the prototype WhizzyWig XGE, flying in XGE mode (eXtreme Ground Effect) has been added to the Video section of The Wig Page, visit:

                                                                                        http://www.se-technology.com/wig/

                                                                                            • If you would like a set of plans to build your own WhizzyWig model see the details at :

                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/whizzywig1/whizzywig%20plans.html

                                                                                            • , or email me and ask for an order form for the WhizzyWig XGE Plans Pack.
                                                                                            • I hope you enjoy the photo.
                                                                                            • Regards
                                                                                            • Graham Taylor

                                                                                        home.taylor@virgin.net

                                                                                            • Date=2002-05-29 for Graham Taylor

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-31-2002 – 1:29 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Graham Taylor home.taylor@virgin.net, [Msgid=265985]
                                                                                        How Small Can You Go?

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Is it possible to make a working foil less than 10mm from leading edge to trailing edge that would be suitable for a small saing model say <40cm long overall? If it is possible what would be the best cross section and angle of the foil and would a T foil configuration work at this size? Also to make it at all effective how light would the model have to be?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-12-2002 – 4:25 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Matthew Lingley matthew_lingley@hotmail.com, [Msgid=281832]
                                                                                        How Small Can You Go?

                                                                                            • Matthew,
                                                                                            • I think it would be possible to build a sailing hydrofoil model of only around 40cm long and with hydrofoil chord lengths of less than 10mm, but you would have to take a lot of care to make it work, especially to keep its weight down to the bare minimum. I can’t imaging anyone else would have made such a small sailing hydrofoil before.
                                                                                            • A more workable size for a sailing model would be like the MicroSail F3 (see:

                                                                                        www.microsail.com

                                                                                            • ) which is 1.4 metres (55.75 inches) long. Building to that scale means shaping and assembling the components doesn’t become so fiddly.
                                                                                            • If you were to attempt a 40cm long model of a similar arrangement to the F3, then the weight budget you have to work with can be estimated by scaling down from particulars of the F3 model. This model has a weight of up to 8.2 lb or 3.7 kg. If you try to build a model only 28% of the size of the F3, then its weight would have to be about 86 grams!
                                                                                            • An inverted T foil system as on the F3 required foil control to regulate the angle of attack of its foils. The weight of such control linkages alone would cause problems. As such, for a small sailing hydrofoil you would be far better off using surface piercing hydrofoils that don’t require foil angle control (explore our website for more details of the differences between folly submerged and surface piercing hydrofoil types).
                                                                                            • Furthermore, the model would have to be free sailing as even the lightest radio control equipment would make it too heavy.
                                                                                            • A final aspect to consider: As boats become smaller, the frictional resistance coefficient of their hulls (or foils) becomes higher. This means that although they have less wetted surface area that is subject to friction, they still suffer from a relatively larger amount of resistance in proportion to their weight.
                                                                                            • Although a smaller model may seem more manageable to build, in this case you would be better off adopting a larger model as there is a better chance you will be able to make it work well.
                                                                                            • I don’t have any good tips to offer you about the best foil cross section and angle except that the best lift to drag ratio of most aerofoils and hydrofoils is achieved at a relatively small angle of attack (around 3-4 degrees?) and you should be aiming for that angle.
                                                                                            • I wish you well with your hydrofoil modelling.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-13-2002 – 3:36 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=281949]
                                                                                        Thunderstreak Collection

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I visited your site, and was surprised to see a reference to the old ThunderStreak model on your page at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/gallery/models.htm

                                                                                            • ! I thought you might get a kick out of my collection.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-25-2002 – 5:13 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Mark dcpmark@adelphia.net, [Msgid=286201]
                                                                                        Thunderstreak Collection

                                                                                            • Mark
                                                                                            • thanks for the great photo
                                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-27-2002 – 5:04 PM]

                                                                                        Name:bill white whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=287225]
                                                                                        PHM model up for sale!!

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Announcement!!!
                                                                                            • A friend of my is selling his PHM model.

                                                                                        http://home.wanadoo.nl/~hydrofoils1/phm.htm

                                                                                            • This is a Radio Controlled model of the USS Aquilla.
                                                                                            • The buyer will not get the model only,but also the mould to make a new PHM hull.
                                                                                            • And a lot of information.(photo’s drawing enz..)
                                                                                            • The model is build according to the original drawings of the Boeing company.
                                                                                            • In a scale of 1:30,
                                                                                            • this makes her length 135 cm,
                                                                                            • beam 48 cm,
                                                                                            • and the weight is 14 kg.
                                                                                            • Hull is made of kevlar,deck,deckhouse and foils are made of aluminium.
                                                                                            • Need some detail work.
                                                                                            • Asking price is $3000,- USD,
                                                                                            • That is for:
                                                                                            • Model,mould,photobook,drawings and shipping.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-07-2002 – 4:26 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Capt Mark van Rijzen dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl, [Msgid=292219]
                                                                                        Attached File  “afullside~JPG.zip” – size 26604   Click Here To Download
                                                                                        PHM model up for sale!!

                                                                                            • WoW! I’ve contacted the owners (and perspective owners) of the remaining PHM’s. Ever thought about “Super Sizing” and buying one of the originals….?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-10-2002 – 12:41 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Dan Schmidt gse2schmidt@hotmail.com, [Msgid=293848]
                                                                                        Test Rig for R/C Model CURL CURL

                                                                                            • I recent received an e-mail enquiry seeking more details about the ?test rig? boat and whether it could be used for model testing work.
                                                                                            • The photo in the original posted message on this subject was taken earlier this year and is the only time we have attempted to tow the hydrofoil model using the catamaran so far. It was really just an idea prompted by the fact that it is difficult to gain access to towing tank facilities (though the hydrofoil model in the photo has been tested in the towing tank at the Australian Maritime College in Launceston as a research activity some years ago).
                                                                                            • The idea of using a boat as a means to test scale models for assessment of their performance is not a new one. I have video footage that shows that a Volga sports hydrofoil (see the website for details of this craft type) was once used by Rostislav Evgenievich Alekseev (again, see website for more info) and the Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau in the former Soviet Union to test the characteristics of Wing-in-Ground-Effect craft (Ekranoplans) using small scale models. In that case, the model was simply towed from a bar projecting out from the side of this small 6 seater hydrofoil and was towed via a thin towline. These tests were probably conducted to examine flight stability and other such issues. A more dedicated self-propelled model test platform was designed by the Gdansk Ship Research Institute in Poland and is described in the 1974-75 issue of Jane’s Surface Skimmers. This was known as the Badacz II and was of a hydrofoil supported catamaran configuration with the towing rig installed at the bow. It was apparently used for testing of hydrofoil and hovercraft models. Taking the idea to extremes, Boeing used the hydroplane ‘Aqua-Jet’ to test hydrofoil models at high speed, reportedly up to 100 knots. I am also aware that a consulting naval architect in Australia has used a larger boat for testing of scale models of conventional vessels and others have probably also done so.
                                                                                            • Our catamaran called ?Ampcat? is not highly instrumented. On the occasion of the trial run towing the hydrofoil model, we had a small hand held GPS unit on board. It could measure speed over ground fairly well (but how accurately, I can’t say). We had also fitted a very basic Pitot tube that was roughly marked off with speeds in half-knot increments. The instrument was simply manufactured from a length of Perspex tube heated and bent into an L shape with the lower opening facing forward into the oncoming water flow and the upper end open to atmospheric pressure. The stagnation pressure at the front of the tube results in a column of water within the Pitot tube, which rises above the mean water level. This in theory should measure speed through the water but again; I can’t say how accurate it is in practice. The towing force could be measured using a simple spring balance (more tension in the tow line results in extension of a spring) combined with a calibrated scale to make it possible to read off the tow force. This is a simple visual scale and naturally if the boat and model are not in calm water, the tension will fluctuate and readings will be difficult to record. The intention was to mount a video camera near the model to record pitch or roll motions if the tests are conducted in waves. The approach was to do everything on a shoestring budget as this is only a personal interest rather than a commercial enterprise.
                                                                                            • Ampcat can comfortably reach 6.5 knots via a battery powered electric outboard motor. If it is towing a 1:20 scale model as in the photo, that speed corresponds to a full scale speed of the hydrofoil of about 29 knots based on Froude Number.
                                                                                            • Testing of scale models of ships and boats to estimating resistance of the full scale vessel is established practice in the maritime industry, however you need to be quite familiar with scaling techniques and extrapolation methods to reliably predict the full-scale performance. That is even more complicated in the case of a hydrofoil than a conventional vessel. Designers, including in the hydrofoil business, have been ‘burned’ by not getting their model scaling techniques quite right. There are no shortages of craft that have under-performed on full-scale trials despite what the model tests may have indicated.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-11-2002 – 6:18 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=294217]
                                                                                        PHM model up for sale!!

                                                                                            • I am interested in seeing a built model — not buying one. Anyone have one living on the eastern portion of USA?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-11-2002 – 7:32 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Gerry Levine gerrymega@aol.com, [Msgid=294364]
                                                                                        PT-50 Model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am Japanese, and I am a fan of hydrofoil boats in Japan inland sea. I made a model of hydrofoil boat PT-50.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-18-2002 – 1:08 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Katsuhiro Sakai ksakai@orange.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=297592]
                                                                                        PT-50 Model

                                                                                            • Katsuhiro
                                                                                            • The detail of the model is impresive. It is very hard to tell from your enclosed pictures that we are looking at a scale model.
                                                                                            • Congratuations on your fine workmanship.
                                                                                            • Bill white

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-18-2002 – 10:12 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=297759]
                                                                                        PHM model up for sale!!

                                                                                            • Why do you ask about owning a model in northeastern US?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-18-2002 – 11:30 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Dan Schmidt GSE2Schmidt@hotmail.com, [Msgid=297791]
                                                                                        Bras D`Or Model Question

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am a master seaman instructor at the fleet school in Victoria, BC.
                                                                                            • I belong to a Radio Control boat club and am looking for a little
                                                                                            • information or pictures on Bras D’Or. I wanted to know if there are rudders on the aft stabilizers, or is the ship steered by just the front foil? I have just completed a four foot CPF with working lights and radars. I have been told by numerous persons that the FHE 400 could not be made to work. I hope that you can help me out.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-20-2002 – 4:45 AM]

                                                                                        Name:C.T. Thomas Thomas.CT@forces.ca, [Msgid=298311]
                                                                                        Bras D`Or Model Question

                                                                                            • The IHS has a large Section on the Bras D`Or at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/brasdorp.htm

                                                                                            • It indicates that the bow foil was used for foilborne and hullborne steering.
                                                                                            • The The Defence R&D Canada – Atlantic’s mandate is to conduct research and development in Underwater Sensing and Countermeasures, Naval Command and Control, Air Platforms, Naval Platforms etc. They did trails on the Bras D`Or in the 60’s and 70’s. There is some information on their web site in the History section.

                                                                                        http://www.atlantic.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/history/achievements_e.html

                                                                                            • See also: Back to the Canadian Navy – Postwar Fleet

                                                                                        http://www.hazegray.org/navhist/canada/postwar/brasdor/

                                                                                            • Also: If you go to IHS main home page and use the IHS Site search engine you will come up with 14 items addressing Bras D`Or both technical and historical.
                                                                                            • Hope this helps.
                                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-21-2002 – 9:45 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=298902]
                                                                                        Bras D`Or Model Question

                                                                                            • Following up on what Bill has already said, the whole bow foil assembly rotated about a vertical stock similar to a rudder stock. This was supported within a Teflon coated spherical bearing near the keel. This arrangement allowed the bow foil incidence angle to be adjusted by a hydraulic ram positioned just below the weather deck in the bow area. A steering actuator was positioned at the level of the spherical bearing with the control linkage projecting out of the Port side of the hull below the hullborne waterline.
                                                                                            • To help with building a model, the book “The Flying 400” by Thomas G. Lynch would be very useful to you. This has many good photos and diagrams. Full details are available on the IHS website “Popular Books on Hydrofoils” page. Of course you could also visit the real thing on display in Quebec to see all the details first hand!
                                                                                            • All the best with the modelling project.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-22-2002 – 9:48 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=299478]
                                                                                        Looking for RC Coke Hydrofoil

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am looking for the RC Coca-Cola Hydrofoil that was made in Japan. I can’t seem to find them anywhere. I believe they were made back in the ealy 90’s. They were not sold in US. Can anyone help?? Will pay a finders fee of $200 if someone can locate one for me to buy. Thanks.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-28-2002 – 6:26 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barry Miller barry@mindspring.com, [Msgid=302505]
                                                                                        Looking for RC Coke Hydrofoil

                                                                                            • I had not heard of these models, but I will post your message in our announcements page to give you a second shot at connecting with someone. If you have a photo or sketch of this model, we would like to have it for our photo gallery.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-04-2002 – 8:58 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=305241]
                                                                                        PT-50 and PT-20 Models (Manly)

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • There are detailed plans of the PT 50 Hydrofoils in the State Archives at Kingswood NSW.
                                                                                            • I built a 1:25 scale static model of the Manly II PT 20 Hydrofoil (see below). I have the complete plans of both the Japanese version & my version. I also have full plans of the Hydrofoil “Fairlight”.
                                                                                            • I would love to build scale models of both the Dee Why & Curl Curl Hydrofoils.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-14-2002 – 7:42 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Alex lord_barrington@smartchat.net.au, [Msgid=309777]
                                                                                        PT-50 and PT-20 Models (Manly)

                                                                                            • When the Sydney hydrofoils were decommissioned by the State Transit Authority I made enquiries at their Balmain workshops about whether surplus plans could be made available, even if just to copy. I didn’t have success at the time, though there was a hint that they would at least not just ‘ditch’ the information. I am pleased to hear that at least the PT 50 hydrofoil plans are available in the state archives and some day I may obtain a copy for my own information. I wonder whether the same applies for the PT 20, RHS 140 or RHS 60F types and the alternative variant of the PT 50 (since some had the raised wheelhouse arrangement).
                                                                                            • The Japanese (Hitachi) had a variety of superstructure configurations for the PT 20s they built under license to Supramar. For Manly they incorporated the panoramic windows. Others were built with ‘standard’ windows throughout. For other variants there was a small exterior area for use by a limited number of passengers behind the wheelhouse.
                                                                                            • The plans I prepared for my ‘Curl Curl’ model were based on fairly small scale published arrangement drawings of the type, suitably modified to reflect the peculiarities of the superstructure of ‘Curl Curl’ itself. These plans were further refined by reference to a collection of photos I had taken of ‘Curl Curl’. I have never properly completed the plans for use by others, as in fact I have many loose templates and sketches of details from which I also worked. My intention was always to finish off those plans as a basis from which others could have an easier start into building a hydrofoil model. One day I would like to put in the time to finish the drawing work.
                                                                                            • Of course, I would also be keen for someone to take on a project to model ‘Dee Why’ or ‘Palm Beach’ since I am unaware of anyone who has taken on those as model subjects (both these two had the raised wheelhouse similar to ‘Curl Curl’ but instead were PT 50s). I am sorry to say I have fewer photos or postcards of those two hydrofoils (none of my own), let alone drawings of that version. You could however adapt the ‘Fairlight’ drawings you have managed to obtain (presumably from the state archives?) with the help of any photos you can get.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-14-2002 – 7:49 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=309781]
                                                                                        PT-50 and PT-20 Models (Manly)

                                                                                            • Hello,
                                                                                            • I am a Hong Kong people.
                                                                                            • I was interseting in this model for few years.
                                                                                            • I have to plan for build it,but here have not enough information for build it ,also I not have quility to build it.
                                                                                            • I want to ask you that will you sell it ?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-22-2002 – 4:08 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Anthony Choi chixkei@netvigator.com, [Msgid=313028]
                                                                                        PT-50 and PT-20 Models (Manly)

                                                                                            • Hello,
                                                                                            • I am a Hong Kong people.
                                                                                            • I was interseting in this model for few years.
                                                                                            • I have to plan for build it,but here have not enough information for build it ,also I not have quility to build it.
                                                                                            • I want to ask you that will you sell it ?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-22-2002 – 4:09 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Anthony Choi chixkei@netvigator.com, [Msgid=313029]
                                                                                        PT-50 and PT-20 Models (Manly)

                                                                                            • Hello,
                                                                                            • I am a Hong Kong people.
                                                                                            • I was interseting in this model for few years.
                                                                                            • I have to plan for build it,but here have not enough information for build it ,also I not have quility to build it.
                                                                                            • I want to ask you that will you sell it ?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-22-2002 – 4:12 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Anthony Choi chixkei@netvigator.com, [Msgid=313030]
                                                                                        About PT-50 model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Now I am looking for a model of PT-50 Hyfrofoil.It is made in Japan model company which call Gunze Sangyo.If anyone can locate me to buy the model or directly sell to me .I can give a higher price for you.
                                                                                            • P.s.If anyone can find it ,please send a e-mail to me.
                                                                                            • Thanks.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-12-2002 – 8:38 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Antony Choi chixkei@netvigator.com, [Msgid=322522]
                                                                                        About PT-50 model

                                                                                            • Try eBay. It is amazing how many out of production model kits can be found there.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-13-2002 – 11:18 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Greg Bender glbender@erols.com, [Msgid=322911]
                                                                                        PHM / Jetfoil Model Plans

                                                                                            • I’m the person with the Jetfoil mouldings, of HMS Speedy 929-320 and the commercial 929-115-100. I’ve been working on the jetfoil model for many years, and I will soon be able to have a model fully working with ACS (My models of Jetfoil and PHM are 4ft / 1.2 m long).
                                                                                            • I worked with Martin Seymour on his model back in 1985. Jetfoil or PHM require the same type of system for automatic control. I have now sourced the outlets for Jetfoil control and hope soon to be testing. Back in 1985, there was a lack of knowledge of the systems for control, but these systems are now available. I expect to have some positive news in the spring of 2003 so watch this space. Also available will be mouldings for PT50, PT75, RHS 150/160/200 + PHM, complete and ready to run.
                                                                                            • I can confirm that I have all of the workshop manuals of Boeing Jetfoil and drawings. The ACS has been in my blood for years, and I have had a major breakthrough in the past few days.
                                                                                            • I am able to give advice on all aspects of Jetfoil and PHM for modeling.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-02-2002 – 12:03 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter Cahill struts@talk21.com, [Msgid=332437]
                                                                                        Microsail Link

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Was surfing your web site and thought your photos were excellent.
                                                                                            • I sail radio controlled 12 Meter yachts in Orlando Florida. A friend and designer who lives here has developed and produced a Tri-Foiler which would be a good thing to add to your collection and web site.
                                                                                            • Take a look at

                                                                                        http://www.microsail.com
                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-22-2002 – 5:14 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Tim Hopkins talltim@cfl.rr.com, [Msgid=341790]
                                                                                        Microsail Link

                                                                                            • Thanks Tim
                                                                                            • We appreciate the information and will add information of our links to other sites on our IHS Web pages. It looks pretty impressive.
                                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-23-2002 – 6:41 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Bill White whitewn@flash.net, [Msgid=342527]
                                                                                        600mm hydrofoil

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I’m a 23 year old sailmaker at North Sails New Zealand. I have been sailing for 18 years. I have been sailing IOM’s for a couple of years. I’m interested in building a 600mm hydrofoil. I know this seems small but there is a competition at work. The rules 600mm max length, 1050mm from top of the rig to bottom of the keel, and it must be a monohull. I have been searching the internet for information about hydrofoils, I’m interested in finding out more about altitude control system but am finding it hard to find something. Are there any tips, hints or anything that would be helpful?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-29-2003 – 9:34 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Scott Beavis sjbeavis@hotmail.com, [Msgid=369322]
                                                                                        Re; 600mm hydrofoil

                                                                                            • You should also browse through our email archives on the following page:

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm

                                                                                            • . In particular you may be interested in two postings entitled “Modelbuilding Scaling Lessons Learned”, one by Martin Grimm, the other by Ernst Zemann ( you will have to scroll down a bit to find these as they date back to December 2000.
                                                                                            • Good luck with your project, and by all means send us some photos and text for our newsletter when you are done.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-29-2003 – 9:36 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=369323]
                                                                                        Re; 600mm hydrofoil

                                                                                            • You might want to go to:

                                                                                        www.rcmultihulls.com

                                                                                            • the site for the multiONE(One Meter) website. I know you’re talking about a monohull but there is good info on foils on that site.
                                                                                            • So far no one has succesfully sailed a hydrofoil monohull KEELBOAT though I am right on the verge of doing so with a boat called “aeroSKIFF”. It has a canting keel for stability and features a mainfoil on the daggerboard and a foil on the rudder–two foils total.(also see:

                                                                                        www.monofoiler.com

                                                                                            • for full size monohulls(without ballast keels) on foils.
                                                                                            • Another project almost ready for testing is our “microMOTH(working name) that consists of a lightweight narrow 36″ by 4″ main hull and, again, a foil on the daggerboard and one on the rudder and NO ballast keel! For stability this boat uses a 28” wide “rack” with buoyancy pods on the ends to support the boat at rest. There is a debate as to whether it is a monohull or not but I say it is since the buoyancy pods do NOT support the boat when it is sailing.For sailing stabiity up to 3lb is moved across the rack very quickly…
                                                                                            • Very basic parameters that I know work are: around 50-60 sq. inches of sail for each square inch of main foil area; above a 150 sq.in.of sail per lb. of model displacement. Rudder foil about 1/2 area of main foil; mainfoil +2.5 degrees, rudder foil zero. Altitude control on my first models is MANUAL using a flap on the main foil; the ONE Meter site I mentioned has a description of a version of Dr. Sam Bradfields altitude control system I used (with permission) on the F3 hydrofoil model.
                                                                                            • Good luck and keep us informed! You can contact me directly at:

                                                                                        lorsail@webtv.net

                                                                                            • if you’d like.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-30-2003 – 8:47 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Doug Lord lorsail@webtv.net, [Msgid=369498]
                                                                                        Re; Re; 600mm hydrofoil

                                                                                            • Further to the message that Barney had sent you, it would also be worth your while looking at the MicroFoiler F3 model at the MicroSail! website:

                                                                                        http://www.microsail.com

                                                                                            • This 1.4m model trimaran hydrofoil was developed by Doug Lord with the help of Sam Bradfield. The concept could possibly be further scaled down to 600mm and adapted to a monohull arrangement with a cross beam to support the forward pair of foils, if that is permitted. It may however be more practical to adopt surface piercing foils as on the full scale French l’hydroptere (see:

                                                                                        http://perso.wanadoo.fr/terrasse.web/hydroptere800.html

                                                                                            • ) as these are self stabilizing and so would not need the tiny height sensor wands that you would require with a scaled-down version of a fully-submerged foil design such as the F3.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-02-2003 – 11:45 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=371006]
                                                                                        12 Inch Radio Controlled Hydrofoil

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • This 12-inches in length hydrofoil model was given to me in the early 1960s when I was about 14 years old. The mini hydrofoil was a Vacuum-form hull with plastic foils. The boat was intended to be driven by a simple motor and 2 cells. That was about the time when the James Bond 007

                                                                                        Thunderball

                                                                                            • film was first shown. The same type of hydrofoil flew in the movie.
                                                                                            • At that time no radio-control equipment or rechargeable cells of such small size were available yet. On one occassion I was amazed to see another boy free-run the same boat with 8 AA cells flying.
                                                                                            • I kept this boat as it was for another 30 years before getting around to adding R/C capability. I do not remember which might be the manufacturing company but I am sure it was a Japanese one, and it might be the Model Craft Clipper Co.
                                                                                            • In the 1990s, I was having fun with mini 1/24 Tamiya cars and later 1/200 Mini-japanese destroyers, radio-controlled of course. One day the childhood dream of making the mini-hydrofoil flies came back, so I started working.
                                                                                            • First I reinforced the PVC hull with a very thin layer of glass-epoxy. Hull,deck, and cabin were assembled with the boat opened from the canopy of the cabin so as to give the boat 15mm more critical side-wall. Radio-control gears were mounted in the rear section of hull, which was made completely water-proof. A Tamaya black-180 mini motor was soldered to the shaft-tube and geared to the shaft running a KNK 27mm plactic 2-blade propeller. The boat took six 270mah or six 500mah (short-type) cells. The foil was redesigned with adjustable collet soldered first to a thin copper plate then glued to the plastic foil with AA glue. The rudder sat left away from the propeller wash.
                                                                                            • Today, the boat has been untouched since 1996, and there is still one problem to solve – to make it turn left.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-02-2003 – 1:03 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter Cheung cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=371040]
                                                                                        Re; 12 Inch Radio Controlled Hydrofoil

                                                                                            • Thanks for the photos… I especially like your model test basin. It is not quite as fully featured as the model basin at David Taylor Research Lab, but it does the job, and the price is cheap!

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-02-2003 – 1:08 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=371043]
                                                                                        Re; 12 Inch Radio Controlled Hydrofoil

                                                                                            • Very cool model. I would love to see it run. It’s hard to tell from the low quality pictures, does the model have a rudder, or any kind of steering gear? You said you can’t get it to turn left. What appears to happen when you try?
                                                                                            • Thanks for sharing, Scott Smith

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-04-2003 – 7:05 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Scott Smith ssmith@syntheon.com, [Msgid=371915]
                                                                                        See and Hear it Run

                                                                                            • You can now see (and hear) it run. Peter Cheung kindly provided two video clips of his model in action. These clips are in *.mpg format; each is approx. 1 meg in file size and lasts for 6 seconds.
                                                                                            • Clip #1:

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/cheung1.mpg

                                                                                            • Clip #2:

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/cheung2.mpg
                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-07-2003 – 8:07 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=374282]
                                                                                        Buyer (and Seller) Beware

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Some of the commercially produced hydrofoil RC model kits have been long discontinued and are now quite rare and valuable. Recently, several people who posted messages here were contacted directly by email with an offer to sell a rare such model at a price in the hundreds of dollars. The individual making this offer was not a member of IHS and is not known to us. The offer may be perfectly legitimate. The price may be perfectly fair… IHS has no way of knowing, and we do not recommend or endorse products and services. This seems a good opportunity to remind our valued members and correspondents to be wary of responding to any unsolicited offer to sell valuable merchandise by e-mail. If, due to distance or other reason, you have no way to meet the seller under safe circumstances and see the merchandise before you buy, then you would be ill advised to provide personal information, give out your credit card number, or mail a payment in the hundreds of dollars in such a situation. For the legitimate seller with a valuable model or other item to sell who does not have an established internet business, I would recommend that you sell the item locally where people can view the item in a safe public location before buying. Or you can list your item for sale on eBay or other web-based auction site and earn the confidence of your potential buyers by offering to deal through the payment escrow feature offered on such sites. As the saying goes, “Let the Buyer Beware!” The legitimate seller should heed this warning also, and sell by a safe means… you do not want to get a bad check or a stolen credit card number in return for your valuable model!

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-17-2003 – 7:18 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=379512]
                                                                                        plese hepl with hydro

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • hi, friends, im looking for help to find cad or paper panes of hydro named Miss Budweiser, i need for made an 1/8 rc model, can anyone help me??? i heve been looking for more than 1 month but nothing, please send me mail at

                                                                                        armadillo@teleline.es

                                                                                            • we have an modelmakers building, prototipes, enginner, etc if any one need our services, contact or visit my web page

                                                                                        www.galeon.com/armadillo

                                                                                            • best regards
                                                                                            • fernando palacio

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-25-2003 – 5:48 AM]

                                                                                        Name:fernando palacio edreira armadillo@teleline.es, [Msgid=384434]
                                                                                        Re; Buyer (and Seller) Beware

                                                                                            • thanks , you are rigth, i surf the web and find many photos of this hydro, and several details, now im draving cad plans to my model,wil be post here the result when finish, a lot of work, but really enjoy them, regards from spain.
                                                                                            • fernando palacio

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-26-2003 – 4:56 PM]

                                                                                        Name:fernando palacio edreira armadillo@teleline.es, [Msgid=385462]
                                                                                        MISS BUDWEISER RC Model Plans

                                                                                            • I have not heard of anyone offering plans, but I can see why you want to build your own. The commercially manufactured R/C model of

                                                                                        MISS BUDWEISER

                                                                                            • is quite expensive. One just sold on eBay (item # 3116608353) for USD276.00. Here is the description taken from the eBay listing:
                                                                                            • “Miss Budweiser style hydrofoil remote control boat, 42 inches long, 14 inches wide with K&B 7.5cc outboard and all accessories. Radio is a Futuba Magnum Sport FP-T2PB with a 75.690 chip set, receiver is a Futuba FP-R112JE 2 channel with a futuba FP-S148 indirect drive servo and a system 2000 1/4 scale TS-72 servo. Also included is the starter and spare leg housing and prop . Great summer hobby , I haven’t run this machine but was told it will do over 50 MPH on smooth water!!”

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-26-2003 – 8:02 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=385555]
                                                                                        PT 50 Found

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I thought I’d write just to let you know that after 22 years of searching ( and 3 years since posting my original email on IHS) I have finally managed to find a Super Comet PT50 model. I was approached by email in response to my posting here, and I took a risk – after 22 years I thought it was worth it, and the model arrived today. It was found in a model shop in Italy, and it looks as though all of the parts are there including the assembly instructions and decals. I’ll post some pictures when completed – hopefully in a month or so. Thanks for your help in finding the model.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-26-2003 – 8:19 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Nick James ncjames2@cwgsy.net, [Msgid=385567]
                                                                                        Re; plese hepl with hydro

                                                                                            • Dear Fernando,
                                                                                            • The IHS is the International Hydrofoil Society. Miss Budwieser is a hydroplane. Hydroplanes are a form of racing boats sponsored by the American Power Boat Association. I would suggest you look at their web pages. I suspect obtaining drawings would be difficult since these racing teams do not want to disclose any of their secrets to maintain an edge on their competitors.
                                                                                            • S. Arima, IHS member

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-01-2003 – 10:07 PM]

                                                                                        Name:S. Arima ihs@foils.org, [Msgid=387384]
                                                                                        Re; About PT-50 model

                                                                                            • Dear Mr.Anthony CHOI,
                                                                                            • Are you still serious of buying PT50 model hydrofoil which was manufactured by Gunze Sangyo? I have one untouched still in box.
                                                                                            • Yours Sincerely,
                                                                                            • Peter CHEUNG
                                                                                            • 4th March,2003

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-04-2003 – 9:47 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter CHEUNG cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=388816]
                                                                                        Re; Re; About PT-50 model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • yes I still interest it.
                                                                                            • my email:chixkei@netvigator.com

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-04-2003 – 11:41 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Anthony Choi chixkei@netvigator.com, [Msgid=388901]
                                                                                        Re; PT 50 Found

                                                                                            • again

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-04-2003 – 11:24 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter CHEUNG cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=389427]
                                                                                        Attached File  “pt50movie5sec~MPG.zip” – size 884204   Click Here To Download
                                                                                        Re; Re; Re; About PT-50 model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Dear Mr. Anthony CHOI,
                                                                                            • Please see photos of model PT50 in Box.
                                                                                            • Peter CHEUNG.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-05-2003 – 10:17 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter CHEUNG cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=389631]
                                                                                        Attached File  “PT50BOXVCDPHOTO~MPG.zip” – size 18532   Click Here To Download
                                                                                        Re; Re; Re; About PT-50 model

                                                                                            • Photo again with box opened and boat seen inside.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-05-2003 – 11:07 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter CHEUNG cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=389661]
                                                                                        Attached File  “PT50BOXOPENWITHBOATPHOTO~MPG.zip” – size 16208   Click Here To Download
                                                                                        Re; Re; Re; Re; About PT-50 model

                                                                                            • I can’t view this video.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-05-2003 – 11:58 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Anthony Choi chixkei@netvigator.com, [Msgid=389691]
                                                                                        PT-50 Model FRECCIA dORO

                                                                                            • I live in Messina, Italy. I have built a PT 50 model in wood, to 1/20 scale. It’s propulsion is electric, but it can be equipped with two diesel motors. The hydrofoil model is an exact reproduction of the famous

                                                                                        FRECCIA D’ORO

                                                                                            • . For more information, contact me!

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-07-2003 – 7:05 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Vincenzo Annuario enzo.annuario@tin.it, [Msgid=391268]
                                                                                        RC Model Hydrofoil Plans Found

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I looked on various websites for a good/damaged Shockwave R/C model that I could reverse engineer and scale up in size, but I was unable to find anything at all. However, when searching the web for a starter/plan I did find through Traplet Publications a plan for a hydrofoil. It is the “Rapier” by Graham Taylor previously featured in “Marine Modelling Magazine” (also Traplet) The plan number is MAR2392, and it is also possible to acquire the copy of Marine Modelling Magazine through this company (issue no. 69 December ’92) that gives a build overview and other usefull building infomation. The plan and magazine combined cost about ?10. I’ve had mine on the go for about a two weeks now (I’m a patient builder!) and it’s coming along nicely.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=04-08-2003 – 8:34 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Mike Keen miket.keen@tiscali.co.uk, [Msgid=412916]
                                                                                        Re; RC Model Hydrofoil Plans Found

                                                                                            • Hi Mike, information about this magazine issue and several others devoted to hydrofoil models is posted in our correspondence archives at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/popmags.htm#mod

                                                                                            • . The website for Traplet publications is:

                                                                                        http://www.traplet.co.uk/

                                                                                            • . Graham Taylor’s most interesting website is at

                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/index%20ekranoplan%20man.html

                                                                                            • . You should not hesitate to contact him through his website if you have questions. Of course we would like to have photos and lessons learned for our newsletter when your model is perfected.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=04-08-2003 – 8:41 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=412926]
                                                                                        Condor I Model Kit

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Thought I’d just send you a picture of the completed Condor 1. The kit has been great fun to put together and was very well engineered despite the age of it. Trials have been extremely successful with the boat going straight up on its foils and even turning without coming off – a problem which I believe these models suffered from. I think the modern equipment I’ve used has helped – the motor is more efficient as is the electronic speed controller – and the weight has been reduced as well.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-02-2003 – 8:27 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Nick James ncjames2@cwgsy.net, [Msgid=446033]
                                                                                        Re; Condor I Model Kit

                                                                                            • Thanks Nick. We were not using the automated BBS yet when you first contacted IHS about wanting a model kit. Therefore I will reproduce below some of your previous correspondence as background:
                                                                                            • “[26 Feb 03] I thought I’d write just to let you know that after 22 years of searching ( and 3 years since posting my original email on IHS) I have finally managed to find a Super Comet PT50 model. I was approached by email in response to my posting here, and I took a risk – after 22 years I thought it was worth it, and the model arrived today. It was found in a model shop in Italy, and it looks as though all of the parts are there including the assembly instructions and decals. I’ll post some pictures when completed – hopefully in a month or so. Thanks for your help in finding the model.”
                                                                                            • Note that for those interested in hydrofoil models, there is a wealth of interesting correspondence in the pre-BBS archive on our page at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm
                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-02-2003 – 8:32 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=446038]
                                                                                        Russian Model Wanted

                                                                                            • We are in the high speed ferry business and have developed catamarans using fixed hydro supportive foils. I am looking for a completed model of a early hydrofoil, preferably Russian. Can you guide me as to where I may find this?
                                                                                            • Hydrocruiser Ventures, Box 438, Roadtown, Tortola, British Virgin Islands.

                                                                                        http://www.hydrocruiser.com
                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-02-2003 – 8:45 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Raymond Kalley RKalley@hydrocruiser.com, [Msgid=446043]
                                                                                        PT 50 Advice Needed

                                                                                            • I have one of these kits that I am looking at putting together. Do you have any more details about what you used and why? Could you send some pictures of the inside and outside of the boat?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-13-2003 – 5:44 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Kelly Cunningham kelly.cunningham@hrc.utah.edu, [Msgid=451950]
                                                                                        Tucumcari Model fror sale

                                                                                            • There is an unbuilt Tucumcari model from Aurora, on Ebay at the moment.

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=3135555936&category=2590

                                                                                            • Malin

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-17-2003 – 12:26 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Malin Dixon gallery@foils.org, [Msgid=454231]
                                                                                        PT50 model wanted

                                                                                            • I am after a Model of a PT50. Can anyone help? I require one for static viewing or a working model if anyone has one. I know they are hard to get but who knows what is out there.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-29-2003 – 6:40 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Adrian Moitie Adrianmoitie@aol.com, [Msgid=461561]
                                                                                        model of phm 5

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • trying to fine a model of phm-5 can any one help.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-30-2003 – 5:28 PM]

                                                                                        Name:roger barker from old phm-5 roger050@yahoo.com, [Msgid=462322]
                                                                                        Re; model of phm 5

                                                                                            • Check out this site,it’s not the PHM-5 but the Phm-4.

                                                                                        http://home.wanadoo.nl/~hydrofoils1/phm.htm

                                                                                            • The USS-Aquilla(Radio Controlled model).
                                                                                            • The model is build in a scale of 1:30,this makes her length 135 cm, beam 48 cm, and the weight is 14 kg.
                                                                                            • The model is build according to the original drawings of the Boeing company.
                                                                                            • In that time there where no propulsion jets fore such big models.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-02-2003 – 2:39 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Capt M van Rijzen dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl, [Msgid=463453]
                                                                                        Re; model of phm 5

                                                                                            • White Ensign Models offers a 1/350 model PEGASUS kit. The kit consists of of a cast resin hull, with white metal and photoetched parts. The kit includes comprehensive assembly and painting instructions. You could build that, change the number, and tweak the details main deck and above. The website is at

                                                                                        www.whiteensignmodels.com

                                                                                            • . The postal address is: White Ensign Models, Gardeners Cottage, Cowarne Court, Lower Eggleton, Ledbury, Herefordshire, HR8 2UF, U.K. The cost of the model is in British Pounds equivalent to about $35.50 USD, including air shipment worldwide.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-03-2003 – 5:31 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=463803]
                                                                                        Helo Blades as RC Model Foils

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I intend to build an R/C model hydrofoil from scratch. Reading your website increases my interest in building my model. The “only” problem is the foils. Does anyone know how to use blades from an RC model helicopter as foils on a hydrofoil boat model? The effect of the slow running water must be similar to the air at a helicopter.
                                                                                            • What do you think?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-28-2003 – 6:55 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Tom Delling stennis@t-online.de, [Msgid=477683]
                                                                                        Re; Helo Blades as RC Model Foils

                                                                                            • Hello Tom,
                                                                                            • Your idea to use the blades from RC model helicopters for a hydrofoil model project makes good sense. This lask weekend I had a look at some model helicopters and also thought the blades could be suitable for RC hydrofoil models. Some of the higher performance model helicopter blades are now built up using a foam core and thin carbon fibre skins. These would be tough enough to cope with the occasional impact if used on a hydrofoil model. Some of the potential drawbacks of using helicopter model blades may be:
                                                                                            • 1. They seem to have a chord length of 50mm or more, even for the smaller helicopter models. You would therefore need to consider building a fairly large scale hydrofoil model for these blades to be in reasonable proportion to the rest of the model.
                                                                                            • 2. They have a quite large thickness to chord ratio, perhaps 10% or greater. This is more than typical required for the profile for a model hydrofoil. Although this should not be of much concern, there is likely to be a drag penalty in comparison to thinner section foils.
                                                                                            • 3. They typically appear to have symmetrical profiles (same shape for top and bottom of blade). You would get a somewhat better lift to drag ratio using a cambered foil shape.
                                                                                            • 4. Some of the less expensive blades still use balsa wood cores. Such blades would probably swell up and distort if immersed in water for a longer time.
                                                                                            • An alternative that I am aware has been used successfully by some hydrofoil modellers is to purchase an aluminium ‘crescent’ extrusion. These are usually used for applications such as joint strips between carpet and lino flooring in houses. You may be able to obtain short lengths of such sections from a hardware shop or metal retailer. They come in widths (chord lengths) between about 30mm and 45mm.
                                                                                            • If you go ahead and make use of model helicopter blades for your hydrofoil model, please report back on how they perform. Using them would certainly reduce the time and effort needed to build a hydrofoil model.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-29-2003 – 10:11 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=478064]
                                                                                        Re; Helo Blades as RC Model Foils

                                                                                            • Here are some rough ideas on how to calculate the lift of model helicopter blades when used as hydrofoils.
                                                                                            • First you must have some idea as to the coefficient of lift for a blade of the cross section you have chosen.
                                                                                            • Let?s assume the blade?s profile is asymmetrical and its thickness is 12% of the cord. An example of this type of wing would be a NACA 4412. From theory of Wing Sections, by Abbott and Doenhoff, you will see that the change in the coefficient of lift (Cl) will be linear from minus 10 degrees angle of attack (AOA) to 12 degrees AOA. At ?10 degrees the Cl is -.67. At 12 degrees the Cl is 1.55. Draw a graph with a line between these two points and you will know what Cl you have for any useable AOA. For example, 2 degrees AOA will generate a Cl of .6
                                                                                            • To find the lift for any assumed AOA use the simplified lift formula L = F U^2 S Cl.
                                                                                            • Where L is lift.
                                                                                            • F is a factor and that factor is 2.09.
                                                                                            • U is the velocity in MPH.
                                                                                            • S is the area of the foil in feet^2.
                                                                                            • Cl is the coefficient of lift from your graph.
                                                                                            • So if you choose a foil of one tenth of a square foot flying at 10 MPH and the coefficient of lift is .6 (that is to say you have an angle of attack of 2 degrees) you will have lift of 2.09 x 10 x 10 x .1x .6 = 12.54 pounds.
                                                                                            • You know that the lift required is equal to the weight of your model. Now that you have the formula you can change the various assumptions to arrive at the lift required.
                                                                                            • Good luck.
                                                                                            • Ray Vellinga

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-30-2003 – 1:50 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Ray Vellinga rvell@san.rr.com, [Msgid=478612]
                                                                                        Grumman Concept Display Model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I saw this interesting display model for sale on eBay. The description reads as follows: “Offered here is a rare and unusual manufacturer’s model made by the Grumman Corporation. No date appears anywhere on the model, but appears to be from the 1960s. The model is a scale prototype of a “Hydrofoil Research Craft”. I do not believe that such a craft ever really was built, but it was to be 104 ft. long with a beam of 23 ft. She was to weigh 90 tons with a top speed of 60 knots. This desk-top model is approximately 14″ long. The base is made from solid walnut and measures about 5″ X 16″. The model is heavy, and appears to be constructed from cast metal and solid cast resin. The side foils hinge up, and the motor assembly in the stern also hinges up.”
                                                                                            • The auction ends August 10, 2003. Here is a link to the page on eBay:

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=2186468518&ssPageName=ADME:B:SS:US:1

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-04-2003 – 6:00 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=481632]
                                                                                        Re; Grumman Concept Display Model

                                                                                            • It appears to be a model of the hydrofoil “Denison” built by Grumman. I have a photo of her foilborn and was onboard her in the late sixties early seventies when she was in a cradle at San Diego.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-05-2003 – 1:58 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Dale Beresford dalkar1@msn.com, [Msgid=482171]
                                                                                        Re; Grumman Concept Display Model

                                                                                            • I am attaching a photo of the hydrofoil “Denison” which I think is the ship the model represents.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=08-05-2003 – 2:03 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Dale Beresford dalkar1@msn.com, [Msgid=482175]
                                                                                        pt 50 model

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • i would like to rebuild a pt 50 hydrofoil model i would like to know if you know someone who has one for sale or information on how to rebuild one

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-21-2003 – 11:27 AM]

                                                                                        Name:scott llewellyn Lljulie499@aol.com, [Msgid=529061]
                                                                                        pt50 model wanted

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • i have been wanting a pt 50 hydrofoilo for about 1 year now and i was wondering if you know where i could buy one or rebuild one

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-21-2003 – 11:45 AM]

                                                                                        Name:scott llewellyn Lljulie499@aol.com, [Msgid=529070]
                                                                                        pt 50 model wanted

                                                                                            • i have been looking for a pt 50 rc hydrofoil model i was wondering whever you know any places or people who could help with my search. i also want to rebuild one so do you know where they might be selling them or you have some prints that could help[ me rebuild one

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-21-2003 – 12:12 PM]

                                                                                        Name:scott llewellyn Lljulie499@aol.com, [Msgid=529086]
                                                                                        Re; pt 50 model

                                                                                            • Try Ebay.com for a PT-50 RC model,look for hydrofoil.
                                                                                            • My colleague found one on ebay.de (germany)look for Tragfl?chenboot.
                                                                                            • But most germans ship only in germany.
                                                                                            • If you want to build one try to get good plans,
                                                                                            • and photo’s.
                                                                                            • Good luck!!!

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-22-2003 – 5:42 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Capt M van Rijzen dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl, [Msgid=529748]
                                                                                        Re; pt 50 model

                                                                                            • This will not be easy to find. Take a look at the IHS pages at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm

                                                                                            • and

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/models.htm

                                                                                            • for names and email addresses of people active in hydrofoil modeling. According to one correspondent Nick James, he searched for 22 years before finding a Super Comet PT-50 model (

                                                                                        CONDOR I

                                                                                            • ) in Italy. He took a chance and bought it. There is a photo of the completed R/C model on the IHS site.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-25-2003 – 7:55 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=532304]
                                                                                        PHM; Patrol Hydrofoil Missileship

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • For sale:PHM: Patrol Hydrofoil Missileship!!!
                                                                                            • Check:

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.de/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=3566908874&category=9160

                                                                                            • This is a Radio Controlled model of the USS Aquilla, one of the PHM class hydrofoils used by the US navy.
                                                                                            • The model is build in a scale of 1:30, this makes her length 135 cm, beam 48 cm, and the weight is 12 kg.
                                                                                            • The model is build according to the original drawings of the Boeing company.
                                                                                            • The aft foil can be controlled by a servo and gyro.
                                                                                            • If you take away the deckgun, you can see the bowtruster and the mechanism to steer the bow foil.
                                                                                            • the deckgun and radar rotate the Bow foil is used for steering it has a bowthruster (Bugschraube) for maneuvering
                                                                                            • Deck, deckhouse and foils are made of aluminium.
                                                                                            • Included:
                                                                                            • – Model
                                                                                            • – mould, to make a new PHM hull
                                                                                            • – photobook, with many original photo’s
                                                                                            • – many original drawings of the complete ship from boeing
                                                                                            • – 18 cell NiCd 4 Amp!!! (25,2V)
                                                                                            • – 4 cell NiCd 4,8 V for receiver
                                                                                            • – 4 cell NiCd 4,8 V for bowthruster
                                                                                            • – receiver

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-20-2003 – 5:48 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Capt M van Rijzen dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl, [Msgid=547275]
                                                                                        32nd Parallel Schnellboot Hull Source

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • What I have for you is information about the WWII Schnellboot. 32nd Parallel is out of business. However, there are two companies currently manufacturing fiberglass hulls for this boat and selling the hulls with some drawings (not a kit). This assumes some scratch building. They are: from England: (1/30th scale) Kingston Mouldings: email:

                                                                                        kingston.rw@lineone.net

                                                                                            • website: KingstonMouldings.co.uk
                                                                                            • The other one is an American company: (1/32nd scale) Microglass (you’ll find it if you use a search engine.) I am building the one from Kingston Mouldings.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-27-2003 – 10:50 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Steve Ebel stebel@stannslonggrove.org, [Msgid=550950]
                                                                                        re;

                                                                                            • Hello
                                                                                            • Here is another company that sells a VS8 in 25th scale.

                                                                                        http://www.harhaus.de/neuheiten2003.htm

                                                                                            • . It is located in Germany.
                                                                                            • about $1200 for a full kit without ship.
                                                                                            • Antoine

                                                                                        [Date/Time=12-05-2003 – 5:53 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Antoine Lenormand antoine.lenormand@wanadoo.fr, [Msgid=554852]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “schell06.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Re; PHM; Patrol Hydrofoil Missileship

                                                                                            • possible to ship to the U.S.? possible to trade for unbilt kits of 32nd schnellboot and Hegi police boat hydrofoil , and cash? please reply thanks .

                                                                                        [Date/Time=12-22-2003 – 4:17 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Stephen Mc Donald shark15@optonline.net, [Msgid=562352]
                                                                                        Re; PHM; Patrol Hydrofoil Missileship

                                                                                            • sorry ! just realized that you already sold the missileship. if you should come up with another please e-mail thanks. steve

                                                                                        [Date/Time=12-22-2003 – 4:32 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Stephen Mc Donald shark15@optonline.net, [Msgid=562357]
                                                                                        re;

                                                                                            • Hi Steve
                                                                                            • I am the happy owner of that beauty. The builder (Ronald) did a marvellous job. I would be happy to share some pics with people interested. I am modifying it with the original foils and waterjet propulsion. It will have an automatic control in roll and pitch to help during foilborne runs.
                                                                                            • Antoine

                                                                                        [Date/Time=12-24-2003 – 1:29 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Antoine Lenormand antoine.lenormand@wanadoo.fr, [Msgid=562900]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “PHM4_2.JPG”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Re; re; PHM model pics

                                                                                            • can’t open the jpeg

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-01-2004 – 11:11 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Dan Schmidt gse2schmidt@hotmail.com, [Msgid=565629]
                                                                                        cRe; Re; re; PHM model pics

                                                                                            • If you want I can send some pics by email.
                                                                                            • Antoine

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-03-2004 – 11:08 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Antoine Lenormand antoine.lenormand@wanadoo.fr, [Msgid=566157]
                                                                                        Re; pt 50 model

                                                                                            • HI,
                                                                                            • I have just seen on in ebay.
                                                                                            • Peter from Hong Kong

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-15-2004 – 12:04 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter CHEUNG www.cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=571745]
                                                                                        Re; pt50 model wanted

                                                                                            • Hello there,
                                                                                            • I have just seen a PT50 hydrofoil model in ebay and its item number is 3169557927.
                                                                                            • Hoping that this information would be helpfulto you and good day.
                                                                                            • Peter from Hong Kong

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-15-2004 – 6:28 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter CHEUNG www.cckkww@hotmail.com, [Msgid=571824]
                                                                                        Re; Re; pt 50 model

                                                                                            • Hello Peter , I am a member of the hydrofoil society and I was wondering , after seeing your message , where can I see and bid on this PT 50. On which E-Bay is it on? Thanks Stephen Mc Donald

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-15-2004 – 3:32 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Stephen Mc Donald shark15@optonline.net, [Msgid=572094]
                                                                                        Re; Re; pt 50 model

                                                                                            • Hello again Peter , I just found the item your were talking about on E-Bay , thank you very much for bringing this to our attention. If you should ever need anything from this side of the world please just E-Mail . Thanks again Steve

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-15-2004 – 4:00 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Stephen Mc Donald shark15@optonline.net, [Msgid=572107]
                                                                                        Re; Re; pt50 model wanted

                                                                                            • Just to let everyone know that the PT50 Model went for over $900.00 on e-bay!!! Wow
                                                                                            • Rod Clayards IHS Member

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-01-2004 – 5:52 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Rod Clayards rodbev@shaw.ca, [Msgid=582129]
                                                                                        RC PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am in the process of undertaking the construction of a 6′ Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus. My father was a Chief (ETC Nosek was his rate I believe) on the first crew, and I stood on the pier as a 9 year old kid on her first arrival to Key West. (Man, how the Coast Guard scratched their heads when she broke the horizon!) I would like to know if anyone has a copy of schematics, or technical drawings for her or the others. Due to the fact that she’s gone and I’ll never see her fly again, I want to build one that will. Also, since some of the correspondance on your pages are dated, what ever came of the others that were due to be scrapped. Are there anymore out there. Feel free to contact me at

                                                                                        laseredgt01@aol.com

                                                                                            • . Thanks, TDM

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-04-2004 – 3:54 PM]

                                                                                        Name:T.D. Mehl laseredgt01@aol.com, [Msgid=607827]
                                                                                        6` Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am in the process of undertaking the construction of a 6′ Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus.? My father was a Chief (ETC was his rate I believe) on the first crew, and I stood on the pier as a 9 year old kid on her first arrival to Key West.? (Man, how the Coast Guard scratched their heads when she broke the horizon!)? I would like to know if anyone has a copy of schematics, or technical drawings for her or the others.? Due to the fact that she’s gone and I’ll never see her fly again, I want to build one that will.? Also, since some? of the correspondance on your pages are dated, what ever came of the others that were due to be scrapped.? Are there anymore out there.? Feel free to contact me at

                                                                                        laseredgt01@aol.com

                                                                                            • .? Thanks, TDM

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-04-2004 – 7:59 PM]

                                                                                        Name:TDM laseredgt01@aol.com, [Msgid=607933]
                                                                                        6` Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • Several documents with PHM technical information are included on the IHS AMV CD-ROMs including the original Builders Spec. I see that Floating Drydock is offering a set of PHM Hull faired lines and stations at 1/48 scale for $12. See their web page at

                                                                                        http://www.floatingdrydock.com/HULL.htm

                                                                                            • . White Ensign Models offers a PHM kit. See their website at

                                                                                        http://www.whiteensignmodels.com/

                                                                                            • . They sell their kit direct from the website, and they also have dealers that sell their products. See the following website for photos of a completed kit and hints for building:

                                                                                        http://steelnavy.com/wem_pegasus.htm

                                                                                            • . Hope this is helpful. Please send photos and description of your model in process and finished for the IHS newsletter. Send to

                                                                                        editor@foils.org
                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-12-2004 – 7:36 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black barney@alum.mit.edu, [Msgid=612693]
                                                                                        Re; RC PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • See the IHS correspondence archive page at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/restore.htm

                                                                                            • for PHM contacts. One PHM is floating in Missouri. Last I heard, all or most of the others were in Wilmington, NC and were slowly being scrapped by their owner, an individual.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-12-2004 – 7:41 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black barney@alum.mit.edu, [Msgid=612697]
                                                                                        6` Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • I just recalled that there is a guy who periodically sells copies of a drawing “OUTBOARD, OVERHEAD PROFILE & BODY PLAN” on eBay, if this would be of any help. His description is as follows:”Size of drawing is 23″W x 102″L. Scan on EBAY photo is terrible; drawing is very crispy, sharp. Buyer pays with US or Canadian Postal Money Order (US funds please!); shipping & handling is $ 10.50 within a rolled tube to 48 US states; Hawaii, Alaska or Canadian destination are $ 16.50 S/H. Overseas shipping on a case by case basis.” He has a copy up for auction now, item no. 2232579032 and the auction ends Mar 22. But if you miss this one, he will auction another copy soon. His eBay nickname is drydockjoe. You can contact him directly with questions by becoming an eBay member (free) and using the search feature to find him.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-16-2004 – 5:06 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black barney@alum.mit.edu, [Msgid=614939]
                                                                                        PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • Gentlemen,
                                                                                            • Progress has come along nicely on the 6’6″ PHM-1 Pegasus. I know have a 24″ wide 6’9″ block of foam in order to to start shaping the Pegasus hull. I have secured the required HydroJet engines to push the boat once she is 14.4″ out of the water. I will build her out of carbon fiber. If the real Pegasus would do 60-70mph, I won’t rest until mine will do at least that! I have the radar guns ready. I will supply pictures once they are ready of the boat as she progresses. If I get a RC hydrofoil to do 70mph she will make the cover of magazines, everybody get ready for the stir! Anyone here remember my Dad? ETCS Lawrence Nosek, he was a 1st Class in Bremerton, then picked up Cheif, and Snr Chf before we left Key West in approx.’83. Thanks, and all of your suggestions, and pointers have been most helpful. Thanks, Troy Mehl

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-17-2004 – 12:36 AM]

                                                                                        Name:T.D. Mehl laseredgt01@aol.com, [Msgid=615563]
                                                                                        PT-50 For sell

                                                                                            • I have a PT-50 Super Comet kit for sell on ebay. The kit is new, in the box.

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=3186991152&category=2564&sspagename=STRK%3AMESSE%3AIT&rd=1
                                                                                        [Date/Time=04-08-2004 – 7:44 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Kelly kcunning@hrc.utah.edu, [Msgid=628494]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “IMG_00072.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Plans for Kometa Model Needed

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • On your website I found model of Russian Meteor produced somewhere in Italy. Can you provide me more details – contacts – or do you know who hs a plans for such hydrofoil?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-31-2004 – 8:16 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Peter Caha pcaha@franklinfueling.com, [Msgid=656324]
                                                                                        Re; Plans for Kometa Model Needed

                                                                                            • I believe you refer to the large model produced by Siderea in Rome. It was sold by Mantua Model, Italy. Photos and information about this model are provided by IHS correspondent Ho Sing in the IHS archives at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm

                                                                                            • (scroll down to find photos and messages). You may want to contact Ho Sing and some of the correspondents who answered his posting. There is a scan of the model kit directions at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/mantua1.jpg

                                                                                            • .

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-31-2004 – 8:27 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black bblack11@cox.net, [Msgid=656326]
                                                                                        Re; Plans for Kometa Model Needed

                                                                                            • Well, what do you want to know?? I own one,and have two drawing in 1:2 scale.

                                                                                        http://home.wanadoo.nl/~hydrofoils1/kometa.htm

                                                                                            • I hope I can help you.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-02-2004 – 8:00 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Mark van Rijzen dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl, [Msgid=657936]
                                                                                        Introduction of my R/CHydrofoilsModels wo

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Hello. Mr.International Hydrofoil Society WEV master — I am Yoichi Takahashi is living in Kyoto by the radio control ship modeler of Japan On WEB,HP of an international hydrovane was discovered in the meantime, and itvisited it several times. I think that it is glad from very interesting contents. From several year before, although I was tackling radio control modeling of a hydrofoil, I succeeded in radio control-ization of the hydrofoil of 2 boats lately. Then, I contribute to your HP and think that I would like the modeler in the world to know. Since image data sends, please give me introduction by all means by HP. One is 1/40 of the scale models of the Boeing jetfoil. Sailing of all rejection type hydrofoils was realized by carrying out attitude control using the small gyroscope for model radio control helicopters. Although the promotion method was a propeller system, hydrovane control theory developed originally. The 2nd is the hydrovane patrol guided missile of the Maritime Self Defense Force of Japan. This ship realized surfacing sailing using the hydrovane by the same water jet promotion as thing. The water jet pump is using the miniature turbine pump of a full its original work. The hydrovane control theory of original development andthe gyroscope for model radio control helicopters are used also for this,and it stabilizes and runs by surface control. All run power by the electric motor of a nickel-Cd battery drive of 7.2V. Since the snap oftwo pictures and me is sent, please give me printing in the section ofthe radio control hydrofoil your homepage. In addition, you may alsocarry my E mail address. Thank you for your consideration. About my R/C hydrofoil, if there is a question, please inform the following and E mail address. Above yoichi takahashi

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-12-2004 – 1:28 AM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=663149]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “scan0001.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • The 2nd work of my R/C model hydrofoil is introduced. The 2nd is the hydrovane patrol guided missile of the
                                                                                            • Maritime Self Defense Force of Japan. This ship realized surfacing
                                                                                            • sailing using the hydrovane by the same water jet promotion as thing.
                                                                                            • The water jet pump is using the miniature turbine pump of a full its
                                                                                            • original work. The hydrovane control theory of original development and
                                                                                            • the gyroscope for model radio control helicopters are used also for this,
                                                                                            • and it stabilizes and runs by surface control.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-12-2004 – 1:54 AM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=663155]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “missilefoil.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction 1 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • One is 1/40 of
                                                                                            • the scale models of the Boeing jetfoil. Sailing of all rejection type
                                                                                            • hydrofoils was realized by carrying out attitude control using the small gyroscope for model radio control helicopters. Although the promotion method was a propeller system, hydrovane control theory developed originally.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-12-2004 – 2:00 AM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=663156]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “jetfoil.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction 3 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • My snap and I developed over the time for three years. Boeing jetfoil Recently image of 1 / 40 scale R/C model

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-12-2004 – 2:08 AM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=663157]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “DSCF0011.JPG”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        6` Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • Well here are images of a PHM model on motor pods.

                                                                                        http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=41502&page=9&pp=15

                                                                                            • RCgroups is a nice BBS format if anyone wants to try to incorporate it into this site. I find this style of bbs, the phpBB Group, and Invision Power Boards very easy on the eyes.
                                                                                            • Also, I recommend the plans from floating drydock. My “engineer” has finished his 1-1 airplane build and has begun to focus on the model PHM project. We are not headed toward anything as large as six feet though.
                                                                                            • Here is an image of his engine and jet pump in the cardboard model of the stern that I produced for him.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-14-2004 – 1:02 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=664081]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “Pump01.JPG”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction of my R/CHydrofoilsModels wo

                                                                                            • Hello Yoichi Takahashi, thank you very much for sharing these exciting photos and inventive designs. I hope that the editor of the IHS newsletter will publish these photos in the next edition and that the photo gallery editor will display them on the website. You have done some excellent work!

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-14-2004 – 8:37 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black bblack11@cox.net, [Msgid=664286]
                                                                                        6` Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • Hi Aimee, thanks for that URL with the excellent series of photos on the model PHM. Also, it is great to hear that you are starting on your PHM model after all these years of contemplation! For some reason I was not able to view the photo you attached to your posting, though… I am not sure why… maybe damaged in uploading.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-14-2004 – 8:44 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black bblack11@cox.net, [Msgid=664288]
                                                                                        6` Radio Controlled PHM-1 Pegasus

                                                                                            • I have noticed that same problem with other uploaded images on this board. I will upload it again, if it doesn’t work, I will post it at the R/C groups site.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-15-2004 – 12:46 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=664561]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “Pump01.JPG”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        What model wetbike do I have

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I have a Spirit Marine Suzuki made moter and it says wetbike on the handlebars. It was given to my Dad years ago, then he have it to me last week. I do have a serial #. How do I find out what year model I have. Thanks for your help.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-22-2004 – 11:45 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Darlene Chancery bobdarcy2001@yahoo.com, [Msgid=667971]
                                                                                        Re; What model wetbike do I have

                                                                                            • Look at the WetBike’s serial number located on the rear of the craft(not the state’s registration number). US Standardized serial numbers use the first 3 letters (WJW for Wetco) to denote the boat manufacturer. The last 2 digits are the model year. Many WetBikes are late 70’s and early 80’s.
                                                                                            • The engine is a product of Suzuki of Japan, so US parts may not fit. Suzuki gave me Ultranautics (800 356-0777) for replacement parts.
                                                                                            • The WetBike was a lot of fun to ride and drew a lot of looks. It handled more like a motorcycle than jet ski. However, the WetBike is not a hydrofoil. The foils ride on the surface of the water like a wakeboard. I have an ’85 model stored in my shop.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=06-23-2004 – 3:03 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barry Steele barry_steele@yahoo.com, [Msgid=668696]
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • Utsukushi desu!!
                                                                                            • ?????m san
                                                                                            • If Possible could you provide pictures of the water intakes, engine, pump and controls inside your Spaverio model.
                                                                                            • Aimee Eng

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-01-2004 – 1:29 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=673211]
                                                                                        Nikko R/C Hydrofoil for sale

                                                                                            • Hello,
                                                                                            • I have a Nikko Radio Controlled Hydrofoil currently on auction at ebay. Please have a look. There is No Reserve on the auction! This is a discontinued item!

                                                                                        http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&category=2564&item=5907840509&rd=1&ssPageName=WDVW
                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-06-2004 – 8:49 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Kenji Watabe kenjiwaterbee@hotmail.com, [Msgid=675438]
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • Hello. Mr,Aimee Eng.
                                                                                            • Responding to your request, the picture of the water intake of my hydrovane patrol guided missile?@ship and an inboard mechanism is sent here. A water intake is the same structure as real ship. The electric motor which drives the waterway and water jet pump to a pump is carried in the inside.
                                                                                            • Above

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-10-2004 – 8:59 PM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=677558]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “WateIntakes.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • Arigato Gozaimasu. Shashin ii desu.
                                                                                            • (demo watashi onna desu.)
                                                                                            • Thank you for posting the new images. However, they bring up more questions.
                                                                                            • Does the entire waterway inside the boat fill up with water, and remain full as the boat runs?
                                                                                            • Does it siphon feed fresh water or does it rely on forward speed to supply the intake.
                                                                                            • You mention the motor supplying the waterway and jetpump are there two impellers? One to draw water into the waterway and one to push the boat forward?
                                                                                            • Shitsureishimasu
                                                                                            • Aimee Eng

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-11-2004 – 9:08 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=677894]
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • Hi! Aimee Eng san conbanwa!
                                                                                            • I reply to your question.
                                                                                            • If a hydrofoil is soaked in the water surface, water permeates from a water intake and the injection mouth of a jet pump. The water will
                                                                                            • small air slightly into a water duct, and will fill most. If rotation of a turbine pump increases in order to start a ship, with jet injection of water, the air in a water duct will serve as a bubble, and will be discharged. Therefore, it is filled with water at the time of a foil born, and the inside of a duct can supply water to a turbojet pump continuously. It inhales with the amount of injections of a turbojet pump, and quantity and hull speed need to carry out the design which maintained balance in relation to mutual for efficient and continuous operation of a turbojet pump. Since the illustration in order to help an understanding is appended, please refer to. Then,
                                                                                            • PS: It is very good at Japanese in your Roman alphabet. Can Japanese be spoken?
                                                                                            • Above

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-17-2004 – 10:09 AM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=681043]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “hidrofoil-1.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • Mo arigato gozaimasu
                                                                                            • I can speak a little Japanese, but my vocabulary is small.
                                                                                            • Since my friend has again gone flying, the PHM project is halted on account of good weather.
                                                                                            • I had intended to start a PT-50 project to fill the hydrofoil project time, as they are “v” foils and propeller driven. An easier project.
                                                                                            • However you have inspired me to attempt another jet drive on my own. And make this an electric project.
                                                                                            • Here are the frames I cut today.
                                                                                            • Left PT-50
                                                                                            • Right Sparviero Missle hydrofoil

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-17-2004 – 2:50 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=681182]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “P1010022copy.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        Introduction 2 my R/CHydrofoilsModels

                                                                                            • Here is today’s progress on the Sparviero Missle foil hull.
                                                                                            • It is sheeted and ready for fiberglass.


                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-18-2004 – 9:57 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=681592]
                                                                                         Image Attached:  “P1010027a.jpg”   Click Here To View
                                                                                        RHS 160 F- Foil Arrangement

                                                                                            • I want to build a RHS 160F and so I am searching for detailed plans, also of the foil arrangement. I am searching for a side view, a top view and a front view. Perhaps anyone can help me.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-19-2004 – 5:17 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Felix Marsteller marsteller.honnef@t-online.de, [Msgid=681975]

                                                                                        PRIOR TO 2002:

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Correspondence Archives…

                                                                                        Radio Controlled (R/C) Model Hydrofoils, Power & Sail
                                                                                        Discussion, Advice, Information Sharing, Lessons Learned, and Networking(Last Update 2 Jun 03)


                                                                                        Correspondence

                                                                                        Buyer (and Seller) Beware!

                                                                                        [17 Feb 03] Some of the commercially produced hydrofoil RC model kits have been long discontinued. Recently, several people who posted messages here were contacted directly by email with an offer to sell a rare such model at a price in the hundreds of dollars. The individual making this offer was not a member of IHS and is not known to us. The offer may be perfectly legitimate. The price may be perfectly fair… IHS has no way of knowing, and we do not recommend or endorse products and services. This seems a good opportunity to remind our valued members and correspondents to be wary of responding to any unsolicited offer to sell valuable merchandise by e-mail. If, due to distance or other reason, you have no way to meet the seller under safe circumstances and see the merchandise before you buy, then you would be ill advised to provide personal information, give out your credit card number, or mail a payment in the hundreds of dollars in such a situation. For the legitimate seller with a valuable model or other item to sell who does not have an established internet business, I would recommend that you sell the item locally where people can view the item before buying in a safe public location. Or you can list your item for sale on eBay or other web-based auction site and earn the confidence of your potential buyers by offering to deal through the payment escrow feature offered on such sites. As the saying goes, “Let the Buyer Beware!” The legitimate seller should heed this warning also, and sell by a safe means… you do not want to get a bad check or a stolen credit card number in return for your valuable model! — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        New Sailing Hydrofoil RC Model From MicroSAIL

                                                                                        [14 Apr 02] microSAIL! is about to introduce a new radio controlled model, the aeroSKIFF. The boat has a very fast canting keel (52 degrees/one second) for stability and a dagger board just forward of the keel strut for lateral resistance. This boat is significant because it is the first KEELBOAT, to the best of our knowledge, either full size or models to sail on hydrofoils–and only two foils at that! There is a main hydrofoil on the daggerboard and one on the rudder; altitude is controlled by a slightly modified version of Dr. Sam Bradfield’s wand system. We are patenting a version of the aeroSKIFF concept for use on large monohulls such as Open 60’s and feel that our system can revolutionize monohull sailing. This type of boat, a MONOFOILER(tm) will never be as fast as a multihull foiler but it can create a unique niche for itself as a very fast single hull sailboat. We would be interested if anyone has heard of or seen — and can document — another ballasted keelboat (full size or model) having sailed on foils. — Doug Lord (lorsail@webtv.net)

                                                                                        Kometa R/C Model – Help Needed

                                                                                        [24 Mar 02] I inherited an antique fiberglass model of the Kometa Hydrofoil (It was sold by Mantua Model, Italy, made by a small company Siderea in Rome). The model is almost 5 feet long, and seems to be built for R/C, it also has scale features (white metal window frames, lifesavers, fittings) as it has comes with a sturdy gearbox to drive 2 contra rotating props (Engine size is supposed to be a .60 – .90 glow). It comes with all the foils (extruded aluminum and curved), and foil legs (cast metal). The kit has features to be totally scale (white metal window frames, lifesavers, radar, etc). One part of the planning is my primary concern about the total weight, and CG, other details include: size of rudder, rudder placement, cooling, etc. Alas, no instructions! The picture of the bare hull is attached. I was wondering if anyone had come across this, and what were their experiences building and running this kit? — Ho Sing, Singapore (hos888@pop.singnet.com.sg)

                                                                                         

                                                                                         Responses…

                                                                                        [29 Jun 02] May be these pictures will help you! Can you send the foil’s drawings? — Michael Moizhes (muphaz_a@messilot.org.il)

                                                                                        Click Here for Larger Version

                                                                                        [29 Jun 02] Click Here for a scan of instructions for the Mantua Model Kometa-M kit. Click Here for a photo of the piece parts. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        [15 May 03] Just for your information a hydrofoil like your model is sailing between Dar Es Salaam and Zanzibar Tanzania transporting passengers-it was imported from Russia — Johannes Pedersen (jhp@nccaarsleff.com) <jhp@nccaarsleff.com></jhp@nccaarsleff.com>

                                                                                        PT-50 Model Wanted

                                                                                        [15 Mar 02] I have been looking for the PT 50 model for a long time. I would like to know if you can tell me where I could get the PT50 kit? or maybe you know someone that would like to sell me one. — Felix (felix9@harborside.com)

                                                                                        Response…[15 Mar 02] The problem is that the model in not being made any more since 1984 (I guess). A while ago I saw one one on eBay being sold for US$295. The best way is to find drawings of the PT-50 ,and build it yourself. — Mark van Rijzen (info@dutchhydrofoils.com) website: www.dutchhydrofoils.com

                                                                                        [17 Feb 03] One note of caution: If you get an offer to sell you a model in response to this posting, be wary about giving out credit card numbers or sending off a lot of money in response to email offers from individuals who do not operate an established internet business and are not located where you can physically see the model in a public place. In such a circumstance you could suggest to the seller that he list the item on eBay, and then use the payment escrow service offered on the eBay site to be sure you get your merchandise before the funds are released. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Model Experiments

                                                                                        [3 Feb 02, updated 4 Mar 02 ] I conducted some experiments in 1978 that I am now getting back into after a lapse of 24 years. I even have some fuzzy video (*.avi file – 400K) showing my early craft becoming foilborne and operating. The original film was taken as 8mm, and it was later copied to VHS. This version was only recently converted to digital format. So, the quality has suffered a bit in the translation. I am looking for the original film, and if I can find it, will see if it is possible to get a better, enhanced copy made of it. There were problems of course, but after reading many of the messages here over the past couple of years since discovering this forum, I think I can address many of them now. As my time permits, I will try to bring the information I have discovered before this group for their use and entertainment. Now, some details of what I did way back when. I used a Dumas Swamp Buggy as the basic platform for my craft. Its hull is 28″ in length and has a 10″ beam. It proved to be a nice, stable platform to work with. I built it with only a couple of modifications to the original design. Mostly for my convenience to be honest. The first modification was to turn the engine pylon 180 degrees so that the engine faced in a more standard prop forward position. This allowed for easier starting of the engine, and use of a standard propeller rather than a more difficult to find pusher prop. The second modification was to build the boat with two rudders rather than the single shown on the drawings. This allowed for more control at lower speeds, and I felt more control to help counteract the foils tracking tendencies. It proved to be a good choice. This kit is still available from Dumas and various hobby supply shops for a price in the range of $50.00 or so. My engine selection was to use a Veco .19 r/c engine as it had very high power available for its size (approximately 1 BHP). As for my choice in foil design, I chose to build a single surface-piercing front foil, and what I termed a “W” foil for the rear. This, I felt would give me the stability of a three-point stance once foilborne. There were many variables that I played with as I remember. Mostly dealing with the angle to set the engine at (I chose to keep the original 5 degrees suggested by Dumas), as well as the angle of incidence of the foils (both front and rear). I originally selected a 0 degree setting for both foils in relation to the hull itself. The rear foil was set as close a possible to the same incidence as the front foil to help cut down on the initial complications of their interaction with each other. The front foil did have a deeper draft than the rear, and was set 10″ aft of the bow. The rear foil was mounted directly below the stern, and was even with its aft bulkhead. Front foil was created from balsa aileron stock (1″ wide) and shaped into a “water foil” cross section. The front foil was built with a 45 degree angle built into the foils. The rear foil was a bit more complicated, and that will have to remain for a future post. The engine thrust setting had MUCH less effect on the overall performance of the foils than I had expected. In parting, this craft did have some great potential, did work in the foilborne mode, and was a rather inexpensive way of doing some good experiments in hydrofoils. I am currently working on preliminary tests of a new boat that I hope will eventually end up as a hydrofoil. Again, it is based on a Dumas Swamp Buggy (I can’t seem to get away from this hull). I am still using a Veco .19, but have drifted away from the air-screw driven design. I am using a Graupner Water Jet, and once I am satisfied that I will be able to force enough water through the system, I will begin working on the foils. So far, all looks good. More details and photos will follow as the experiments progress. I will be happy to answer any questions. — Joe Bennett (thedarkoverlord@earthlink.net)

                                                                                        VS-8 R/C Model Owner

                                                                                        [3 Feb 02] I have a VS-8 that I run on a regular basis. 32nd Parallel Corp is out of business, I had a hard time with them myself. — Leonard (lenny1324@aol.com)

                                                                                        DISCO VOLANTE

                                                                                        [23 Jan 02] I am trying to build a model of the DISCO VOLANTE. Unfortunately, I have yet to find a marine engineering firm that still carries them. Also, if you look at the Rodriguez Canterei navale website they also have some information on the FLYING FISH (i.e., before conversion). It appears the FLYING FISH underwent extensive conversion at Miami Shipbuilding Co. before her movie role, including possible alteration of the forward section up to and including the foils, so I’m not certain if the plans would be complete as to new underwater lines and the integration to the “cocoon.” Information is also extremely sparse as to possible plans of the same “cocoon.” — Doug Binish (email address withheld)

                                                                                        Response…[23 Jan 02] Your information about conversion of FLYING FISH into DISCO VOLANTE for the James Bond movie Thunderball is partially correct. Miami Shipbuilding Corp (MSC) took care of drydocking FLYING FISH, but Allied Marine, here in Miami, fabricated the false after-part of the hull that broke away when the surprise get away was made. Click Here to see a newspaper ad dated 18 Feb 1966 offering the vessel for sale. — Jean E. Buhler

                                                                                        [3 Feb 02] Information such as this is a valuable aid in tracking and finding reliable plans for the DISCO VOLANTE. I understand that the cocoon section ended up as a houseboat somewhere in West Miami. True facts? Also, Is the German firm offering the PT-20 plans reliable as far as delivery and pricing( I believe it is on the models page?) — D. Binish (email address withheld)

                                                                                        Modeler Needs DISCO VOLANTE Details

                                                                                        [13 Jan 02]  I have only two photos of the DISCO VOLANTE. The conclusion based on these photos is that it was built from a Supramar PT-20. Have you more information about this topic ? I am very interested in this because I plan to build a PT-20 model with the option to alter it into a DISCO VOLANTE. I have the drawings for the PT-20 but they are not very detailed, so I am trying complete them. — Michael Thies (michael_thies@web.de)

                                                                                        Responses…[26 Mar 02] There is a bit of information and three small black and white photos of the DISCO VOLANTE in the January 1966 issue of Popular Science. The article is titled “James Bond’s Weird World of Inventions. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        [14 Sep 02] I`m wondering if your intention to build a PT-20 is still on…I have two 1:24 scale plans of her [1. plans of an R/C PT-20 Hydrofoil…German I think! 2. Original Supramar PT -20 plans] Let me know. I built a 1:24 scale static model of a PT-20…see below. — Alex (lord_barrington@smartchat.net.au)

                                                                                        CURL CURL Model Kit Wanted

                                                                                        [30 Dec 01] I am very interested in the CURL CURL boat that you have on the website. Would you be able to tell me where I could get a kit (or completed boat)? Also, how does it run? — Chris Kozlik (ckozlik@newarchery.com)

                                                                                        Model VS-8 Schnellboote Wanted

                                                                                        [2 Sep 01] I’m finally at a point in my life where I can get back to enjoying modeling and model boating. Specifically, I need some info on 32nd Parallel’s Schnellboote model. I just finished reading the thread you have posted on the VS-8 Hydrofoil. What a great job that was, and the fun the owner is having with it now! Sadly, as you pointed out in the thread, it appears 32nd Parallel Corp. is in hiding. So if anyone out there has this boote (boat) in kit form or already built and wants to sell it, please drop me a line, so we can commence to dicker the price. — O.E. “Spotter” Dillon, Woodbridge, VA, USA (dillonoe@earthlink.net).

                                                                                        Response…[2 Sep 01] It looks like Antoine Lenourmand, the author of the thread you mention, has just sold his model on eBay at www.ebay.de, item # 1614864145. One note of caution: If you get an offer to sell you a model in response to this posting, be wary about giving out credit card numbers or sending off a lot of money in response to email offers from individuals who do not operate an established internet business and are not located where you can physically see the model in a public place. In such a circumstance you could suggest to the seller that he list the item on eBay, and then use the payment escrow service offered on the eBay site to be sure you get your merchandise before the funds are released. – Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        PT 50 Model in Holland

                                                                                        [14 Jun 01] Just want to let you know that the PT-50 kit is really fast. Faster than my I think cause my engine stopped working (after 12! years ), it was still the original Mabuchi RS-540SD black motor. Condor Ferries indeed ran five PT-50a ,but none of them as Condor 5 because that was a RHS-160 delivered in 1976 (you can see it on http://www.rodriquez.it/crafts/crafts.html). — Mark van Rijzen (dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl)

                                                                                        PT-50 Model in Holland

                                                                                        PHM Model Planning Update

                                                                                        [31 May 01] We have a pretty good set of plans from “Floating Drydock” now. Floating Drydock is a Plan service company. They now have a couple different scale plan drawings and sets of PHMs: Hull, faired lines and stations USS PEGASUS Builders plans outboard profile and plan view, and deckhouse details, model builders set showing main deck, outboard profile bridge superstructure deck, platforms, some hull sections, general arrangements, and longitudinal cross section. Cliff Shaw is currently designing the jet pump. I gave him three or four size and scale options, and it looks as if we will be building at 1/48 scale. My job challenge looks as if it will be to keep the model weight below five pounds or 2.26kg. I don’t think that should be too hard, but I doubt we will have scale foil retracts on this model. lol! Wish us luck, I’m sure we will need it, and any advice you guys have to give. — Aimee Eng, Portland, Oregon USA (umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[15 Mar 02] Can I ask you how the building of the 1/48 scale USS PEGASUS R/C model is coming? I have seen one of these boats and have dreamed of making a R/C model of it, so ”Please”!!!! let me know. — Felix (felix9@harborside.com)

                                                                                        [27 Apr 02] Note the following references:

                                                                                        • “The Mariners’ Museum’s Scale Ship Model Competition and Exhibition 2000,” Scale Ship Modeler (ISSN 1066-0275), Nov/Dec 2000 (Vol. 23, No. 5), pp. 36-37, 62. Features a 1:48 scale model of PHM-1 USS PEGASUS. Modeler Dean Leary of Statesville NC was awarded the Gold Medal under the Division I (Scratchbuilt) Class B (Powered Ships) category. “The Scale Ship Model Competition and Exhibition 2000 ran from June 17 until October 28, 2000. During these dates, visitors were able to see the top ship models in the world and participate in various activities associated with the exhibition on the opening weekend. For more information about the competition and exhibition, call The Mariners’ Museum at (757) 596-222 or (800) 596-2222, or write to: The Mariners’ Museum, 100 Museum Drive, Newport, VA 23606, or visit their Web site: www.mariner.org
                                                                                        • Marine Modeling Monthly, March 1991, contains photos and drawings of the PHM Class; purpose of the article is to provide details to modellers of the PHM Class.

                                                                                        — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Modeling the Boeing Jetfoil

                                                                                        [20 May 01] I have had an interest in modeling the Boeing Hydrofoil for many years, but due to the pressure of work it has not been possible to pursue the interest with vigour. I am now close to retirement and feel that I can resume my interest. I have given some thought to the problem of inherent instability of the Boeing’s foil configuration. I wondered if model radio control aircraft type “flaperons” could be used? I have happened upon some old papers referring to “The Hydroflight Society”, in England linking with a ‘Peter Cahill’. Have you heard of him? If so, do you know if he is still active? Do you have any members in the UK, in the society? — Alan Barwick (ElaineBarwick@cs.com)

                                                                                        Responses…[20 May 01] I once saw an advertisement for “Hydroflight Models – Model Hydrofoil and Hovercraft Specialists – Incorporating the Hydroflight Society (the Society for Model Hydrofoil and Hovercraft Enthusiasts)”. This was in the April 1991 issue (volume 41 Number 482) of Model Boats magazine published by Argus Special Publications in the UK. At the time, a 48″ kit for a model of HMS SPEEDY, a Boeing Jetfoil variant was due to be available soon. I had advised Chris Morgan in the UK, another person who had made enquiries via the IHS, of the details above and the address of Hydroflight Models which appeared in the advertisement. Chris was subsequently able to make contact with Peter Cahill and sent me the following update via e-mail on 1 Feb 2000: “I have tracked down the owner of Hydroflight Models… one P. Cahill. His mobile is 0403 245280 and his home number is 01797 229120. The model company is now defunct, but he still makes the hulls and fins for SPEEDY. He is also developing a propulsion system for the model based on the original SPEEDY concept. He can do this as he has all of the technical manuals, log books, engineering drawings etc etc from the design, development, test, commissioning, service, de-commissioning and eventual sale. I will give you any more information when I receive it. Chris.” I have included Chris Morgan as an information addressee to this reply in case you don’t have any success contacting Peter Cahill yourself. If you manage to get an update on how Peter Cahill is going with the SPEEDY model, please let me know and post the information on the IHS BBS . — Martin Grimm, IHS member and RC hydrofoil modeler (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        [7 Apr 02] Note the following reference: Radio Control Boat Modeller, Vol.1, No.4, May/June 1986. ISSN 0268-5248. Published monthly by Argus Specialist Publications Limited, UK. Features a short one page articles on the first successful model Jetfoil marketed in the UK, this being developed by Aries Hydrafibre of Portsmouth. The model designed by Martin Seymour is to 1:32 scale and was to be on sale from 1 May 1986 for a price of about 195 UK Pounds. The model is depicted in the article. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        [28 May 03] An article on the Boeing Jetfoil appeared in the International Plastic Modeler’s Society Quarterly magazine, Vol. 17, No. 4, Summer 1982. No further info is available. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        How to Build an R/C Model Sailing Hydrofoil?

                                                                                        [19 May 01] I have recently decided I’d like to build a radio controlled model sailing hydrofoil (about 1m, 3’4″ish, high) from scratch. I hadn’t seen any sailing hydrofoils before so was glad to see that it is going to possible (in some form at least). I intend to sail it in the stretch of the River Thames near home, so the model will have to cope with varied wind conditions and must cope with high waves/chop (up to 1 foot high) – ie waterproofing for radio and servos is probably required. Since I have not yet started, and am keen to learn new skills, I was wondering if you could give some suggestions on how to build this model and from what materials etc. Budget will be rather limited so if you could give some alternatives it would be much appreciated. Thank you all for your help (anybody wishing to mail me is very welcome) — Jez McKean (jez@jazzle.co.uk); Ashdown House, Basmore Lane; Shiplake on Thames; Oxon RG9 3NU UK

                                                                                        Response…[19 May 01] Some possible sources of info taken from the links section of our web page include The 750mm R/C Yacht Association at http://www.home.aone.net.au/cybernautics//750.html and Victor Model Products at http://www.victor-model.com/ and MicroSAIL at http://www.microsail.com/f3.html. Please feel free to browse through the posted messages we have received over the years on this subject and to contact any of the correspondents directly that you think might have good info for you. Good luck with your project. When finished please send photo and summary of “lessons learned” for possible publication on the website and in the newsletter. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        [22 May 01] It’s great that you have this interest in modeling an RC foiler. The conditions you refer to:1′ waves/chop with a 39″ model are extreme to the point of being impractical. Think about it: that would be like 12 foot waves on a 39′ boat!; this becomes doubly difficult in short period choppy conditions. The main problem is that to get the hull clear of the wave tops while foiling you will have to have an extraordinarily deep foil and that’s OK but the crux is that when you’re not foiling that vertical foil will be very deep and cause a lot of drag which will make it difficult to get up on foils in the first place. The other main consideration, in those conditions, is getting the center of effort of the sails too far away from the center of lateral resistance so that you may be forced to carry too little sail area to avoid excessive heeling moment. This can all be calculated relatively simply and should be foremost on your agenda as you get started. I would suggest designing a foiler a little longer and sailing in smoother conditions until you understand more about the boat you come up with.

                                                                                        I will try to give you some basic parameters that may help you. You have to decide on the hull configuration and it basically comes down to a catamaran or trimaran; I would suggest a tri about 1.2 times wider than it is long with amas (outside hulls) having a 16 to 18/1 beam to length ratio and a total buoyancy of about 75% of the all up weight of the boat. The main hull should, of course, support the whole boat without either ama in the water and have a beam to length ratio of about 12/1. Next you need to decide on foil type and configuration. The two main types of foil used on sailing hydrofoils are : 1)_”Bruce” (surface piercing) foils and, 2)-“T” foils. Bruce foils are generally used in a configuration of two forward on each side with a t-foil aft on the rudder or rudders. Bruce foils do not need an altitude control system since they are at an angle of approximately 45 degrees and are designed to rise up out of the water as the boat gains speed thereby reducing their wetted surface to a minimum and providing just the lift they need to.The problem is that they tend to ventilate (suck air and lose lift) easily, especially in waves. I would suggest using “t”-foils with a flap even though they are a little more complicated; they can be set up to provide a foil set that develops its own righting moment as it goes faster and they work real well on a model. The best way to learn about them is to go see a full-size RAVE hydrofoil and study how it is set up, especially the altitude control system.

                                                                                        Here are some facts based on our F3 that may help you: Configuration: two T-foils forward, one T-foil on the rudder. The forward foils are set up with approximately 2.5 degrees angle of incidence and are supported by vertical foils that develop lateral resistance; the vertical foils are located just forward of the center of buoyancy of the main hull such that the main foils support approx. 80% of the boat weight with the tail foil taking about 20 % (actually much less in practice since the rudder foil counteracts the pitching moment of the boat). The span of all three foils can be about 22.6% of the length of the boat, each. Flap area should be about 33% of foil area. We used a total foil area of 2.7% of sail area divided equally between all three foils. The rudder t-foil should be set at about 0 degrees angle of incidence. Weight should be referenced to sail area and you should have at least 196sq. inches of sail area per pound of displacement for winds between 0 and 7 mph with the ability to reduce sail as the wind picks up. The figures given here could produce a boat capable of taking off in a 5-6mph wind.

                                                                                        You might want to contact Dr. Sam Bradfield to ask permission to use brilliant and simple altitude control system for a one-off model; again the best way to learn about it is to see a full-size RAVE. Hope this gives you enough to start doing some serious planning: but remember the more you learn the better off you’ll be. Feel free to contact me by email, and and take a look at our foiler on our site at: www.microsail.com. — Doug Lord (lorsail@webtv.net)

                                                                                        Need Source of R/C Receiver Plans

                                                                                        [1 Apr 01] Do you have or know where I can get hold of any RC receiver plans or circuits for my GCSE project? I have to build one rather than buy it. — Chris Hawkins (chris@hawkinsbm.freeserve.co.uk)

                                                                                        VS-8 Radio Controlled Model

                                                                                        [21 Feb 01] My name is Antoine Lenormand, I live in France. I will receive a VS-8 ready to run from 32nd Parallel that I bought to a person in USA. It will be the first time I get into this hobby… I have no idea of the sailing characteristics of hydrofoil boats. I contact you to ask some advice about it. — Antoine Lenormand (hublen@club-internet.fr)

                                                                                        Response…[21 Feb 01]Hello Antoine, and congratulations on your VS-8 purchase. Unfortunately I have had no previous correspondence on this model, except brief correspondence with the 32nd Parallel company itself. They may be your best source of information and advice. They had a webpage for this model at http://www.32ndparallel.com/vs8.htm, though it seems to have dropped off the web. We would like to receive your impressions and opinions on the VS-8 model in the future after you have had a chance to operate and become expert with this model… and don’t forget to send a photo or two! — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Follow up…

                                                                                        [23 Feb 01, updated 11 Mar 01] I think 32nd Parallel Corp. will not answer any more….This company had huge problems… the website is closed, maybe forever Below are two photos of the model… “at sea” and “in drydock!” The photos are not mine, they are by Mr. Anderson (the past owner of the model). Also there are 2 pics of the internal arrangement. Notice that it is a single prop model (the real VS-8 had 2 props.) The boat needs a lot of power to lift off. You must reduce the throttle to prevent the prop from coming out of the water and losing thrust. The motor draws 50A to get on the foils! The most important thing to get a model that can run a long time is to choose the right batteries…I decided to try 2 types of Ni Cad, 2000 and 2400 mAh. After an overnight charging, I plugged the 2400 mAh 8 cells in the ESC. The TEKIN 432 Marine is a speed boats “dedicated” ESC : no reverse, 100 A max Amps…I will change it to a Robbe Rokraft… After SC adjustment, I applied full throttle. Noisy boat! The prop shaft was vibrating and heating a lot, something was not normal… I dropped off the shaft and noticed that it was bent. No problem, I changed it and tried again. This time no vibrations, but the shaft was as hot as ever. But in the water the shaft will automatically be cooled… I calculated the maximum run time with this kind of batteries: no more than 10 minutes! I will try something else to improve that. To be continued… — Antoine Lenormand (hublen@club-internet.fr)

                                                                                        VS-8 Radio Controlled Model

                                                                                        More on the Above VS-8 R/C Model

                                                                                        [30 Mar 01] Here is the next chapter of the hydrofoil review: First lake trials : First of all, wooohhhh !!! Impressive boat ! It is amazing to see this gray boat flying above the surface, everyone at the lake was impressed. But there are some technical problems…the run time, very short, no more than 5 minutes with a full charged 8 cells 2400 mAh NiCad… I noticed 2 major hydrodynamics problems : a loss of lift and “ventilation”. Let me explain: It is a V shape hydrofoil so it is not the most stable configuration. I must immediately reduce the throttle when the boat is lifting on its foils, otherwise it will lose lift and fall brutally. The ventilation is a strange phenomena due to the cavitation under the rear foil : a bubble of “vacuum” is forming under it and the boat, again, stalls brutally! I really don’t know, for the moment, how to do to fix these problems, but I keep looking for solutions. I will change the ESC and the motor, for a 2 motors and 2 screws configuration (it will improve the longitudinal stability). During the tests, its speed was impressive when the VS-8 was on its foils (2 times its speed when the hydro doesn’t fly !!!) but because of the instability I only could manage to run it during periods of few seconds above the water (the longest period was 10 sec.) — Antoine Lenormand (hublen@club-internet.fr)

                                                                                        Responses…[30 Mar 01] Three possible solutions: (1) move the center of gravity forward, possibly by moving the battery pack, etc.; (2) do not try to operate the model at too high a flying height by limiting the speed; (3) add a servo-operated flap for adjusting the trim attitude. With a V foil, as the boat rises higher in the water, the foils become ever more heavily loaded as the same weight is supported by less area, and eventually they ventilate or stall. If the boat is allowed to pitch over to a smaller angle of attack at higher speeds, the flying height is lower and the foils are less heavily loaded. Also, as the boat rises, the submerged span of the V-foils reduces, which greatly increases the drag due to lift. The boat may actually go faster with more foil in the water because of this. — Tom Speer (tspeer@tspeer.com) website: http://www.tspeer.com

                                                                                        [1 Apr 01] From my experience with the 1:20 scale RHS 140 model I fully agree with Tom Speer that you should try to experiment with shifting the centre of gravity of the boat forward if the bow foils rise too rapidly and flies too high after power is applied. Indeed, I also moved my battery pack forward as Tom suggested to you. On my model it is possible to adjust the angle of attack of the complete bow foil assembly and to a lesser extent the aft foil. This gives further options to experiment and find the best set-up for good foilborne running. From the photos of your model, I don’t know if that is so easy for you to do. Although I found the inclusion of flaps as Tom suggested too complicated for my model, you could still achieve the same result by incorporating thin alloy trim tabs on the aft end of the bow foils which can then be bent up or down slightly by hand between trial runs of your model.

                                                                                        The ventilation on the aft foil of your model which you have described could be due to any number of reasons. My model was also prone to such problems. If the aft foil rises too high and near to the surface, the propellers would then suck in air and this would be immediately apparent with the motors racing and the water behind the model being churned up. I suspect the foils of my model have also ventilated from time to time as the low pressure on the top of the foil causes air to be sucked down from the water surface, particularly as these foils are surface piercing anyway. This in turn causes a sudden loss in lift and the model can plunge unexpectedly. My model is fitted with what are called ‘fences’ on the foils and rudders. These are also fitted to full size hydrofoils to avoid ventilation of the foils by blocking the path for air to be sucked down. I didn’t think the model would require them but added them all the same so that they would look more realistic (the fences are also fitted to the full size RHS 140). You can see the series of fences fitted to the twin rudders on my model if you look at the aft foil photo in the Photo Gallery (under model hydrofoils) on the IHS website. The fences are also fitted to the upper sides of the bow and stern foils though they are not clearly visible and some were missing when the photos were taken. The fences may help avoid ventilation but two fellow hydrofoil modelers and IHS members in Denmark, Soren Struntze and Hans Jorgen Hansen, have had perfectly running surface piercing hydrofoil models without requiring fences to be fitted.

                                                                                        My model also does not run for very long on its pair of 1700 – 1800 mAh NiCad batteries, unlike those of Soren and Hans which run faultlessly for a considerable length of time. My suggestion is that you experiment with different centre of gravity positions, foil set-ups and propellers types (try changes in pitch and diameter) until you achieve the best performance. You need to be patient with this and visit your local pond many times!

                                                                                        — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        PT-50 Model

                                                                                        [04 Mar 01] Just to let you know I have found a PT50 built and painted as per the box on the IHS website. I have not flown it yet but the chap who built it says, it is very fast – it has done a Barrel Roll due to having a new motor fitted. I have also found a German hydrofoil kit of a river police launch a little larger than the PT50 which I may build later. I will keep in touch after my first flight. In interest, the chap on your web with a PT50 states he has never heard of one called Condor. Actually, Condor Ferries ran no less than five of them! I have asked for some pictures for your files. — John Leaver (leaverjohn@talk21.com)

                                                                                        Responses…[4 Mar 01] I am curious about the German hydrofoil kit of a river police launch a little larger than the PT50. I wonder if it is just the size of the model which is larger (due to its scale) or whether it is a model of an actual hydrofoil larger than the PT50? I recall the Hessian Water Police in Germany operated three of the small Supramar PT3 hydrofoil launches on the Rhine. Details were provided in an article in Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, Vol.2, No.4, January 1963, pp22-23. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        [31 May 01] Hans Jorgen Hansen from Denmark was kind enough to provide a copy of “Hydrofoil PT-50” by Colin Gross, Model Boats magazine, Model & Allied Publications LTD, PO Box 35 Bridge ST, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1EE, February 1981, Volume 31 No. 360, pp. 80-82. IHS has forwarded this to John Leaver. The article is informative about the experience of assembling the model, and it contains several suggestions for modifications, for example, “The bost useful modification to improve the performance of the model is to replace the stiff spring coupling between the motor and the prop shaft.. Unfortunately, the usual Ripmax/Huco universal joints do not come in the correct size. However, if two type KC42 couplings are purchased, one may be opened out to fit the prop shaft, and the other to fit the motor. When joined by the couple converter, the new coupling can still be fitted to the model by pushing the motor forwards in its clamping brackets.” According to the article, the manufacturer of the kit is Sanko Seimitsu Co. Ltd, Japan. It was imported into England by Richard Kohnstam Ltd. The kit price in 1981 was £59.99 — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        CURL CURL Model

                                                                                        [25 Feb 01, updated 27 Sep 02] Attached are some images of my 1:20 scale RHS 140 CURL CURL model. I have particularly included some photos of the foils looking from the underside of the model to give a better idea of the layout of typical surface piercing hydrofoils. Also, I have included a view inside the hull of the model showing the arrangement of the RC gear and pair of electric motors directly driving the propeller shafts. Click Here for more descriptive details and “Lessons Learned” from trials (99kb Adobe Acrobat file). The speed controllers are fairly simple two-stage forward and reverse units which are those used for cheap RC cars and buggies. Perhaps I will get this model finished one day!

                                                                                        The model is in fact scratch built based on a small general arrangement drawing that was published for the RHS 140 series as well as a variety of photographs I took of CURL CURL while that hydrofoil was still operational in Sydney in the late 1980s. Consequently, the model is not available in kit form. I had started to prepare a plan to 1:20 scale to work from but never finished that to the point that all the construction details were shown, rather, I just started to build the model from a number of separate part templates I prepared. It has always been my intention to finalize those plans so that others could also build a model from them. I also wrote up some notes on the construction and testing of the model. Unfortunately the notes were on a computer that is no longer running so may have to be re-written. The model is largely built of plywood and the foils are also wood with metal rods at the leading and trailing edges to reduce impact damage. Other parts are fabricated from plastic or meal. The choice of materials for my model was mainly due to my lack of access to metalworking machinery. It operates on a 3-channel radio control set-up. One servo to control power to each motor / propeller and one servo for rudder control. It could be run on 2 channels without problems (no independent control of port and starboard shafts). I enjoy running the model but unfortunately that is fairly infrequent. It is somewhat of a crowd pleaser as hydrofoil models are fairly rare just as their full scale counterparts are in Australia. I last took my model out in August 2000 and unfortunately ran it aground. The damage was not major but I have been slow to repair the model. The model runs on two electric motors driven by a pair of 7.2V 1800mAH NiCad batteries. On a good day it runs foilborne very well but on other days it is stubborn! The main limitation is that I would probably not achieve much more than about 10 minutes of foilborne operation before the pair of batteries are running low. I have three sets of batteries to change over for that reason. The choice of electric or internal combustion motor for hydrofoil models is a hard one. Electric models are easy to start and run but have relatively limited endurance. IC engines solve the endurance problem and have plenty of power available but then you have to deal with issues such as engine cooling, oil, exhaust, noise, vibrations and difficult starting the engine(s). If you download the Dec 01 issue of the free on-line magazine ‘Classic Fast Ferries’ at http://www.classicfastferries.com you will be able to read about a nice, but also unfinished, scratch built scale model of a PT 50 powered by a chainsaw motor. That model is owned by Garry Fry in Sydney, Australia. There have been some hydrofoils manufactured as Radio Control model kits but I am unsure whether any of them are still in production. On the IHS website you can find examples such as a PT 50 kit manufactured in Japan many years ago and a German VS-8 military hydrofoil of WW2 released as a kit some years back but now no longer in production. It may be possible to obtain such a model by keeping an eye out for them on internet auction sites such as EBay. A final suggestion is that there was a German company that distributed plans to build a semi-scale model of the Supramar PT.20 hydrofoil that is similar but smaller than the RHS 140. That model is intended to be operated with a small IC engine similar to those used on RC model aircraft but water-cooled. The company is: Verlag fur Technik und Handwerk GmbH, and the model plans are: Bauplan MT-160.– Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Jetfoil Model

                                                                                        [15 Feb 01] Back about 1980 I built a Boeing Jetfoil to a scale of 3/8 I think, any way it turned out about 35 inches long by about 12 inches wide. This was powered by a 61 glow plug motor and water jet, as per full size craft. The jet unit took some years to perfect in itself as there was none on the market at that time. I also played with gyros and various servos in an attempt to keep it upright, but with no luck, even using the direct control from the Tx to stabilize it, the whole thing was a bit too quick in its movements to control. However after various attempts at foil control stability (or not) the project was shelved after some 5 years. I still have 002 in its box. Your site has inspired me to have another go. If any one cares to contact me discuss it feel free. — Martin Seymour (qwert74@netscapeonline.co.uk)

                                                                                        Response…[15 Feb 01] IHS member Harry Larsen, who knows a lot more about the math of control systems than I, reckoned that his 4000lb TALARIA III would double its angle of roll in about 1/2 second. If it got to 10 degrees of roll, the flaps couldn’t hold it. Even though he was riding it and could feel its lean, he only once drove it without automatic roll control, and after 2 minutes he was exhausted. A 35 inch model will be impossible to control by hand. You will need a fast servo controlling the flaps. You can buy a solid state helicopter gyroscope and a tilt sensor from Analog devices, available from Maplins. I can program a microcontroller to join them together if you want. How were you controlling the ride height? — Malin Dixon (gallery@foils.org)

                                                                                        [16 Feb 01] I was wondering if you have scaled your designs up to about a 15 to 16 passenger size. This would likely be 35 ft boat or so. I am considering building or buying such a boat for use on the US west coast. I would love to see a photo of your smaller one if you can. — Robin (robin.christine@netzero.net)

                                                                                        PT-50 Model Kit Wanted

                                                                                        [13 Feb 01, updated 17 Feb 03] I am looking for a model PT50 hydrofoil. Can you tell me if you know of any for sale in any condition? – John Leaver (trev.32@bushinternet.com) [This email address for John Leaver is no longer functional – Editor]

                                                                                        Response…[13 Feb 01, updated 17 Feb 03] I don’t know of any model PT50 kits being sold today. We have two photos of such models in our Photo Gallery. One came from the Ebay auction site (www.ebay.com) when a person sold one of these kits. The other was sent in by an adult in the Netherlands who got his kit as a child, and does not remember the source. I expect that another of these kits will go up for sale on eBay, but it may be a long time. I have only seen one in nearly two years of watching this site. The only thing I can suggest is to find a store that sells models and ask if there is any kind of national database of discontinued kits that are available for sale. There may be some kind of a search service available similar to the one for old books. If there is such a service or database, I would like to know about it for the information of our members and visitors. One note of caution: If you get an offer to sell you a model in response to this posting, be wary about giving out credit card numbers or sending off a lot of money in response to email offers from individuals who do not operate an established internet business and are not located where you can physically see the model in a public place. In such a circumstance you could suggest to the seller that he list the item on eBay, and then use the payment escrow service offered on the eBay site to be sure you get your merchandise before the funds are released. – Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Modeling the DOLPHIN

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] Did the DOLPHIN MK 11 hydrofoil ever go into commercial production. I started building a model in 1977 and have just pulled it out for completion/refurbishment. Do you have any source of information relating to any of these in service or was it just a prototype? — Tony Morling (amorling@supanet.com)

                                                                                        Response…[18 Jan 01] I am not familiar with the MK 11 designation, but if you are talking about the Grumman DOLPHIN, then here is a quick overview: The prototype was completed in 1966 and subsequently saw service in the Canary Islands off the coast of West Africa. After eleven months of troublesome operation due to design “bugs” and interruption of schedules due to difficult sea states, the operator Maritima Antares returned the vessel to Grumman. A second vessel of the class was consequently abandoned in the construction phase. DOLPHIN was then named GULF STREAK and operated by Bahamas Hydro Lines on a run between Miami FL in the USA and Freeport in the Bahama Islands. Again, frequent turbulent sea states made it difficult to keep a regular ferry service schedule. In 1969, DOLPHIN moved to the Virgin Islands, where it operated a seasonal ferry service between St. Thomas and St. Croix. In December 1970, the vessel was sold to the US Navy, which moved it to San Diego where it was partially cannibalized for equipment needed in other Navy hydrofoil development efforts. There is a good B&W photo of GULF STREAK in the 1969-70 edition of Jane’s Surface Skimmer Systems, and there are line drawings of the vessel in the 1968-69 edition of the same. Another photo and the above text is posted on our website. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        [16 Feb 01] I am a member of the International Hydrofoil Society and have recently ready your posted message on the IHS website about the Dolphin Mk 11 hydrofoil model you are planning to complete. I thought I might have a clue as to where the Mk 11 designation you mentioned may have originated from: Grumman had in the mid 70’s proposed to develop a FLAGSTAFF Mark 11 Patrol Hydrofoil which was to be a modernized and upgraded version of the PGH-1 FLAGSTAFF. The FLAGSTAFF patrol hydrofoil built in 1968 had many design similarities with the Dolphin passenger hydrofoil built two years earlier. The FLAGSTAFF Mk 11, which was also referred to as the SUPER FLAGSTAFF, was to have had a greater payload and range than the original FLAGSTAFF. According to Jane’s Surface Skimmers 1974-75 the principal differences between the upgraded hydrofoil and its predecessor were to be a gas turbine of greater power output, an improved right-angle drive for the propeller shaft, and the use of larger foils and struts. This would have enabled the full load displacement to increase from 67.5 tons for the FLAGSTAFF to 83.5 tons for the Mk 11. Although Jane’s ’74-75 indicates that the development of the Dolphin class had been discontinued, it is just possible that the improved design features developed for the FLAGSTAFF Mk 11 prompted Grumman to resurrect plans for the commercial variant of the hydrofoil as a Dolphin Mk 11? The FLAGSTAFF Mk 11 was never built. For additional information and photos of the sole Dolphin that was completed, download the January 2001 issue of Classic Fast Ferries available at http://classicfastferries.go.to. Was the model you started building in ’77 from a kit or did you construct it based on drawings that were available at the time? That may help to clarify where the Mk 11 designation originated from. In any case I would be interested to hear more about your model, as I am sure would other hydrofoil modelers. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Model Building Techniques– Scaling Lessons Learned…

                                                                                        [10 Dec 00] I of course try to design my models as close as possible to the state-of-the-art (full size) ORMA 60 trimaran yachts, but there are also some fundamental differences, mainly regarding building techniques and achievable weights. The basic relationships apply, as the physical laws are the same for 60ft – or 2M, 6ft, or 4ft models. The aim for the models is to get the models as close to the full size vessels as possible. For the relation of 60ft to 4ft, the scale is 15:1. Since ships are three-dimensional structures, you have to calculate: 15x15x15 : 1= 3375 : 1. So for overall dimensions like: length, width, height, the scale remains 15:1, but for the sail area it becomes 15×15:1 = 225:1 and for the structure and their weights it is 3375:1. Now if you look at the currently achieved weights of ORMA 60s, you’ll find weights between 5.1 tons (or 5100 kg) and 6.6 tons (or 6600 kg). 5100 divided by 3375 is only 1.51 kg and this weight has never been achieved by a fully functional 4ft. scale model. Even if you take the high end of the ORMA 60 weight range (6600 kg) and divide it by 3375, you’ll get only 1.95 kg; almost impossible to build/achieve. Actually achieved weights are between 2.25 and 3.0 kg. Now turn it the other way round: The R/C set of a 4ft trimaran including batteries and sail winch weighs about 0.33 kg. Multiplied by 3375 to scale up to full size, it would become 1113.75 kg or 1.1 tons… that is a weight of equipment for an ORMA 60 that is never reached in reality. Now you’ll understand that our models cannot really be designed and built as real “scale” models to ORMA 60s. They need to be designed to their actually achievable weights. And if you miscalculate the volume of the hulls to about 0.2 to 0.3 kg to the actually achieved weight, your boat won’t sail safely at all. Have a look below at the weights of the single (full size) components, then to the corresponding scale weights that would be ideal. Now take a look at the weights I have actually achieved, which are — I believe — the lowest weights ever achieved:

                                                                                        • FONCIA: Floats: 500 kg each; Crossbars: 500 kg each; Mainhull: 1000 kg; Mast: 750 kg
                                                                                        • BANQUE POPULAIRE II: (remember, this ship was destroyed in it’s first race) Floats: 420 kg each; Crossbars: 460 kg each; Mainhull: not sure (800 to 900 kg); Mast: not sure (650 to 750 kg)
                                                                                        • GROUPAMA: (here I got most data, but I’m not sure how reliable they are) Floats: 400 kg each; Crossbars: 400 kg each; Mainhull: 800 kg; Mast: 650 kg; Centerboard: 150 kg; Forestay, shrouds, and hydraulics to tilt the mast: 400 kg each

                                                                                        For the 4ft models, the ideal weights therefore should be:

                                                                                        Floats: 0.12 to 0.15 kg each – achieved weights 0.25 kg (!) (each one is the achieved minimum!)Crossbars: 0.12 to 0.15 kg each – achieved weights 0.15 kg

                                                                                        Mainhull: 0.24 to 0.30 kg ——- achieved weights 0.50 kg (!)

                                                                                        Mast: 0.19 to 0.22 kg ——- achieved weights 0.25 kg

                                                                                        _________________________________________________

                                                                                        Total: 0.91 to 1.12 kg ——– achieved weight 1.55 kg

                                                                                        =============================================

                                                                                        As you can see, these are only the main components. A lot of other parts relate in the same way: rudder, centerboard, centerboard trunk, boom(s), sails, forestay and shrouds and so on. The achieved weight that is most irritating to me is the weight of the crossbars! Although these parts are the most difficult ones to build, I almost achieved the ideal weight. So the (maybe strange and maybe wrong) idea came up in my mind, these crossbars could be too weak. It would be bad if they bend too much, but even worse, if they break! But they SEEM to be strong and stiff enough (according to my tests) This then would mean all hull shells I had built so far although they are very light already – must still be far too heavy. That is one more reason, why I left the workshop alone for some time and went back to drawing and calculating again. Unfortunately, it also confused me quite a bit; and held me back from continuing the model itself. Fact is, not one R/C trimaran model-builder except me (neither for Mini40, Formula 48, 2M nor for any other size) has been willing so far to share the actually achieved weights of his own models with anybody else. The R/C multihull enthusiasts should be able to work together and help each other. So I will simply publish my own data from now on, and others can compare my modeling results to their own. I hope some good discussions will happen in the near future. I also will publish all data of my older and bigger models and also of my new (although I started to build it two years ago) 2M carbon trimaran soon. — Ernst Zemann (petra.zemann@chello.at)

                                                                                        Modelbuilding Scaling Lessons Learned

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] I have read the posted message of 10 Dec 00 by Ernst Zemann (above) and offer this reply, I know it is fairly lengthy! Ernst indicated that in his experience it is not practically possible to achieve a proper scaled weight for an ORMA 60 trimaran yacht model of 15:1 scale. While I have never built a sailing yacht model, I have in the past built RC model aircraft and an RC scale model of a hydrofoil passenger ferry. I thought it may be an interesting contrast with the ORMA 60 models to look at the achieved weights of those models compared to their full scale equivalents.

                                                                                        Looking first at a scale aircraft model. I have built a 1:6.75 scale de Havilland DH82 Tiger Moth bi-plane model from a kit. This model is powered by a .40 size two stroke internal combustion model aircraft engine. With a full tank of fuel and all radio control equipment fitted (4 channels with servos), the model weight is about 2.500 kg (the plans suggest anything in the range of 2.3 to 2.5 kg). By comparison, the maximum takeoff weight of the full scale DH82 is variously listed as being 803 to 827.8 kg which, when scaled down to 1:6.75, would correspond to 2.611 to 2.692 kg (up to 7.7% more than the actually achieved model weight). It should be noted that the Tiger Moth can carry two people at say 75 kg each and that would make up part of the full load weight of the aircraft. At model scale these two people would correspond to a total of 0.488 kg whereas my ‘equivalent’ of a pilot is the radio control equipment (quite old gear with a large battery and servos) which weighs around 0.550 kg. In any case, this example demonstrated it is possible to build a scale aircraft model to a weight less than the actual aircraft weight scaled down to model size using scaling laws. This seems surprising given that full scale aircraft are typically already lightly constructed. The model in question is quite solidly built, though the wings and fuselage consist largely of fabric covered balsa wood. The reason the model can be built to less weight than its ‘scaled weight’ is perhaps explained by strength considerations as discussed at the end of this message.

                                                                                        Turning now to my 1:20 scale model of a Rodriquez RHS 140 hydrofoil passenger ferry. The initial intention was to ensure that the model weight was correctly scaled and therefore that the model floated at the correct waterline. As the full scale vessel displaced 65 tons (or about 66 tonnes) fully loaded according to Jane’s Surface Skimmers 1974/75 the corresponding model weight could therefore be permitted to be up to 8.250 kg*. If it was less than this weight, then ballast (or preferably more batteries to give improved endurance) could be added to achieve the correct scale mass.

                                                                                        * Note: For model resistance testing, which is usually performed in fresh water towing tanks, the test results are usually extrapolated to the full-scale craft operating in salt water. For such tests the model should float at the correct waterline corresponding to the full-scale hydrofoil operating in salt water. As a consequence there is a slight correction that needs to be made to the model mass to account for the difference in water density between fresh water (~1000 kg/m3) and salt water (~1025 kg/m3). The 1:20 scale RHS 140 model would in that case be ballasted to: 66000/203/1.025 = 8.049 kg.

                                                                                        During preliminary trials of the hydrofoil model before it was fully completed the performance was found to be somewhat sluggish at a weight of only 5.500 kg. This was considered to be due to the insufficient power available from the twin electric motors used to propel the model and also a less than optimum choice of propellers. I therefore accepted that the model weight should remain less than the properly scaled weight to maintain a reasonable foilborne performance. While the model has not been completed yet, the final weight is estimated to be 5.920 kg. A breakdown of this weight is as follows:

                                                                                        Component

                                                                                        grams

                                                                                        % of total

                                                                                        Hull

                                                                                        2440

                                                                                        41

                                                                                        Superstructure

                                                                                        645

                                                                                        11

                                                                                        Forward foils and cross beam

                                                                                        245

                                                                                        4

                                                                                        Aft foils

                                                                                        150

                                                                                        3

                                                                                        RC receiver, servos, RC batteries etc

                                                                                        550

                                                                                        9

                                                                                        1800 mAh NiCad batteries (2)

                                                                                        660

                                                                                        11

                                                                                        2x Motors and controllers

                                                                                        585

                                                                                        10

                                                                                        Deck fittings

                                                                                        250

                                                                                        4

                                                                                        Shafting, propellers, and couplings

                                                                                        150

                                                                                        3

                                                                                        Tubing for fenders etc.

                                                                                        75

                                                                                        1

                                                                                        Stainless steel hand railing

                                                                                        170

                                                                                        3

                                                                                        Total:

                                                                                        5920

                                                                                        100

                                                                                        This is only around 72% of the correct scaled weight so the model could in this case again be built to less than the scaled weight. There is at least one reason why such a light weight could be achieved. This is simply that the model does not have to contend with 140 scaled down passengers on board (that being the maximum capacity of the RHS 140). At full scale these would weigh around 10.5 tonnes while the correctly scaled passenger weight at model scale would still have amounted to 1.312 kg. Of course my model does not have dummy passengers nor does it have any interior outfit, all of which would have added weight to the model and brought it closer to the scaled weight. At the start of the project to build this model, I estimated I had plenty of weight budget to spare and therefore I did not skimp on the hull construction material. The model is therefore quite solidly built from 2.5 mm plywood. The foils are solid wood construction with steel rod reinforcement at the leading and trailing edges. Once again, it can be seen that it is relatively straightforward to build a scale hydrofoil ferry model at a weight that is less than that of scaling down the corresponding full scale hydrofoil displacement. Fellow hydrofoil modellers in Denmark have built much lighter models than mine despite their being of a similar size. In one example, this has been achieved even though a high degree of detailed outfit has been included on the model. Some of these models are built of light alloy sheeting.

                                                                                        Ernst remarked with some satisfaction that he has managed to achieve the weight target on the crossbars of his ORMA 60 yacht model. This has reminded me of an interesting result I once stumbled across when it comes to scaling of strength between model and full scale craft, or for that matter from one size of hydrofoil to a larger geometrically identical one. It turns out that if an identical material is used and the construction of the structure (be that a foil or a cross bar) is also accurately scaled, the model will experience less stress that the larger scale equivalent for the same scale loading cases. I will use as an example the stress in two cantilevered beams being equivalent to one another except that they are at two different scales:

                                                                                        The smaller beam is solid aluminium alloy, say 6062-T6 grade with a yield strength of 110 MPa and Youngs Modulus (E) of 70 GPa, and has a cross section of 10 mm x 10 mm and a cantilever of 1.0 m span. One end is rigidly fixed to a wall. On the other end of this horizontal beam a mass of 1 kg is suspended. The maximum stress in the beam develops at the wall end and can be calculated by applying a common engineering formula:

                                                                                        Stress = M.y/I (Pascals)

                                                                                        where:M = the moment exerted in the beam at the wall end = mass x gravity x Span = 1.0 x 9.81 x 1.0 = 9.81 Nm.

                                                                                        y = the distance from the Neutral Axis of the beam cross section to its extreme fibres, which in this case is half the height of the beam or 5mm (0.005m) since the neutral axis lies at the centre of this symmetrical section beam.

                                                                                        I = the Moment of Inertia of the beam cross section. For a solid rectangular cross section this is given by: b.h3/12 where b is the base width and h is the height of the cross section of the beam. Hence I = 0.01 x 0.013 / 12 = 8.3333×10-10 m4.

                                                                                        Consequently, the stress in the beam is:

                                                                                        Stress = 9.81 x 0.005 / 8.3333×10-10 = 5.886×107 Pa or 58.86 MPa

                                                                                        Now, if we double all the dimensions of the beam and cube the mass suspended from the beam (following the reasoning of mass scaling given by Ernst), the beam cross section is now 20mm x 20mm while the span is 2.0 m. Of course the weight suspended from the beam is now increased by the dimension cubed, so it becomes 1 kg x 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 kg. Repeating the above calculation process for the larger beam and mass we now get the following stress in the larger cantilevered beam:

                                                                                        Stress = 156.96 x 0.01 / (1.3333×10-8) = 1.1772×108 Pa or 117.72 MPa

                                                                                        So it can be seen that the stress level has doubled rather than remaining constant as may at first have been expected. The example is such that while the smaller scale beam is still well below the yield stress, the larger scale beam has exceeded the yield stress for the same alloy. Taking this result the other way, the structure of a model in some instances can be built to less than the geometric equivalent thickness if the same material is used, or alternatively, a weaker material can be selected. A good example of this is the pair of foils on my 1:20 scale RHS 140 model. While the foils supporting the 65 ton full scale RHS 140 are constructed of hollow welded steel, the scaled foils for the 5.5 kg model are instead constructed mainly of solid wood. These foils have been demonstrated to be sufficiently strong even when the model has been tested by towing it in rough head seas when the model was ballasted to its correct scale weight of 8.25 kg. If the full scale hydrofoil had employed solid wood foils rather than steel foils, they would surely break on the first attempt to lift out of the water when becoming foilborne!

                                                                                        Returning to the example of the two cantilevered beams, it is also worth looking at how the deflections at the tips of these two beams compare to one another when the mass is applied. The formula for the tip deflection of a cantilevered beam with a load applied at the tip is:

                                                                                        Deflection = F.L2/(2.E.I)

                                                                                        where:F = The force applied due to the load, ie 1 x 9.81 = 9.81 N for the smaller beam case.

                                                                                        L = The beam length or span = 1 m for the smaller case.

                                                                                        E = Youngs Modulus for the beam material = 70×109 Pa or 70 GPa.

                                                                                        I = Section modulus of the beam as defined previously

                                                                                        Now, for the smaller beam, we have a deflection of:

                                                                                        Deflection = F.L2/(2.E.I) = 9.81 x 1.02 / (2 x 70×109 x 8.3333×10-10) = 0.084 m = 84 mm

                                                                                        Likewise, for the larger scale beam the deflection is 168 mm or twice as much as the smaller beam. So, just as with the stress level, the deflections increase in proportion to the scale. It must however be appreciated that allowable deflections for engineering design purposes are usually related to the size of the structure itself. In this example it can be seen that the deflections remain in the same proportion as the dimensions of the structure so are not a bigger problem at larger scale than at the smaller scale. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Update on PHM Model

                                                                                        [8 Sep 00] We are currently trying to research the water jets. However my engineer is currently building a kit plane and his free time for other projects has disappeared. Our hope is to continue this project as time permits. Meantime we are all focused on other projects, models and work. Thanks for the message I will forward it to our crew — Aimee Eng (umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoils, Inc. Discontinues R/C Model Product Line

                                                                                        [27 Jun 00] I have tried to contact Hydrofoils, Inc. They are mentioned on your site as manufacturer of a very interesting R/C electric hydrofoil. Unfortunately I heard from someone that they don’t deal with and don’t build the R/C models anymore. Do you still have any contacts to this company? Do you know if there is any of these models in stock anywhere, maybe a last surplus at Hydrofoils Inc.? Can you please help me in solving this puzzle? — Thomas Lange (tomlange@ukonline.co.uk)

                                                                                        Response…[23 Jun 00] We are not selling models anymore, and are currently concentrating only on the ferry industry. Our current business focus is on larger, high-speed marine transportation industry as indicated by the 100-kt ferry on the front of our web site home page. We no longer have the models, smaller hydrofoils, parts, or plans in production. We will advise you should we reenter that market. — Ken Cook, Hydrofoils, Inc. (kencook@hydrofoil.com)

                                                                                        Radio Controlled Model Kit Wanted Found!

                                                                                        [4 Jul 00] I have been looking for a radio controlled hydrofoil kit for some time, without luck – are you aware of any available? — Nick James (ncjames@lineone.net)

                                                                                        Response…[4 Jul 00, Updated 26 Feb 01] I suggest you contact the IHS photo archivist Malin Dixon because he is personally involved in motor-powered R/C model hydrofoil boats. There are only two R/C kits I know of personally; one was offered by Hydrofoils, Inc., but they have recently discontinued their model hydrofoils to concentrate on full size ferry vessels. The other is a historical reproduction of the German VS-8… from 32nd Parallel, whose website at http://www.32ndparallel.com/vs8.htm seems to have dropped off the net recently. There are some R/C kits, discontinued now, that can still be obtained… Shockwave, PT-50, Super Comet, etc. From time to time one of these will show up for sale on the Ebay auction site. There are photos in the IHS photo gallery. There have been articles with plans in modeling magazines such as Marine Modeling Monthly (Traplet Publications UK) about building hydrofoil R/C boats, see Graham Taylor’s RAPIER and MK1 as two examples. I have presumed that you want a motor powered boat. If it is a sailboat you want, take a look at the 750mm site in Australia. Hopefully this info is of help to you. If you encounter any other hydrofoil model products or websites in your search, please let me know about them so I can cover them on our site. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        [26 Feb 03] I thought I’d write just to let you know that after 22 years of searching ( and 3 years since posting my original email on IHS) I have finally managed to find a Super Comet PT50 model. I was approached by email in response to my posting here, and I took a risk – after 22 years I thought it was worth it, and the model arrived today. It was found in a model shop in Italy, and it looks as though all of the parts are there including the assembly instructions and decals. I’ll post some pictures when completed – hopefully in a month or so. Thanks for your help in finding the model.

                                                                                        [2 Jun 03] Thought I’d just send you a picture of the completed Condor 1. The kit has been great fun to put together and was very well engineered despite the age of it. Trials have been extremely successful with the boat going straight up on its foils and even turning without coming off – a problem which I believe these models suffered from. I think the modern equipment I’ve used has helped – the motor is more efficient as is the electronic speed controller – and the weight has been reduced as well. — Nick James (ncjames2@cwgsy.net)

                                                                                        750mm Radio-Controlled (R/C Model Sailing) Yacht Web Site

                                                                                        [3 Jun 00] Please check out our site for possible inclusion on your links page? We have been using inverted T-foils on our rudders for years to prevent nose diving. — Malcolm Smith, Secretary, 750mm R.C. Yacht Assoc. (mal@cybernautics.com.au)

                                                                                        Response…[3 Jun 00] We have added a link to your interesting site as requested and are especially interested in the sub-page on future developments for fully hydrofoil-supported variants.

                                                                                        Source of Model Testing

                                                                                        [18 Feb 00] I thought, it could be of interest for you, that there is a lot of model-building and -testing going on here at Vienna/Austria, though it’s far away from the main boatbuilding places! – If anybody has a new design and wants to test a small version, before he starts the REAL one, feel free to contact me; – don’t forget, a model of 2 meters is only 1/125 expense of a real 10 Meter Yacht. I’m building these models on request, but also to have a comparison to the speed and performance of the outrigger boats (proas – models and big ones up to 33 ft this far) I’m building. In spring I will start to build a NEW, bigger, faster and lighter Proa – so if you are interested, please reply to me. It’s a cold and lonely place right now here at Austria for a boatbuilder. — Ernst Zemann (ernstzemann@hotmail.com) website: (http://www.multihull.de/zeman/). [The webpage is no longer operative. Instead try http://community.webshots.com/user/boatbuilder – Editor]

                                                                                        Response…[18 Feb 00] Thanks for your proposal, but I have the same service in France… One of biggest model building company in the world and an hydro laboratory are offered to me a free service using engineer students to realize it… All my passed boats have been model tested… It’s a good way to get some information on realité of the VPP. If you request some information on proas, don’t hesitate to ask to me. — Guy Delage (guydelage@guydelage.fr)

                                                                                        Source of PT-20 Model Kits

                                                                                        [1 Mar 00, updated 10 Dec 00] I have a German model magazine where I can order a blue print, parts list, and description how to build a model PT-20 Tragflächenboot (hydrofoil) for about US$15.00. The model is 1:25 scale, 83 cm long, 30cm broad. Also some hovercraft model plans (SRN-1 US$15.00 and Bell SK 5 US$25.00 in French), warships, towing, sailships, airplanes, and even engines… more than 2000 different plans! For who is interested I can scan the list of models. Here are the addresses for ordering the plans:

                                                                                        Phone: 07221-508722; Fax: 07221508733; E-mail: vth-service@t-online.de; Address :Verlag für technik und handelswerk GmbH, Bestellservice, D-76526 Baden-Baden, Germany

                                                                                        That is their head office. One can also order plans in Holland: Phone :0031-294-450460; Fax: 0031-294-452782; E-mail: muiderkr@euronet.nl; Address :De muiderkring BV, Postbus 313, NL-1380 AH Weesp. They both accept: Eurocard, Mastercard, Access, and Visacard. — Mark van Rijzen (dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl)

                                                                                        Hydrofoils For R/C Model Sailing Catamaran

                                                                                        [21 Jan 00, updated 5 Feb 01] I was hoping to add hydrofoils to my new 2m sailing boat. It seems its much more complicated than I thought. I am worried about stability. The model is six foot long with out riggers six foot wide with a mast of about nine feet. The hulls are about eight inches wide. So its very wide for its length and weight. I am worried that the foils will just make it skim on top of the water. Is it just trial and error to get the angles at the proper angle? Its like I just entered a different world, there is so much to know, but it looks fun. Please look at the web site, they are the fastest model sail boats on earth, without hydrofoils. R/C Sailing – http://home.attbi.com/~radiosailing/2m/ — Jerry H. Grigg (griggair@netscape.net); Fax: USA (916) 721-1417

                                                                                        Response…[21 Jan 00] You will need a height control system and a roll control system if you are to have fully submerged hydrofoils. It is no good to just fix the angles; you need to reduce the angle of attack of the front foils as the boat lifts to its correct flying height. A simple skate has been used to control the front foil angle for ride height control in TALARIA III, a converted Bayliner, and on Trampofoils, a human powered hydrofoil, and several others. A skate runs on the water in front of the hydrofoil, and this is attached to the front foil so that the height of the skate alters the angle of the front foil. This controls the height of the front, and the back follows the front in height control, just as the front follows the skate. The roll control is more difficult. In TALARIA III an electronic control system was used to control flaps on the rear foils to stop it falling sideways, and on the Trampofoil it was up to the rider to move up to the high side if it started to roll. The wide wing, low speed and the undivided attention of the rider on the Trampofoil made this possible. A skate on each side has been used, as in HALOBATES (see www.foils.org/gallery/) for the pictures, but the skates tend to get very large if you are trying to control the angle of larger rear foils. You can’t get the amplification affect of the ride height control with a fixed rear foil, which relies on the rear foil having a larger angle of attack when it is deeper, which is true if the front is held at a fixed height. In a sailing boat, there is a large roll torque from the sail, so you want to run with much more lift on the lee side, and probably down force on the windward side, although that can be a bit dangerous, because if you lift a foil out of the water there is no downforce and you capsize. Anyhow you need to alter the angles or flaps of the main foils to counteract the torque from the sails. This will have to respond too quickly to do by hand. Our model used a “heading hold” gyroscope, with a trim input from an accelerometer that measured the tilt. The gyroscope was mounted with its axis fore – aft, as it was holding that axis steady, while it was designed to be used in a model helicopter with its axis up – down, preventing spins. There was a fast servo connected to the output of the gyroscope, and that altered the angle of attack of the foil tips, one up and one down, like ailerons on a plane. Many sailing hydrofoils use V-foils, often mounted far from the center of the boat to give roll stability. As the boat rolls, the down side has more wing in the water, so more lift. They need to be very wide but they don’t need a control system. Email me if you have any more questions. — Malin Dixon (gallery@foils.org)

                                                                                        To Build a PHM Model

                                                                                        [29 May 99] I have been researching the possibility of constructing a scale model of the Boeing PEGASUS hydrofoil. I have some line drawings from Floating Drydock. Some of the things I haven’t been able to find is good documentation of the hull form, I am looking for hull stations/frame plans. And the stowed configuration of the foils. If any of this information is available to the public, I would like to obtain some scale line drawings showing this data. If you have an Index of the available information pertaining to these boats and their schematics I would like to browse that file and possibly request other data and drawings. I have included photos of two other model ships I have built. Both are 1/72nd scale. The larger being 6′-6″ +/- long. Both are classified as is classified as “combat model warships”. The Romani class light cruiser is armed with four semi-automatic 7/32nd ball bearing guns. They operate off a 12 oz CO2 tank firing two cubic inches of air per volley. Only the number one and four turrets are armed. If the ship takes damage during a competition there are two water activated bilge pumps just forward and aft of midship. The ship is powered by a 6volt 7-10amp battery and two pitman 24v motors. It will run a scale 41kts and the running time is somewhere around….all day. The controls system is a 7channel “ACE Nautical Commander.” I believe I am up to the challenge of designing a working 3 point hydrodynamic lift vehicle. Any information that you could forward to me would be greatly appreciated. — Aimee Eng (umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        More…[29 May 99] Over the last two years there has been a boat on the Columbia River in Portland Oregon that looks like one of the PHM or PHC class hydrofoils; it has the single stack behind the superstructure. I haven’t been able to determine who owns it. As of today I’m not sure if it is still there. I realize that the 3pt fully submerged foils present a control problem but I believe that the RC helicopter gyroscopes should be able to help compensate this difficult configuration. I doubt however that I will be able to feed air over the foil and that foil control may have to be done via ailerons. I feel that the most difficult piece of modeling the phm series is the power plant. The Canadian BRAS d’OR at least had propellers, if I remember correctly. It also had the simpler V- foil configuration. Leave it to me to pick a difficult challenge. This is probably why I have yet to actually begin construction. Not to mention the lack of Hull data. — Aimee Eng (umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [30 May 99] We have been making a model submerged foil hydrofoil, and I suggest that there are three important things to consider if you want a model to actually lift.

                                                                                        1. Lift. The foil lift is the dynamic pressure times the foil area times the lift coefficient. The dynamic pressure is half the density of water times the velocity squared. The lift coefficient is up to about 1 and depends on the angle of attack but 1 is a reasonable maximum. If you use metric units of m/s, kg/m3 etc there are no conversion factors.
                                                                                        2. Thrust. You need to overcome hull drag up to the point where the boat lifts. The hull drag is usually much larger than the foil drag, and is approximately proportional to boat weight. The hull drag goes up very rapidly with boat speed, up to planing speed, but that is often about lift speed. If I remember correctly, the PHMs were water jet driven, and water jets will scale very badly, especially at the much lower take-off speeds of a model.
                                                                                        3. Control. I can send you the circuits that we are using, that are designed to work with model radio servos, if you want. Hydrofoils are unstable in ride height and roll, so you need to control both. It is impossible to do so by hand, because the boat will fall over too fast for you to react in time. Neither control has any input from the radio reciever.

                                                                                        For the ride height you need to be able to change the front foil lift from maximum to zero in about 200 ms, even if the back of the boat is changing height as well. We have a 60 ms FET servo (about $100) controlled by a capacitive height sensor. The sensor is a rigid insulated wire parallel to a strut. The capacitance to ground is dependent on how much is submerged, or the ride height. This is modified by a vertical accelerometer, to prevent the boat jumping out of the water as it reaches take off speed. We need slow control and fast control. Slow control holds the height correct but fast control keeps the vertical speed low at take-off or over waves. For roll control, the servo must be able to increase the lift on one side and reduce on the other enough to hold about a 20ø roll. It also has to be fast. We have a heading-hold gyroscope from a model helicopter, with its sensitive axis along the boat, and the gyroscope input comes from a lateral accelerometer. Again this is slow and fast control. Slow control keeps the boat from rolling and fast control keeps the roll speed low. — Malin Dixon (gallery@foils.org)

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [21 Jun 99] The level sensor that we are using on our RC model hydrofoil is not a finished product that is for sale. I can advise you, but I cannot tell you what will definitely work. The sensor is a capacitive sensor. The wire is insulated, and the capacitance to the water depends on the rod diameter, the immersed length, the thickness of the insulation and the dielectric constant of the insulation. The dielectric constant of water has an effect but it is so much large than the dielectric constant of the insulation is what matters. We have used this to control the angle of the front wing to give ride height control, but on its own it is not enough. It is fine for slow height changes, but fast height changes are a problem. The problems are that the angle of the front wing changes as the rear of the boat lifts, and that the boat can achieve a significant upwards speed while still too low. We have modified the signal from the height sensor with a vertical speed signal derived from an accelerometer. The gains from the height and the vertical speed are separately adjustable, and feed a fast servo motor that controls the angle of the front wing. The system needs to be fast, because the height is unstable and it only takes fractions of a second to achieve a big vertical speed. A model of a PHM will need roll control as well. — Malin Dixon (gallery@foils.org)

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [15 Jun 99] It appears that you are looking at two different hydrofoil ships. First off, the PLAINVIEW (AGEH-1) was stored in the mud flats of Astoria for many years. It has an exhaust on the back end of the superstructure. This ship is now moored a few miles upriver, and is owned by a church. The church accepted it as a donation. The ship moored in Astoria now is the HIGH POINT (PCH-1). The owner, Capt. Ronald Fraser’ estate is attempting to sell it. Capt. Fraser’s sister in California is the executor, and his nephew Will is the ship’s caretaker. I personally have not met or talked to Will, but I understand he is willing to show the ship to interested parties. He has very little background on the ship and its present restoration status. HIGH POINT was moved from Portland to Astoria about a year ago to conserve cost of moorage. HIGH POINT has its turbine exhausts on the stern, one on each side and an outdrive in the center of the stern for hullborne operations. If you have any particular questions, I will try to get you the answers. — Sumi Arima (arimas1@juno.com)

                                                                                        PT 50 Scale Model Hydrofoil

                                                                                        [16 Sep 99] I’m looking for info about the scale model hydrofoil PT-50, that I have seen on your photo gallery. I’m rebuilding a PT-50 that I got for free when I was 16 years old and knew nothing about hydrofoils. He had built the model to 60% of completion and never got it foilborne. He didn’t have any information or the original box, only the (incomplete) model. I have never got it foilborne either. I’m now 26 and captain on a Voskhod that is in use in Holland by Fast Flying Ferries. If you (or somebody else) have some information about the PT-50 model, please help. I also want to be a member of the IHS. — Mark van Rijzen (dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl)

                                                                                        Response…[16 Sep 99] I was delighted to hear from a working hydrofoil captain, and to receive your photos. Of course we want you to participate as a valued member of the IHS. Information about how to join can be found on the IHS website. If you have any questions after reading the information on that page, I will be glad to answer them for you. We have no info about the radio controlled scale model that appears in our photo gallery… this photo is from the EBay auction site; I never actually saw the kit. As for the real thing, the best source of details would be an old copy of Jane’s Surface Skimmers — Hydrofoils and Hovercraft. This may be available at a library locally. PT-50 was a 63-ton passenger hydrofoil ferry designed by Supramar for offshore and inter-island services. The prototype was completed early in 1958. By 1973 there were more than thirty operating regular passenger services in areas ranging from the Baltic and Mediterranean to the Japanese Inland Sea. We have only one photo on our website, located at http://archive.foils.org/gallery/Patane.jpg. Your scale model is named CONDOR 5. I believe that the CONDOR series was built by Hitachi Zosen and operated by Setonakai Kisen. I believe that some of the Condors are in operation today, but I do not know about the CONDOR 5 specifically. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Follow up message…

                                                                                        [16 Oct 99] I was glad to receive a e-mail of the IHS,and one from Malin Dixon (he put my picture on the IHS website photo gallery). I discovered some information about the Condor Ferries and the PT-50. Condor Ferries still exist, but they have no more hydrofoils. They have pictures of the fleet on their website. The website of Rodriquez Cantieri Navali has photos; they built 20 PT-50s, but none of them was built for Condor. They built only three Condor vessels: Condor 4 an RHS 140 delivered in 1974; Condor 5 an RHS 160 delivered in 1976; and Condor 7 an RHS 160F delivered in 1985. Although there was no PT-50 built as Condor 5, I named my model PT-50 “Condor 5” because at that time I had one picture and one postcard of a hydrofoil… Right! the Condor 5, which I now know is an RHS 160, not a PT-50. — Mark van Rijzen (dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl)

                                                                                        RC Hydrofoil With Automatic Control System (ACS)

                                                                                        [19 Sep 98] We have managed to get a model radio controlled hydrofoil working. I think that it is the smallest fully submerged hydrofoil ever, but that’s only because I’ve never heard of a smaller one. Here is a brief description, and the website is: www.foils.org/gallery/model.htm. The boat took a long time to develop. What we ended up with was something like this. This is from memory, so there might be small errors. Motor and drive: Model car motor, about 11 turns, driven from 8 C-cell NiCd batteries and electronic speed controller. 6:1 gearbox and 55 mm pitch propellor, 32 mm diameter. Gives about skeg thrust when stationary. Hull is from a model planing craft, but the total weight is now 3.8 kg. Wings are made from the front wing of a Trampofoil A1 cut into several pieces. Span is about 250 mm and chord about 60 mm both ends. Take off speed is about 1.5m/s. Top speed is much faster, but we haven’t measured it yet. Controls: Standard radio control gear controls motor power and rudder. Rudder is on trailing edge of front strut and is not very responsive. Turning radius is several meters. All that is the easy part. Here is the difficult part: The boat is unstable in height and roll, so control systems have been fitted for both of those. Height: Capacitive level sensor fitted in front of front strut measures ride height and controls angle of attack of the whole front wing. High speed servo motor (100 ms) is used. There is no driver input. We still have some problems. What we think is happening is that as the rear takes off, this causes the front angle of attack to fall, and the height control system is too slow or has too little gain to stop the front falling. When the front is low, it starts to rise, but when the front is low, the rear is pointing down (it has a fixed angle to the boat), so the rear falls just as the front rises, and the cycle starts again. Roll: The rear wing is in 3 parts, separated by the rear struts. The middle part is fixed, and the two outer parts, about 70 mm of span each side, move in opposition for foil control. A pendulum angle sensor is used for slow roll control, with a gyroscope for fast roll control. These control a fast servo motor which moves the outer wing parts. There is also an input from the rudder, to alter the angle as a turn is started. This seems to work well, but there were a lot of bits to get working. The boat is not very difficult to drive. Without the control systems it would be impossible. The battery life is about 5 minutes. — Malin Dixon (gallery@foils.org)

                                                                                        Tethered Hydrofoil Project Remembered Partially

                                                                                        [22 Mar 98] When I was a kid (I’m 32 now) I remember flipping through a pile of Popular .* mags and found an article on building an .049 sized tethered hydrofoil. There was mention of RC, so I’m guessing it was circa early 70s. Any info greatly appreciated as hard searches have yielded nothing. — g. (DSprock@aol.com)

                                                                                        Response…[23 Mar 98] If you manage to locate a comprehensive index of Popular Mechanics articles going way back, whether by looking in your main library or contacting the magazine, I would like to know about it. I get a lot of inquiries about old articles in the magazine and would like to know where to send the inquirers to find an answer. I wish Popular Mechanics would do as National Geographic has recently done and put all their back issues onto a CD-ROM collection. You might want to visit IHS member Ken Cook’s website at web page: http://www.hydrofoil.com. His company offers several radio controlled racing hydrofoil models. If you decide you want one of his kits, it would pay you to join IHS before buying, as he offers a good discount to IHS members! Finally, if you know the specific magazine and date of issue that you want, you can search for it on the internet auction sites, particularly Ebay. — Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Update to Previous Response…

                                                                                        [2 Sep 00] Note that Hydrofoils, Inc. is no longer manufacturing or supporting R/C Models. They are devoting their efforts to design and sale of full-size vessels. Suggest you visit our links page for several sources of hydrofoil models. – Barney C. Black (Please use the BBS to reply)

                                                                                        Hydroplane Model Sought

                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] Do you have any information which would be helpful for building a 24″ model of a hydroplane for racing purposes? I’ve been racing hydroplanes in competition for several years, and hold several records, but the yearn for speed has me looking to foils. — Andy Kunz (montana@pop.fast.net)

                                                                                        Wants to Add Foils to Victor Products Kit

                                                                                        [16 Oct 97] I am interested in obtaining any technical drawings or pictures, that might aid me in the design and installation of hydrofoils on my Victor Model Products “Wildcat” Radio Controlled Catamaran. Any suggestions as to which type of foil (ladder or single) to use would be greatly appreciated. I would like to start this project soon, so I can test the boat in the early spring. — Tracy L. St. Phillips (Laser13021@aol.com)


                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…International Hydrofoil Society

                                                                                        PO BOX 51 – CABIN JOHN MD 20818 – USA

                                                                                        (webmaster@foils.org)





                                                                                        This board has been viewed 21680 times since Apr-20-2002 .
                                                                                        (Total Views Since Board Creation on Mar-21-2002 is 22414.)


                                                                                        Questions about this board, email: bbs@foils.org
                                                                                        System Support, Email: support@bulletinboards.com

                                                                                        To Learn About Bulletin Boards:  Click Here
                                                                                        Bulletin Board Management Site: Click Here

                                                                                        (321) 984-9080
                                                                                        © 1997 – 2004 P.A. Corp. V7.1

                                                                                        Technical Journals, Papers, and Books

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Presents… 

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Bibliography
                                                                                        Hydrofoil References In Technical Journals, Papers, and Books(Mostly, But Not Entirely, Limited to Engine Powered Vessels)

                                                                                        Last Update January 29, 2016

                                                                                        NOTE: WORK IN PROGRESS, LINKS TO BE COMPLETED ASAP


                                                                                        • For Hydrofoil References in Popular Magazines and Books, Click Here
                                                                                        • For Information on the IHS Advanced Marine Vehicle CD-ROM, Click Here
                                                                                        • For More Bibliographies, Especially Sailing Related, Try the IHS Links Page)
                                                                                        • For FAQs, Posted Messages, and Discussion About Hydrofoil Design Texts, Software, and Sources, Click Here
                                                                                        • The Premier Sources For Descriptions and Principal Characteristics of Specific Military and Commercial Hydrofoils is Jane’s High Speed Marine Craft (formerly: Surface Skimmers, Hovercraft, and Hydrofoils) and Fast Ferry International
                                                                                        • Click Here To Suggest Additional Reference(s)
                                                                                        • Of course every IHS Newsletter is packed with articles about hydrofoils. To view an index of past articles in MS Excel format, Click Here

                                                                                        Go To IHS Main Page


                                                                                        1. Abbott and Von Doenhoff, ” Theory of Wing Sections” – Old but classic book still published in paperback form by Dover Publications, Inc.
                                                                                        2. Acosta, A.J., “Hydrofoils and Hydrofoil Craft,” 1973, 24 pages, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA. Sponsored in part by Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC and Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Washington, DC. Published in Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, v5 p161-184 1973. Abstract: The successful achievements of hydrofoil craft to date and the possibility of high speeds at sea are due to the greatly increased understanding in recent years of the flow past hydrofoils and to the development of foil configurations and control systems for coping with the roughness of the sea surface. It seems appropriate, therefore, to link the discussion of hydrofoils with that of progress in the craft. The general characteristics of hydrofoil craft are reviewed together with some representative modern examples. Some physical aspects of the flow past hydrofoils are described, followed by a resume of some of the recent methods used in design and analysis of hydrofoils. Available from: National Technical Information Service; 5285 Port Royal Road; Springfield VA 22151 USA. Source Data: AD-760230 u7313. Order Number: AD-760230
                                                                                        3. Alternative Hullforms for High-Performance Ferries – SNAME technical report examines the hullforms available for high-performance ferries, including planing monohulls, catamarans and other multihull vessels, small-waterplane vessels, hydrofoils, hovercraft, air-cushion vehicles, surface-effect ships, WIGs, and channel-flow-wing craft. For each type, attributes and issues are cited, and tables of principal characteristics and photographs of examples are provided. This Technical and Research Report R-51, may now be ordered from cpujols@sname.org. The 35-page report, with 22 illustrations, is being issued as a compact disk, priced at $30 ($15 for SNAME members).
                                                                                        4. Altman, R., “The Design of Supercavitating Hydrofoil Wings,” Technical Report 001-14, Hydronautics Inc., April 1968
                                                                                        5. Aroner, R. and R. M. Hubbard, “DEH, A High Endurance Escort Hydrofoil For the Fleet,” AIAA Paper No. 74-311, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, San Diego, California, February 25-27 1974.
                                                                                        6. Asseo, S.J. and F. Dell’Amico, “An analysis of three hydrofoil boat control systems,” Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories, Inc. Buffalo, 1965.
                                                                                        7. “Assessment of High Speed Waterborne Vessels and Their Builders,” Advanced Marine Systems Assoc, Inc; 9421 Chatteroy PL; Gaithersburg MD; Report No. UMTA-IT-32-0001-84-5, Aug 84, 191 pages. Available from NTIS, 5285 Port Royal RD; Springfield VA 22161. Abstract: Describes eleven of the most prominent firms in the design and construction of commercial high speed watercraft (HSW) craft, both domestic and international. The objective of this report is to identify and present data on the significant HSW vehicles currently available and their builders. For a number of vehicles currently in production and in operation, data is presented on the engineering and economic characteristics, energy efficiency, maintainability, reliability, ride quality, safety, comfort, accessibility to handicapped persons, and capital and operating costs. Engineering and economic comparison of these high speed vessels are also made with other modes of transportation.
                                                                                        8. Astolfi J-A, Dorange P., Billard J.-Y., Cid Tomas I., 2000, “An experimental investigation of cavitation inception and development on a two-dimensional Eppler hydrofoil,” March 2000, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 122, pp. 164-173.
                                                                                        9. Bailly-Cowell, G. M. (1967). “Hamburg to las Palmas on Foils.” Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, 6(12) pp: 10-12
                                                                                        10. Baker, Jr., Robert M. L., and James S. Douglas. “Preliminary Mathematical Analysis of a Rigid-Airfoil, Hydrofoil Water Conveyance.” Journal of Hydronautics 5.4 (1971): 140-147.
                                                                                        11. Ball, Edgar Scott, Jr., Lessons Learned From the Patrol Hydrofoil Missile (PHM) Program, Thesis for Master of Science in Management, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey CA, March 1979. “The PHM Project began as a major NATO acquisition program consisting of 60 or more ships for international purchase. Today the program cosists of just six ships for the United States alone. This thesis reviews the history of the program, the design considerations and the current problems experienced by the Program Manager. An analysis of the rationale behind the decisions which led to the reduction in scope of the program suggests that factors inherent to the current systems acquisition process cause the cut back in the program and that these were independent of the Program manager’s efforts. The results of the analysis suggest that these factors have the potential to affect the outcome of any acquisition program, no matter how well the hardware performs.” Approved for Public Release. Copy located in the Defense Technical Information Center, Defense Acquisition University, Fort Belvoir VA. http://www.library.dau.mil.
                                                                                        12. Bender, E., Remington, P., “Hydrofoil Design for Minimum Control Power” B.H. Beranek and Newman Report 2511, 1973.
                                                                                        13. “Bibliography – High Speed Waterborne Passenger Operations and Craft,” Authors: Advanced Marine Systems Associates, Inc, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, and Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co.; Report No. UMTA-IT-32-0001-84-2. Aug 84, 135 pages. Available from: Office of Technical Assistance, UMTA, 400 7th ST SW; Washington DC 20590 USA. Abstract: One of seven reports written under this contract to describe high speed waterborne passenger transportation, review its applicability in the US, and document its development in the free world. This report presents a comprehensive listing of available literature (in English) on the subject of High speed waterborne passenger transportation. Each reference in the bibliography indicates the source of the document, and whether the document contains information in the following categories: vehicle characteristics (e.g., craft features, performance and human factors); design consideration’; and economic/financial analysis of such services. Over 1,200 document written prior to Sep 82 are cited.
                                                                                        14. Blade and Hydrofoil Section Design – The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) has published the technical bulletin Blade and Hydrofoil Section Design. This bulletin includes the Blade and Hydrofoil Section Design Codes with a 29 page Owner’s Guide, and a 184 page Technical Report. It updates and complements T&R Bulletin 1-17. The Design Codes and Owner’s Guide provide tools for the design and performance evaluation of blade and hydrofoil sections. The programs are provided in both DOS and Mac formats and will run on most personal computers. The Technical Report provides analytical background information and is of interest primarily to those who wish to adapt or enhance the programs. This new publication is identified as Technical and Research Bulletin 1-45. It is being issued as a CD, and may be ordered by contacting cpujols@sname.org or by calling 201-798-4800. It is priced at $50 ($25 for SNAME members).
                                                                                        15. Bovee, E.C., “Design and Construction of the PC(H) Hydrofoil Patrol Craft.” Paper Presented to Northwest Section Meeting, SNAME, Seattle WA, 5-6 October 1963.
                                                                                        16. Brown, DK, JP Catchpole, and AM Shand, “The Evaluation of the Hydrofoil HMS SPEEDY,” Royal Institution of Naval Architects Transactions, Volume: 126, 1984, 16p., ISSN: 0035-8967. HMS SPEEDY was procured in 1979 to provide the Royal Navy with an opportunity to gain practical experience in the operation and support of a modern hydrofoil, to establish technical and performance characteristics, and to assess the capability of a hydrofoil in the UK ‘Offshore Tapestry’ role. The present paper describes the operational and technical evaluation of HMS SPEEDY undertaken in 1980-82, and outlines the results obtained. Supplemental Information: Transactions paper; Also in Naval Architect, January 1984 issue
                                                                                        17. Buermann, T.M., Leehey, LCDR P. (USN), and CDR J. J. Stillwell (USN), “An Appraisal of Hydrofoil Supported Craft.” Paper Presented at SNAME Meeting, New York, NY, 12-13 November 1953.
                                                                                        18. Bullock, Otis R. and Brian Oldfield, “Production PHM Hull Structure Producibility Design,” AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington, Virginia, September 1976.
                                                                                        19. Charlier, Jacques J., (Catholic University of Louvain), “Jetfoils on the Ostend-Dover Route: A Technical and Commercial Appraisal,” Maritime Policy and Management, Vo. 17, Issue 2, Apr 90, pp 123-132.
                                                                                        20. Chatterton, H.A., T.H. Sarchin, “Challenges to Hydrofoil Ship System Technology”, Naval Engineers Journal, February 1972.
                                                                                        21. Chen, Jiahn-Horng, “A Regression Relation between Cavitation Number and Cavity Length for Two-Dimensional Supercavitating Hydrofoils,” Proceedings, National Science Council ROC(A) Taipei. (Link broken “//nr.stic.gov.tw/” on 040120wnw)
                                                                                        22. Christy, John, “Punch-Packing Sea Skimmers — Boeing’s Hydrofoils Are Some of the Fastest Water-Fliers Afloat Today,” International Combat Arms, The Journal of Defense Technology, May 1985 p.39, 68-74. (Background and capability summary and photos of PHMs, plus historical reference to and photos of Soviet hydrofoils such as Mo VI, PA-4, the P-6, P-8, P-10 classes if torpedo boats (foils retrofitted), Turya class, Matka class, and Pchela class, Sparviero, Nibbio class, TUCUMCARI, FLAGSTAFF, et al.
                                                                                        23. Ciancitto, Antonino, Evoluzione dei Motori e Delle Macchine Terrestri, Marittime, Aeree e Spaziali… Dell’auto Electtrica al Naviplano dal Disco Volante al Razzo Cosmico. A technical book on the evolution of the engines and of the machines for land, sea, air and space. From the electric car to the hydrofoil ship; from the flying saucer to cosmic rockets. Evolution of helicopters and jet engines. Text in Italian. Well illustrated with technical line drawings and innumerable scientific formulae. 142 pages. Softcover.
                                                                                        24. Clark, D.J.,W.C. O’Neill, D.C. Wight, “Balancing Mission Requirements and Hydrofoil Design Characteristics”, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, April 1978, Paper 78-725.
                                                                                        25. Coates, J.T.S., R.G. Merritt, and T.C. Weaton, “Why PHM? Further Studies on Roles and Missions”, AIAA Paper 78-729, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, San Diego, California (April 17-19, 1978)
                                                                                        26. Colucci, Frank; “Sweeping the Sea,” Air International, Vol. 49, No. 2, August 1995, pp 73-78. Discusses airborne mine sweeping system history. It includes two photos of the Mk 105 hydrofoil sled, one of it being towed behind an MH-53E helicopter.
                                                                                        27. Connor, G. G. (1967). “Power for Hydrofoils.” Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, Vol. 6 No. (11) pp: 8-13
                                                                                        28. Crew, P. R., “The Hydrofoil Boat; Its History and Future Prospects.” Quarterly Transactions, The Institution of Naval Architects, Vol. 100, No. 4, October 1958.
                                                                                        29. Crimi, Peter. “Experimental Study of the Effects of Sweep pn Hydrofoil Loading and Cavitation.” Journal of Hydronautics 4.1 (1970): 3-9.
                                                                                        30. Davis, Jack (Port Authority of New York and New Jersey), “Those Fabulous Flying Ferries,” Portfolio, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 90, pp 33-40. Document Source: Northwestern University Transportation Library DAM2927
                                                                                        31. Dogan, P., Decanico, F., Gamber, F. Mederios, R., “Hydrofoil Universal Digital Autopilot (HUD AD), Phase I Final Report” Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Report R-745, January 1973.
                                                                                        32. Dogan, P., Gamber, F. S. and Decanto, F. T., “Hydrofoil Universal Digital Autopilot (HUDAP), Phase I Final Report.” Charles Stark Draper Lab, Mass. Inst. of Tech., Report 745, January 1973.
                                                                                        33. Duff, Karl M., H. Schmidt, and M.R. Terry, “The NATO PHM Ship and Weapons Systems Technical Evaluation Program”, AIAA Paper 76-848, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Naval Vehicles Conference, Arlington, VA, Sept 20-22, 1976.
                                                                                        34. Duff, Karl M., “The NATO Patrol Missile Hydrofoil (PHM)”, AIAA Paper No. 72-596, AIAA/SNAME/USN Advanced Marine Vehicles Meeting, Annapolis, MD, July 17-19, 1972.
                                                                                        35. Duff, Cdr. Kark M. “The NATO Patrol Missle Hydrofoil (PHM).” Journal of Hydronautics 7.3 (1973): 97-103.
                                                                                        36. Eames, M. C. and T. G. Drummond, “HMCS BRAS D’OR-Sea Trials and Future Prospects”, Transactions Royal Institute of Naval Architects, Vol. 115, 1973.
                                                                                        37. Eames, M. C. and Jones, E. A., “HMCS BRAS D’OR-An Open Ocean Hydrofoil Ship.” Transactions Royal Institute of Naval Architects, Vol. 113, 1971.
                                                                                        38. Eames, M. C., “A Review of Hydrofoil Development in Canada.” Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        39. Ellsworth, W. M., “The US Navy Hydrofoil Development Program-A Status Report.” AIAA Paper 67-351, Presented at AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Meeting, Norfolk, VA, 22-24 May 1967.
                                                                                        40. Ellsworth, W. M., “Twenty Foilborne Years – The US Navy Hydrofoil HIGH POINT, PCH-1″, David Taylor Research Center, 1987.
                                                                                        41. Eppler, Richard, “Airfoil Design and Data,” Springer-Verlag, 1990.
                                                                                        42. “Evaluation of the Boeing JETFOIL SPEEDY in the Fishery Protection Role”, Article in Combat Craft, p. 158, July 1983.
                                                                                        43. Existing and Former High Speed Waterborne Passenger Transportation Operations in the United States, Aug 1984, Report No: UMTA-IT-32-0001-84-3; Publisher/Corporate Author(s): Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Company; 1990 K Street, NW; Washington DC 20006, Urban Mass Transportation Administration; Office of Technical Assistance, 400 7th Street, SW; Washington DC 20590; and Advanced Marine Systems Associates, Inc.; 9421 Chatteroy Place; Gaithersburg MD 20879 USA. Abstract: This is one of seven reports written under this contract to describe high speed waterborne passenger transportation, review its applicability in the United States, and document its development in the free world. This report reviews the history of high speed waterborne passenger transportation in the United States. High speed is defined as operating at 25 knots or greater. A summary is included which outlines the principal causes of success or failure of the 19 U.S. operations in the report. Failure of high speed waterborne transportation as a public transit mode in the United States has usually been due to some combination of the following four factors: use of an unproven technology; use of only one boat; insufficient market research, resulting in the selection of routes with insufficient market potential: and insufficient capital. Available from: Urban Mass Transportation Administration; Office of Technical Assistance, 400 7th Street, SW; Washington DC 20590 USA
                                                                                        44. Ford, T. (1967). Seaspeed. Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, 6(12) pp: 30-31, 6
                                                                                        45. Frauenberger, H.C., “SHIMRIT Mark II Hydrofoil For The Israeli Navy”, Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        46. Gallington, Roger W. “Ram Wing Surface Effect Boat.” Journal of Hydronautics 7.3 (1973): 118-123.
                                                                                        47. Gamber, F. and R. Medeirus(Medetrios?), “Hydrofoil Universal Digital Autopilot (HUDAD) Phase II Final Report”, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Report R-817, May 1974.
                                                                                        48. Gebhardt, John C., “The skin friction of a hydrofoil near a free surface,” Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1968.
                                                                                        49. Gibson, G. R. (1967). “Expo 67 – c
                                                                                        50. Giuffrida, G. (1967). “Improvement in Foilborne Navigation.” Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, 6(11) pp: 17-19
                                                                                        51. Graham, C., T.E. Fahy, J.L. Grostick, “A Comparative Analysis of Naval Hydrofoil and Displacement Ship Design”, SNAME Transactions, 1976.
                                                                                        52. Graig, W. A. “Comment on “Canadian Advances in Surface-Pierciing Hydrofoils”.” Journal of Hydronautics 8.2 (1974): 74-76.
                                                                                        53. Grimm, Martin, “Transverse Stability of Surface Piercing Hydrofoils,” International Hydrofoil Society Newsletter, Summer 1998, pp. 7-9. The stability criteria presented in the IMCO Code of Safety for Dynamically Supported Craft, now superseded by the International Maritime Association (IMO) High Speed Craft Code, provides an equation for assessing foilborne metacentric height (GM) of surface-piercing hydrofoils in the design stage. An alternative method which addresses several limitations of this equation has been implemented in a short computer program, and representative results for typical foil designs are presented. A more extensive assessment of the results, a source code listing, and example input files are available from the author to those willing to examine this subject in further detail and share their findings. Click Here to view the article in Adobe Acrobat format.
                                                                                        54. Griswold, John W., “PHM/JETFOIL Reliability and Service Experience,” AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicle Conference, Arlington, Virginia, September 1976.
                                                                                        55. “Grumman M161 – Israel’s Combat Hydrofoil”, Defense Attaché, pp 11-21, No. 5, 1981.
                                                                                        56. “Guide For Implementing High Speed Waterborne Passenger Transportation Services,” Authors: Advanced Marine Systems Associates, Inc, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, and Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co. Sep 84. Available from: Office of Technical Assistance, UMTA, 400 7th ST SW; Washington DC 20590 USA. Abstract: This guide is designed as a technical report for potential High Speed Waterborne (HSW) service operators, craft builders, and investors. It is intended to assist in the key tasks required to assess the feasibility of and implement HSW service. These tasks include market analysis; selecting HSW craft; fulfilling regulatory requirements; obtaining financing; and developing and implementing service. The disappointing record to date of implementing HSW service in the US demonstrated the need for this guide. This guide draws on the lessons learned from these past attempts to start HSW service in the US as well as on the experiences of many successful foreign HSW operators. It should be recognized that any compilation of data and methods for evaluation will have some limitations. Recognizing these limitations before initiating a feasibility evaluation will improve the overall accuracy of the results. Limitations can be placed in the following categories: vehicle characteristics that are continually being modified and improved; newly available and proven HSW vehicles will replace some of the HSW vehicles listed; regulatory decisions that may change from location to location and from time to time; and ridership that may be influenced by local, political, and economic considerations.
                                                                                        57. Guidoni, A., Seaplanes – “15 years of Naval Aviation”, Journal R.A.S., vol. XXXII, no. 205, Jan 1928, pp. 25-64
                                                                                        58. Hamilton, F. M., C.W. Pritchett, and H.H. Hudgins, “Technical and operational characteristics of high performance watercraft;” Washington, D.C. : U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Research and Development ; Springfield, Va. : Available through the National Technical Information Service, 1975.
                                                                                        59. Haney, Dan G. and Stanton R. Smith, “Economic Feasibility of Passenger Hydrofoil Craft in U.S. Domestic Foreign Commerce;” prepared for Maritime Administration, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Stanford Research Institute. Menlo Park, Calif. : [distributed by Office of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce], 1961
                                                                                        60. Hayward, L., “The History of Hydrofoils.” A Series of Articles Published in Hovering Craft & Hydrofoils, Kalerghi Publications, London, England, Vol. 5, 1966.
                                                                                        61. Hefazi, Hamid; Orhan Kural; Hsun Chen; and Tuncer Cebeci, Professors; Eric Besnard, Adeline Schmitz, Kalle Kaups, and George Tzong, Research Associates, “Hydrofoil Design and Optimization for Fast Ships, Proceedings of the 1998 ASME International Congress and Exhibition Anaheim, CA, Nov, 1998. Abstract: The paper presents a multi-disciplinary design/optimization method for the conceptual design of a hydrofoil based fast ship. The method is used to determine the maximum achievable lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) of an isolated foil-strut arrangement (hopefully greater than 50) at high transit speeds (greater than 75 knots) while lifting masses of 5,000 and 10,000 tons. First, the tools necessary for the study are presented. They comprise a panel method to compute three-dimensional flows around arbitrary configurations with a model for the free surface, a foil cross-section optimization tool, a strut cross-section design tool, and a structural analysis tool. The computational tools are then integrated into a multi-disciplinary design/optimization approach, which is applied to the design of single foil and biplane configurations. Results show that the goal of L/D = 50 is achievable for 75 knots (assuming that techniques can be developed for reducing the skin friction drag to a quarter of its nominal value) and, that for 90 knots, L/D ratios around 45 can be reached. The corresponding break horsepower requirements for 10,000 tons are around 130 khp and less than 200 khp, respectively. Full text posted at: www.csulb.edu/colleges/coe/ae/ae_dept/images/pdf/asme_paper.pdf
                                                                                        62. Hockberger, William A., “Defining a Ferry Business.” Paper presented at the SNAME1997 Transportation Operations, Management, and Economics Symposium at the Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, May 14-15, 1997.
                                                                                        63. Hoerner, Sighard F., Dr. – Ing, Fluid-Dynamic Drag, Practical Information on Aerodynamic Drag and Hydrodynamic Resistance, published by the author, 1965 (also by the same author with Henry V. Borst: Fluid Dynamic Lift. Both books are a “must” for hydrofoil designers)
                                                                                        64. Horn, Captain Frank, USN, “PHM Squadron Two Operational Experience”, AIAA/SNAME/ASNE 7th Marine Systems Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 1983.
                                                                                        65. Hydrofoil Handbook, Gibbs and Cox, Inc. New York, 1954. Prepared by Gibbs and Cox, Inc. acting as the design agent of the Bath Iron Works Corporation under Office of Naval Research contract NONR-507 (00)
                                                                                        66. Ikonnikov, V.V. and A.I.Maskalik. Osobennosty proektirovaniya i konstruktsii sudov na podvodnykh krylyakh. L., Sudostroyenie, 1987 (“Peculiarities of designing and constructing hydrofoils”, in Russian)
                                                                                        67. Imlay, Frederick H, “Theoretical Motions of Hydrofoil Systems”, NACA Report 918, 1948. Results are presented of an investigation undertaken to develop theoretical methods of treating the motions of hydrofoil systems and to determine some of the important parameters. Variations of parameters include three distributions of area between the hydrofoils, two rates of change of downwash angle with angle of attack, three depths of immersion, two dihedral angels, two rates of change of lift with immersion, three longitudinal hydrofoil spacings, two radii of gyration in pitching, and various horizontal and vertical locations of the center of gravity. Graphs are presented. This 1948 report has been posted in full on the web by NASA. “The use of hydrofoils as an alternative to planing bottoms or hulls has been of interest for some time. Guidoni advocated the use of hydrofoils as a means of improving the take-off and rough=water performance of seaplanes as early as 1911.”
                                                                                        68. International Hydrofoil Society, “Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Celebration and Conference”, Collection of Hydrofoil Papers, Washington, D.C., June 1995. (Copies still available. The cost per copy for mail delivery in the USA or Canada is US$18.50. For delivery to other countries, the cost per copy is US$25.00. Send questions about the Proceedings to IHS Treasurer. For instructions on how to order, Click Here.
                                                                                        69. Irvine, James F. and Donald T. Blake, “Operational evaluation of the hydrofoil concept for U. S. Coast Guard missions, Phase I : Report of operations with the USCGC Flagstaff (WPBH-1)” Washington : U. S. Coast Guard, Office of Research and Development, 1975.
                                                                                        70. Irvine, James F. and Donald T. Blake, ” Operational evaluation of the hydrofoil concept for U. S. Coast Guard missions, Phase II : Record of additional operations with USCGC Flagstaff (WMBH-1);” Washington : U. S. Coast Guard, Office of Research and Development, 1975.
                                                                                        71. Irvine, James F. and Donald T. Blake, “Operational evaluation of the hydrofoil concept for U. S. Coast Guard missions, Phase III : Report of operations with USCGC High Point (WMEH-1);” Washington : U. S. Coast Guard, Office of Research and Development, 1975.
                                                                                        72. Jackson, L. J., “Recent PHM Operational Experience”, ASNE Proceedings of High Performance Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington VA, June 1992.
                                                                                        73. Jaques, Bob, “Eggshells on Razor Blades Revisited: High-Speed Craft – Dismissed As Eggshells On Razorblades in Their Hydrofoil Infancy — May Have Revolutionized Ferry Operations of Late, But Old-Fashioned Safety Worries Are Resurfacing, Seatrade Review 1996
                                                                                        74. Jeffrey, N. E., and W. E. Ellis. “Proteus-A Versatile Vehicle for Open-Water Hydrodynamics Research.” Journal of Hydronautics, Vol 4. No. 2, April 1970: 60-65.
                                                                                        75. Jeffrey, N. E. and M. C. Eames, “Canadian Advances in Surface-Piercing Hydrofoils.” SNAME Journal of Hydronautics, Vol. 7. No. 2, April 1973.
                                                                                        76. Jewell, D. A. “Hydrofoil Performance in Rough Water”, Paper presented at AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, San Diego, CA, February 25-27, 1974.
                                                                                        77. Johnston, Robert J., and John R. Meyer, “100 Years of Overcoming Archimedes Principle”, SNAME Southeast Section Centennial 1893-1993, February 9-10, 1993.
                                                                                        78. Johnston, Robert J. and O’Neill, Wm. C., “A Ship Whose Time Has Come-and Gone”, Paper presented at AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, Baltimore, MD, 2-4 October 1979.
                                                                                        79. Johnston, R.J. and W.C. O’Neill, “The Development of Automatic Control Systems for Hydrofoil Craft”, International Hovercraft, Hydrofoil and Advanced Transit Systems Conference, Brighton, England, May 1974.
                                                                                        80. Johnston, R.J., “Historical Perspective”, Hydrofoil Lecture Day, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professional Summer, July 8, 1975.
                                                                                        81. Johnston, Robert J., “History of US Involvement in Developing the Hydrofoil.” Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        82. Jones, E. A., “RX Craft, a Manned Model of the RCN Hydrofoil Ship BRAS D’OR.” SNAME Journal of Hydronautics, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 1967.
                                                                                        83. Kaji, M., Y. Nishi, and Y. Yamagami, “Prediction Method of Motions of Hydrofoil Vessels,” Journal of the Kansai Society of Naval Architects, Issue 214, Sep 90, 6 pages. ISSN: 0389-9101. Abstract: To respond to the need for high speed transportation, the hydrofoil vessel, supported partially or totally by foil lift, has been widely investigated. Because these investigations have included few studies of hydrofoil vessel motions, however, the authors studied these motions both theoretically and experimentally. They show that the unsteady characteristics of the hydrofoil have to be included in the hydrodynamic coefficients of the motion equations used for prediction. It is also confirmed, based on experiments, that lifting link theory is useful for calculation the unsteady characteristics of the three-dimensional hydrofoil under a free surface.
                                                                                        84. Kaplan, P., “Use of Jet Flapped Hydrofoils as Ships Anti-Pitching Fins”, Oceanics Report 6413.
                                                                                        85. King, James H. and M. Devine, “HANDE-A Computer-Aided Design Approach for Hydrofoil Ships”, Naval Engineer’s Journal, Vol. 93, Issue: 1, April 1981. Presented at ASNE Day, 30 April-1 May 1981. Session Title: Ship Design III, Paper No. 3. Abstract: A powerful computer-aided design tool for use in hydrofoil ship engineering, the Hydrofoil Analysis and Design (HANDE) Program, is described. Its relevance, structure, features, and use are delineated. The value of HANDE for design verification and variation, research studies, and rapid response studies is related through case histories. Future application and development of HANDE and related design tools are forecast. Available from: American Society of Naval Engineers; 1012 14th Street, NW; Washington DC 20005 USA.
                                                                                        86. King, James H., “The Evolution of the NIBBIO Class Hydrofoil From TUCUMCARI“, Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        87. King, John W., “The PHM-The NATO and US Requirements”, AIAA Paper No. 83-0614, AIAA/SNAME/ASNE 7th Marine Systems Conference, New Orleans, February 23-25,1983.
                                                                                        88. Lacey, R. E., “A Progress Report on Hydrofoil Ships.” Quarterly Transactions, Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Vol. 107, No. 1, January 1965.
                                                                                        89. Lang, Thomas G. “Preliminary Design of Hydrofoil Cross Sections as a Function of Cavitation Number, Lift, and Strength.” Journal of Hydronautics 4.3 (1970): 104-112.
                                                                                        90. Lunde, J. K. and H. A. Walderhaug, “300 tons, 50 knots hydrofoil Craft;” second report (Johannes Krzywinski), 1916- [S.l.] : Office of Naval Research, [19??]
                                                                                        91. Lynch, Thomas G., “The Flying 400”, Canada’s Hydrofoil Project, Nimbus Publishing Limited, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1983, ISBN 0-920852-22-X.
                                                                                        92. Mahig, J. “Effect of Sweep Angle and Drag on the Flutter.” Journal of Hydronautics 7.3 (1973): 104-108.
                                                                                        93. Mandel, P., Seagoing Box Scores and Seakeeping Criteria for Monohull, SWATH, Planing, Hydrofoil, Surface Effect Ships, and Air Cushion Vehicles. March 1979. 98 pages, Report No: DTNSRDC/SDD-79/1 Final Rpt., ISBN: SF 43-411-291; ISSN: 62543N. Publisher/Corporate Author(s): David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center, Bethesda MD 20084 USA. Abstract: Three seagoing box scores applicable to any vehicle operating on the surface of the ocean are defined and assessed. One of the box scores is directly useful for calculating the operational worth and the technical seagoing merit of vehicles performing ocean surveillance-like functions. The second box score is similarly useful for the ordinary transportation function of vehicles. The third box score is useful for measuring the technical seagoing merit of vehicles performing any function. This work brings together prescribed values of 18 seakeeping criteria for monohulls, small-waterplane-area twin-hull (SWATH) ships, planing craft, surface effect ships, and air cushion vehicles from sources indicated in the report. The nature of each criterion is discussed and the prescribed values of these 18 criteria for each vehicle type are compared and discussed. Although some of the prescribed values of these 18 criteria are not reconcilable, other values, obtained from independent sources, show remarkable agreement. At least one new criterion not included in Table 2 is needed for monohulls. Appendixes A, B, and C contain a useful summary of important results of Olson’s massive work in a form not presented in his work. The usefulness and limitations of the frequency and time domain ship motion data bases developed for monohulls are described in Appendix D. The existence of these two data bases makes it possible to calculate the values of several of the criteria of Table 2 by two completely independent means.
                                                                                        94. Martin, M., “The Stability Derivatives of A Hydrofoil Boat – Part II”, Technical Report 001-10(II), Hydronautics Inc., January 1963
                                                                                        95. Matveev Konstantin He has recently co-authored, with V. Dubrovsky and S. Sutulo, the book Small Waterplane Area Ships. In particular, he wrote a section on hydrofoils that provides simplified engineering methods for calculating lift and drag of low and high aspect ratio foils (including free surface effects), cavitation onset, vortex wash and wake behind a foil, and unsteady effects. Appendix G is on dynamic unloading and foil design, More information about this book and ordering information can be found at the Backbone Publishing web-site http://www.backbonepublishing.com/DreamHC/Page1.html. (070418 wnw)
                                                                                        96. Matveev Konstantin I., and Ivan Ivanovich Matveev, “Hydrodynamic Sound Generation on a Hydrofoil,” 1996, 12th Conference On High-Speed Ship Design, Nizhiy Novgorod, Russia. Abstract: Mechanism of sound generation on a hydrofoil is considered. Mathematical model of the hydrofoil ‘singing’ effect is proposed. The frequencies of ‘singing’ are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with experiments. Contact the author to discuss: Konstantin I Matveev, email: matveev@hydrofoils.org, website: www.hydrofoils.org
                                                                                        97. Matveev Konstantin I. and Ivan Ivanovich Matveev, “Estimation and Compensation of Hydrofoil Deformations During a Season of Operation,” International Hydrofoil Society Newsletter, Summer 2000; Abstract: “One of the restrictions on the use of commercial hydrofoil crafts, which have some advantages in comparison with common displacement ships, is the necessity for specialized maintenance of the foil systems. Such work usually requires complicated equipment and experienced specialists. This paper offers a new method effectively restoring a hydrofoil after foil damage. A simplified method for conservation of the lift coefficient, which greatly influences on ship’s performance, is obtained from consideration of the factors defining the lift. The technology of the process is briefly described. This method enables operators to reduce repair expenses and time drastically, which is very important during a season of operation.” Click Here to view the full text of the article. Contact the author to discuss: Konstantin I Matveev, email: matveev@hydrofoils.org, website: www.hydrofoils.org
                                                                                        98. Matveev, Konstantin I. and Ivan Ivanovich Matveev, “Tandem Hydrofoil System,” Ocean Engineering 28 (2000) 253-261. Abstract: “A tandem hydrofoil system enables an improvement in the lift-drag ratio of a high -speed ship. The conditions for favorable application of this type of foil structure are determined. The data on hydrofoil boats using a tandem system are presented. The problem of the stability of the vertical plane motion for a hydrofoil with bow and stern foils is considered. The general conditions providing the stability are obtained.” Contact the author to discuss: Konstantin I Matveev, email: matveev@hydrofoils.org, website: www.hydrofoils.org. Copy can be found in libraries subscribing to Ocean Engineering, or it can be ordered directly from the publisher at http://www.elsevier.com/.
                                                                                        99. Matveev Konstantin I., “Investigation of Hydrofoil ‘Singing’ in the Carman Approximation,” Phystech Journal, Vol.2, No.2, 1996. Abstract: “The effect of hydrofoil ‘singing’ has been investigated. The mechanism of sound generation is considered and a mathematical model of the process is proposed. The frequency of sound generated by a hydrofoil and the sounf intensity distribution are estimated. Experimental data are compared to calculations. Countermeasures against the hydrofoil ‘singing’ are proposed.” Contact the author to discuss: Konstantin I Matveev, email: matveev@hydrofoils.org, website: www.hydrofoils.org
                                                                                        100. Merritt, R.G. and R.L. Herechkowitz, “Variations on a Single Theme: Future Configurations and Growth of the Patrol Hydrofoil Combatant (PHM)”, AIAA Paper 76-854, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington, Virginia (September 20-22, 1976)
                                                                                        101. Meyer, John R., and James R. Wilkins, “Hydrofoil Development and Applications” ASNE Proceedings of High Performance Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington VA, June 1992.
                                                                                        102. Meyer, John, Ships That Fly. About 10 years ago John collected a lot of material about hydrofoils and put it all together in a book called Ships That Fly. It became a story of the modern hydrofoil covering the early days of hydrofoil inventors and experimenters and taking the reader through over 150 pictures and illustrations of hydrofoils leading to those of recent years. He recently had the pages of the book scanned and put in a pdf file and placed on a CD that is being offered for sale.You will note that Chapter 6, The US Navy Fleet Hydrofoil-PHM, ends with a very optimistic view of PHMs in the current US Navy, and larger hydrofoils in its future. However, this was not to be. Several years following the completion of my book, Ships That Fly, there were events surrounding the US Navy PHM program that are described in an Addendum to Chapter 6. All six PHM ships were decommissioned on July 30, 1993. This was the only time the US Navy has decommissioned an entire class of ships on the same day. This addendum describes some of the events leading to this sad day for the US Navy and the hydrofoil community. Also, documented are the many attempts to save the Ship, the day of the ceremony, attempts to save the ships even after the decommissioning, and finally the subsequent disposal of the ships and their status today.John also collected a series of over 140 hydrofoil pictures and illustrations, and created a Hydrofoil Slide Show, entitled: A Century of Hydrofoil Development. All three of these files are on the CD. To find out more, log onto: http://themeyers.org/ShipsThatFly/index.html
                                                                                        103. Miller, Boyce E., and Harvey P. Hack. “Impressed-Current Cathodic Protection.” Journal of Hydronautics July 1973: 108-111.
                                                                                        104. Mitchell, T. R. … [et al.] “Hydrofoils for the fisheries law enforcement mission of the U. S. Coast Guard;” Washington : U. S. Coast Guard ; Springfield, Va. : Available through the National Technical Information Service, 1975.
                                                                                        105. Mitchell, T.R., J.P. Donnelly, and J.A. Nevendorffer, “Observations of the performance of TUCUMCARI (PGH-2) in the U.S. Coast Guard mission oriented trials;” Arlington, Va., Center for Naval Analyses, 1973.
                                                                                        106. Mitchell, T. R., L. S. Cohan, and C. H. Heider, “The utility of high-performance watercraft for selected missions of the United States Coast Guard;” Center for Naval Analyses, Arlington, Va. Arlington, Va. 1972.
                                                                                        107. Modern Ships and Craft, Chapter V – Hydrofoils, Special Edition of the Naval Engineers Journal, February 1985. (Contact IHS for a copy).
                                                                                        108. Moorwood, John, “Hydrofoil Options.” Amateur Yacht Research Society (AYRS), #90 July 1998 – Covers different design ideas and approaches for sailing hydrofoils.
                                                                                        109. Myers, G.R., “Observations and Comments on Hydrofoils”, Paper Presented at the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Spring Meeting, Seattle, WA., May 13-14, 1965.
                                                                                        110. Noreen, A.E., P.R. Gill, and W.M. Feifel, Boeing Marine Systems, Inc., “Foilborne Hydrodynamic Performance of Jetfoil,” Journal of Hydronautics, Vol. 14, No. 2, Apr 1980, pp. 56-62. The Boeing Jetfoil Model 929-115 hydrofoil ship was derived from Model 929-100, with increased forward foil area for larger load-carrying capacity. Forward and aft foil contours were revised to increase cavitation margin. New hydrodynamic design methods were employed to maximize foil thickness for minimum structural weight. Prediction of foilborne cruise performance was based upon theoretical analysis, model test data, and full-scale trial data from Model 929-100. Extensive flowfield observations were made of the foil systems during sea trials of the first Model 929-115 produced. Good agreement was found between predicted and observed cavitation and ship performance characteristics. Sensitivity of ship performance to operating variables was determined from sea trial data.
                                                                                        111. Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics (1967). “Hydrofoil Boats or Hovercraft?.” Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, 6(11) pp: 24-27
                                                                                        112. Oakley, O. H., “Hydrofoils-A State of the Art Summary.” Proceedings of the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, National Meeting on Hydrofoils and Air Cushion Vehicles, 17-18 September 1962.
                                                                                        113. Olling, D.S., and R.G. Merritt, “Patrol Combatant Missile Hydrofoil-Design Development and Production – A Brief History”, High Speed Surface Craft, January-February 1981.
                                                                                        114. “Operational testing and evaluation of the hydrofoil seacraft DENISON from June 1962 through 1963.” Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. [Bethpage, N.Y., 1963?]
                                                                                        115. Ostersehlte, Christian, “Tragflächenboote von der Unterweser — Die BREMER PIONIER und ihre beiden Vorgänger,” Bremisches Jahrbuch, Band 79, 2000, pp. 145 – 196. The predecessor boats of the title are the Focke-Schaper-Tragflächenboot (Aug 1951) and TOM-TOM II (Oct 1951).
                                                                                        116. Patch, David A., “Operational Utilization of the Patrol Hydrofoil Missile (PHM)”, First International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, July 27-30, 1982.
                                                                                        117. Peek, R. and L. Bauer, “M-151 Transmission for Mark II Hydrofoils,” AIAA-2084, September 1981.
                                                                                        118. Petrie, D. M., “Operational and Developmental Experience on the US Navy Hydrofoil HIGH POINT.” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 3, No. 1, January-February 1966.
                                                                                        119. Pieroth, C., “Grumman Design M163, a 2400 Metric Ton Air Capable Hydrofoil Ship”, AIAA Paper 78-749, AIAA /SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, San Diego, CA, April 17-19, 1978.
                                                                                        120. Plotkin, A. “Laminar Boundary-Layer Induced Wave Forces on a Submerged Flat-Plate Hydrofoil.” Journal of Hydronautics 8.2 (1974): 47-52.
                                                                                        121. Prandtl, Ludwig and Oscar G Tietjens; Applied Hydro- and Aeromechanics, ISBN: 048660375X. A text book of over 300 pages (5-3/8” x 8-1/2”). Prandtl was a leading aerodynamics theorist. This work has is reported as “one of the finest introductory works in the field”. Topics include flow through pipes, Prandtl’s own pioneering work on boundary layers, drag, airfoil theory, and entry conditions for flow in a pipe. Professor Tietjens is known for his research and development of experimental hydrofoil boats prior to and during the second world war. While it is uncertain whether the book deals specifically with hydrofoil hydrodynamics, it is listed by IHS due to the association of at least one of its authors with hydrofoil craft development. The book could be ordered through DoverPublications.com for $10.95 when this reference was spotted.
                                                                                        122. Report to Congress: Study of High Speed Waterborne Transportation Services Worldwide, August 1984, Publisher/Corporate Author(s): Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Company ; 1990 K Street, NW; Washington DC 20006, Office of the Secretary of Transportation ; 400 7th Street, SW; Washington DC 20590, Advanced Marine Systems Associates, Inc.; 9421 Chatteroy Place; Gaithersburg MD 20879 USA . Abstract: In response to Congressional mandate, UMTA engaged in an extensive evaluation of high speed waterborne (HSW) passenger transportation in the U.S. and throughout the free world. The study reviewed the history of HSW, determined its current status and examined factors that might impact its future development. Unsubsidized HSW operated by the private sector was emphasized in analyzing potential U.S. sites. The U.S. site analyses included domestic, as well as foreign craft. High interest rates and the investment required to establish HSW service make the financial feasibility of operations sensitive to the cost of capital. A vessel capable of satisfactory service must also have low initial costs and be economical to operate and maintain. As a group, craft of foreign origin meet these criteria best. Were foreign technology employed, the study indicated that HSW service could be operated profitably by the private sector in some markets. A study of 10 such sites, indicated that nine might, under certain conditions, be feasible. Conditions are: (1) Competitive in time with other transport services, (2) Competitive in cost; (3) Need to capture only a small share of an existing travel market for economic viability. Primary market for HSW abroad is travel times under 45 minutes. Despite relatively high seat-mile costs, travelers abroad often pay a premium fare for travel time savings, convenience and/or novelty of HSW. HSW craft operate safely in great variety of adverse locations. Foreign HSW development has been orderly with private sector and unsubsidized service often viable. In contrast, in the U.S. HSW has been beset by inadequate capitalization and has operated with unproven vessels. Available from: Office of the Secretary of Transportation ; 400 7th Street, SW; Washington DC 20590 USA; ID: 00390706
                                                                                        123. “Review of Selected High Speed Waterborne Operations Worldwide,” Authors: Advanced Marine Systems Associates, Inc, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, and Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co.; Report No. UMTA-IT-32-0001-4, Aug 84. Available from: Office of Technical Assistance, UMTA, 400 7th ST SW; Washington DC 20590 USA. Abstract: One of seven reports written under this contract to describe high speed waterborne passenger transportation, review its applicability in the US, and document its development in the free world. This report describes high speed waterborne passenger transportation operations throughout the world. Information is presented on: ridership, the type, characteristics and number of craft used, operating conditions and characteristics, crew sites and wages, terminal facilities and maintenance procedures. The operators described were chosen because they exemplify the most frequently used types of craft and operating scenarios. Services are included that operate in Europe, South America, and the Far East. Not all existing operations are covered in this report due to time and budget limitations.
                                                                                        124. Rieg, Donald F. and James H. King] “Technical evaluation of the RHS 200 for high speed ferry applications and Coast Guard missions ;” prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, United States Coast Guard, Office of Research and Development. Rieg, Donald F. Washington, D.C. : The Office ; Springfield, Va. : Available through NTIS, 1984.
                                                                                        125. Rodriquez, Leopoldo, Dino Di Blasi, “Current Status and Future Prospects for European Commercial Hydrofoils”, Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        126. Roess, R.P. and P.J. Grealy, “The Use of High-Speed Vessels in Urban Ferry Service: Issues and Economic Evaluation,” Transportation Research Record, Issue: 925, Inland Water Transportation. 1983. pp 9-12, Publisher/Corporate Author(s): Transportation Research Board; 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW; Washington DC 20418 USA; Abstract: The economic aspects of high-speed ferry operations are discussed and compared to conventional ferry services. The economic viability of high-speed service is demonstrated using conventional economic analysis techniques. Issues related to high-speed ferry operations such as safety, efficiency, and ridership attraction are discussed in more general terms. The paper concludes that high-speed ferry operations can compare favorably with conventional services and hold potential for attracting larger numbers of passengers and charging premimum fares. :Available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office; 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW; Washington DC 20418 USA. Order Number: DOTL JC
                                                                                        127. Salvesen, Nils. “Seakeeping Characteristics of Small-Waterplane-Area-Twin-Hull Ships.” Journal of Hydronautics 7.1 (1973): 3-9.
                                                                                        128. Schrider, M., “Study of Foil Influence on Foil-Borne Hydrofoil Performance”, Intersociety Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington, VA, 5-7 June 1989.
                                                                                        129. Shen, Y., Wermites, R., “Recent Studies of Struts and Foils for High Speed Hydrofoils” Marine Technology, Vol 16, January 1979.
                                                                                        130. Shultz, W.M., “Boeing JETFOIL Model 929-100”, AIAA Paper No. 74-308, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, San Diego, CA, February 25-27, 1974.
                                                                                        131. Shultz, W.M., “Current Status And Future Prospects United States Commercial Hydrofoils”, Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        132. Sinnarwalla, Abbas M. and T. R. Sundaram, “On the changes in lift of hydrofoils due to surface injections of polymer additives;” Laurel, Md. : Hydronautics, Inc., 1978.
                                                                                        133. Stark, D.R., “Ride Quality Characterization and Evaluation in the Low Frequency Regime, with Applications to Marine Vehicles,” Human Factors in Transport Research Volumes 1 and 2, Academy Press Inc. (London) LTD, and Conference on Ergonomics and Transport, Swansea, United Kingdom, 1980.
                                                                                        134. Stark, D.R., “The PHM Automatic Control System”, SAE National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting, San Diego, CA, Oct. 1974.
                                                                                        135. Stevens, D. L., Jr., “The Bureau of Ships Hydrofoil Craft FRESH-1.” Paper Presented to Chesapeake Section, SNAME, 26 February 1964.
                                                                                        136. “Study of High Speed Waterborne Transportation Services Worldwide”, Urban Mass Transportation Agency, UMTA-IT-32-0001-84-3, August 1984, Seven Vols., National Technical Information Service (NTIS) #PB 85129906/U.
                                                                                        137. “Study of Hydrofoil Seacraft” Vols. I and II, PB161759, 3 Oct 58, Phase I Technical Report by Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation to Maritime Administration, US Department of Commerce. “This report contains the results of a parametric study made to determine the feasibility of hydrofoil seacraft with speeds from 50 to 200 knots, gross weights from 100 to 3,000 tons, and ranges from 400 to 3,600 nautical miles. The relative merits of various combinations of hydrofoil craft parameters and the possible advantages of such craft over displacement vessels were thoroughly investigated. A detailed analysis of the various design features and operational characteristics of hydrofoil craft… is also included.”
                                                                                        138. Sueoka, H, Tozawa, S., Sakai, F., Kabata, T.,”Structural Responses of Mitsubishi Super Shuttle 400, Rainbow, in Seaways”, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan), FAST ’95 Conference.
                                                                                        139. Sugranyes Baena, Alcides, “‘KOMETA-M’ – Description and Handling of USSR Coastal Passenger Hydrofoil,” Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, Kalerghi Publications, Vol. 1 No. 11, Aug 72
                                                                                        140. Sullivan, E. K. and Higgins, J. A., “Test and Trials of the HS DENISON.” Published by the Maritime Administration, circa 1962.
                                                                                        141. Swales, P. D., R. C. McGregor, and A.J. Wright. “Correlation of Force Measurements and Separated Flow Regions on Surface Piercing Struts.” Journal of Hydronautics April 1974: 72-73.
                                                                                        142. Swales, P. D. R. C. McGregor,and A. J. Wright. “Explanation of Forces on a Surface.” Journal of Hydronautics July 1973: 132-133.
                                                                                        143. Taiwan 106-36 Republic of China, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2000, pp. 120-129. Abstract: For convenience in engineering applications, we attempt to find a general regression relation between the nondimensional cavity length and the cavitation number for two-dimensional supercavitating hydrofoils. Based on observations of the general trend of the relation, a nonlinear function for these two physical quantities is proposed, and the coefficients in the function are optimally determined via a least-squares procedure and an iterative Gauss-Newton method. Several supercavitating hydrofoils, including flat-plate hydrofoils and hydrofoils with and without cambers, are investigated. The results seem to indicate that there exists a global approximate relation, the optimum coefficients of which depend on the flow conditions and hydrofoil shape. Key Words: 2-D supercavitating hydrofoil, potential flow, regression relation. Full text posted at: http://nr.stic.gov.tw/ejournal/ProceedingA/v24n2/120-129.pdf
                                                                                        144. Terao, Yutaka; “Lateral and Roll-Yaw Coupled Motion Control of Hydrofoil Craft”, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles (STAB 2000), 7-11 February 2000, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia. AMECRC Ltd, Editor: Martin Renilson. pp 542 – 550. For those with a really technical bent, the mathematical modeling of the human operator using skilful body weight shift to maintain stability of a solar powered hydrofoil has been examined in this reference.
                                                                                        145. Terao, Yukata; (Tokai University, Dept. of Naval Architecture, Japan) and H. Isshiki (Hitachi Zosen Corp, Japan), “Wave Devouring Propulsion (WDP) Sea Trial,” Undated. Abstract: The development of Wave Devouring Propulsion system and results of its sea trial on the HOKUTO are presented. WDP system is an idea not only for the ship propulsion system which converts wave energy directly into thrust but also the ship motion reduction system. This system consists of a ship hull and a hydrofoil installed at the bow. Improvement of the propulsive efficiency in waves and high seaworthiness is measured during the sea trial. Click Here for full text on line.
                                                                                        146. Tietjens, O., “Das Tragflaechenboot.” Werft Reederei Hafen, Jahrg. 18, Heft 7, April 1, 1937, pp 87-90 and Heft 8 April 10, 1937 pp. 106-109.
                                                                                        147. Unruh, J. F., and R. L. Bass III. “Doublet Lattice-Source Method for Calculating Unsteady Loads on Cavitating Hydrofoils.” Journal of Hydronautics 8.4 (1974): 140-147.
                                                                                        148. Van Bibber, V. H., “The Major Problems of Hydrofoil Craft,” Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company paper presented at the SNAME Hydrofoil Symposium 13-14 May 1965 Spring Meeting in Seattle Washington. Major problem areas discussed in this paper are, Propeller Designs, Manufacture of Hydrofoils and Mating of Subassemblies, Galvanic Protection, and Crew Habitability.
                                                                                        149. van Walree, Frans, “Computational Methods for Hydrofoil Craft in Steady and Unsteady Flow,” doctoral thesis, available to the public at a cost of NLG 100 (approx. US$50), by sending a request to Maritime Research Institute Netherlands, Attn: Ms. R. Jurriens, Librarian; PO Box 28; 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands. Tel: +31-317-493417, Fax: +31-317-493245, email: Rjurriens@marin.nl.
                                                                                        150. Vermeulen, Johan C., Roderick A. Barr, Milton Martin, “Hydrodynamics of Hydrofoil Craft Subcavitating Hydrofoil Systems,” Hydronautics, Inc. Technical Report 463-1, April 1964
                                                                                        151. Vogt, James E., “Automatic Control of the Hydrofoil Gunboat, TUCUMCARI,” AIAA 2nd Advanced Marine Vehicle and Propulsion Meeting, AIAA Paper No. 69-729, 1969.
                                                                                        152. von Schertel, Baron Hanns, “European Development of Hydrofoil Craft Technology”, Paper Presented at 1st International Hydrofoil Society Conference, Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada, 27-30 July 1982.
                                                                                        153. von Schertel, Baron Hanns, “Design and Application of Hydrofoils and Their Future Prospects,” Institute of Marine Engineers-Transactions, Series A, Part 3, Vol 86, 1973, pp 53-64. Institute of Marine Engineers; Memorial Building, 76 Mark Lane; London EC3 7JN England; Abstract: The performance characteristics of hydrofoil craft are compared with those of other water craft with regard to lift/drag ratio, power requirement, speed loss in waves and sustained accelerations, special attention being paid to the hovercraft. The advantages and state of development of the foil systems currently in use are examined, and their commercial and military applications described. The different propulsion systems and their efficiencies are discussed. Finally the future of the hydrofoil is visualized, the prospects of the known foil sections for surmounting the speed barrier being appraised. The presumable size limit of future craft is considered.
                                                                                        154. Wang, J. & Mcowan, S., “Fast Passenger Ferries and Their Future,” Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. 27, Issue 3, Jul 00, pp 231-251. Published by Taylor and Francis, Ltd.; 1 Gunpowder Square; London EC4A 3DE, England. (USA address: 1900 Frost RD Suite 101; Briston PA 19007). Abstract: Examines the different choices of high speed craft (HSC) hull design available and briefly looks at the advantages and disadvantages of each hull form. The trends in various design aspects of HSC such as speed, capacity, and size are studied. An investigation on HSC development is conducted, and the future of HSC in the United Kingdom is studied. A study onboard an HSC with the aim of trying to determine what passengers think of HSCs and why the travel by them is also conducted. Finally, an analysis of the possible market for HSCs is carried out.
                                                                                        155. Weber, D. (1967). “New Worlds to Conquer.” Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, 6(12) pp: 3, 6
                                                                                        156. Wennagel, G. J., “Characteristics of the US Maritime Administration Hydrofoil Test Vehicle.” Paper Presented at SAE National Aeronautics Meeting, 1961.
                                                                                        157. Williams, R.E and P.L. Ehrman, “Operational evaluation of the hydrofoil concept for U. S. Coast Guard missions: executive summary;” Washington : U. S. Coast Guard, Office of Research and Development ; Springfield, Va. : Available through the National Technical Information Service, 1975.
                                                                                        158. Wright, H.R. and F.W. Otto, “The Hydrofoil Craft Drag Polar,” Journal of Hydronautics, October 1980.
                                                                                        159. Wright, H. Raymond, Jr. (Grumman Aerospace Corp) and Frank W. Otto (Edo Corp), “Hydrofoil Craft Drag Polar,” Journal of Hydronautics, Vol 14. No. 4., Oct 1980, pp. 111-116. Adaptation of the friction and wave drag components to the classic aerodynamic drag polar are shown with accommodation for the weight/center-of-gravity envelope. The parametric forms of the drag, power, and specific range and endurance curves are shown and related to the traditional dimensional forms. The relationship between the drag polar and the propulsion is indicated.
                                                                                        160. Yagi, T., et al, “Jetfoil Operational Experience in Japan”, ASNE Proceedings of High Performance Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington VA, June 1992.

                                                                                          This Page Organized by R. Terry Black; Maintained By…

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil SocietyP.O. Box 157 – Hume, VA 22639 – USA

                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org

                                                                                        IHS is not a source for copies of the articles cited above except where otherwise noted. If any library would like to start a special collection of hydrofoil reference material, IHS would like to hear from you… it is possible that we could assist in starting and building your collection.


                                                                                        Click Here To Suggest Additional Reference(s)Go To Main Page


                                                                                        Popular Newspapers and Magazines

                                                                                        Popular Newspapers and Magazines

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Presents… 

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Bibliography
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Articles in Popular and Trade Magazines and Newspapers
                                                                                        Last Update 29-Jan-2016(High Photographic Content – Please Be Patient While This Page Loads)


                                                                                        Books About Hydrofoils — Click HereVideos and Films About or Showing Hydrofoils — Click Here

                                                                                        For Hydrofoil References in Technical Journals, Papers, and Books, Click Here

                                                                                        For More Bibliographies, Especially Sailing Related, Try the IHS Links Page)

                                                                                         


                                                                                        Frequently Asked Question: How do I get a copy of these out-of-print articles?

                                                                                        Answer: Try local libraries, used book stores and antique shops. IHS has used the Canadian company “Smelly Old Books” (contact: John Muxlow) to obtain reasonably priced copies of articles back to the 1920s and earlier (S.O.B. has an almost complete collection of Mechanix Illustrated, Popular Mechanics, and Popular Science). To buy old magazines, try the on-line auction services at Ebay, Amazon.com, and Yahoo… particularly Ebay. Sooner or later, just about everything shows up for sale on Ebay.

                                                                                         


                                                                                        Navigation Links:GlossiesNewspapersHobbyistsHistoryFerriesMilitaryYachts/Sailboats/MotorboatsModelsSeaplanes

                                                                                         

                                                                                        International “Glossies”
                                                                                        LIFE Magazine 9/27/54. Cover: “Canada’s Hydrofoil — Revolutionary Idea For Navies.” photo is of Canadian hydrofoil R-100 MASSAWIPPI before foils were modified. This 45-foot, 5 ton demonstration craft was instrumented to collect data for design of larger, operationally capable ships. When heavily loaded, the original foils (shown in the LIFE cover) produced violent “porpoising” at 40-50 knots. This problem was solved by a complete redesign of the foil system. According to IHS member Jean Buhler, the LIFE cover photo was taken just before MASSAWIPPI “struck a railroad tie (end on, thank goodness!). The late Mike Eames is at the helm, and the man in the seat beside him looks like USN CDR Jim Stillwell.” Article on pp 56-60, “Boats That Fly Atop the Water.” Photos and descriptions of LANTERN (built by Hydrofoil Corp, Annapolis MD), KC-B (named for F. W. “Casey” Baldwin), XCH-4 (John H. Carl & Sons), HD-4 (Alexander Graham Bell, age 72, at the controls with co-designer Casey Baldwin and Baldwin’s young son), German patrol boat VS-6, von Schertel tourist boat PT-30 (on Lake Maggiore), US Navy’s HIGH POCKETS, Gibbs & Cox 20-ft hydrofoil, and WING (a German sports boat that sold for US$6,370).
                                                                                        Massawippi, Life Magazine September 27, 1954
                                                                                        LIFE Magazine 7/26/63, “Exclusive Picture Log of a Mad Maiden Voyage”, pp NY2-NY8 (New York Extra Section). Nine large B&W photos by Dan McCoy. Excerpts from the text: “It was the maiden voyage of the ALBATROSS and the dawn of a sparkling new era in New York commuting… aboard were the city’s first hydrofoil commuters — 24 passengers bound out of Port Washington for Wall Street. But barely had these sea=going commuters settled back in their seats… when a crazy saga started to unfold. Before the ALBATROSS finally reached lower Manhattan they had taken part in a dramatic rescue, found themselves face-to-face with some stranded celebrities, and then, as the whole improbable voyage was about to end, almost lost their leader…” The rescued celebrities were movie producer Sam Goldwyn and his wife, and investment banker Robert Lehman, who were floundering off Steppingstone Light. “‘I’ve made movies with less excitement,’ observed Mr. Goldwyn.” A little later, the president of American Hydrofoil Lines Ira E. Dowd stepped out on deck to watch as a Coast Guard vessel approached and he toppled overboard. All ended well, however; he was pulled back aboard, his suit dripping wet, but otherwise OK.
                                                                                        Brooks, Alec N., Allan V. Abbott, and David Gordon Wilson, “Human-Powered Watercraft,” Scientific American, December 1986. Features cover artwork showing the Flying Fish II human-powered hydrofoil. This issue includes an eight page article (pp 108-114) about this craft and a range of other human-powered vessels with illustrations and graphs.
                                                                                        Cover of Scientific American December 1986
                                                                                        “The Speediest Boat,” National Geographic, Sep 1911, pp. 875-878. Article includes two B&W photos of Enrico Forlanini’s hydrofoil craft and describes how Alexander Graham Bell traveled 45 mph on Lake Maggiori in this craft. Forlanini patented his hydrofoil under the descriptive name of “appareccio idrovolante.” The article quotes Scientific American as saying, “After six years of experimenting, Forlanini can how consider that he has arrived at fully satisfactory and definite results.” The weight of the successful craft, including two passengers, is cited as two tons. It was powered by a 100 hp gas engine. Hull length was 32.8 ft.

                                                                                        Grosvenor, Gilbert, “Hydrofoil Ferry ‘Flies’ the Strait of Messina,” National Geographic April 1957, pp 493-496. 8 illustrations (six in color).

                                                                                        More Glossy Magazine Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. “Just Above Water; First Hydrofoil Craft to Enter Regular Commuter Service in the U.S. is the Goodship ALBATROSS,”Time Magazine, July 26, 1963. No details available.
                                                                                        2. Fortune, Dec 62, includes hydrofoil article, “The New Lift for Transport: Earth Skimmers.” No details available.
                                                                                        3. Morgan, Murray, “Ungainly Waterbug: Hydrofoil Boats,” Saturday Evening Post July 13 – July 20, 1963, pp 68-69. New hydrofoil craft that fly on underwater wings may protect our coasts from attack by missile submarines. Includes a large, high definition photo of FRESH 1. Other hydrofoil vessels mentioned in the article include USS HIGH POINT, SEA LEGS, AG(EH)-1 PLAINVIEW, and LITTLE SQUIRT. From the text of the article: “The Navy decided to gamble on a new approach — a radically different form of hydrofoil which, it was hoped, might work on an ocean-going vessel. In effect, the Naval experts would try to leapfrog the “hydrofoil gap” and develop a more sophisticated craft without going through all of the sates with which other designers had experimented… when the Office of Naval Research became interested in hydrofoils as potential sub-hunters, it decided that the best chance for an ocean-going craft lay in  the development of this so-called “thinking wing”…the Boeing Company had already assigned a deceptively mild and boyish-looking aeronautical engineer named Robert E. Bateman to determine where Boeing might find a place in the Navy’s anti-submarine warfare program… on the first test run, last January, Boeing test pilot Vern Salisbury stood the LITTLE SQUIRT on its nose and wound up in the freezing waters of Lake Washington… The HIGH POINT,  115 feet long, 31 feet in the beam and displacing 110 tons, appears closer to sinking than flying. The HIGH POINT was built for the Navy at the Martinac Shipbuilding Corporation yards in Tacoma, and the veteran fish boat builders who riveted her aluminum hull couldn’t conceal their doubts. ‘I’m glad to have the work,’ one remarked to me, ‘but, hell, I can’t see spending two million bucks on this pipedream. I’m a taxpayer too.’ But as the HIGH POINT took shape, attitudes changes. Long before the successful test run, the Martinac men were converts.”
                                                                                        Newspapers – Local and National
                                                                                        Stein, Ralph, “Here Come the Hydrofoils!,” This Week Magazine, 21 July 1963, cvr, pp 6-7, 14-15. United Newspapers Magazine Corp. New York, NY. Two pages of text, five B&W photos, plus the cover illustration. Photos are of the Vingtor (Norway), Vikhr (Russia), Albatross (USA), Commutaboat I (Holland), and a typical vessel (Italy). “This summer a hydrofoil line is starting to carry commuters from the suburbs to New York. Another hydrofoil outfit is planning to make pleasure cruises at the 1964 World’s Fair. Next year, too, hydrofoils will run between Seattle and Victoria, BC. Hydrofoils will use as highways the waterways which lap the shores of most of the biggest American cities and their suburbs. They should be as cheap to ride as a bus or train and a lot more fun. Furthermore, the seem sure to change the pattern of urban and suburban living and real-estate development.” The article quotes Mr. Ira E. Dowd, President of American Hydrofoils Lines as saying, “Although the Albatross is just a model T of commuting hydrofoils, we’re starting a regular service between Port Washington, L.I. and East 25th Street in Manhattan this summer, at about $1.75 each way for the 25-mile trip. We’re building five more 24-passender boats. By 1965 we expect to have thirty-five 24-passenger boats running, and we’re planning to have a big 200-passenger hydrofoil in the water by then, too.” On the west coast, the article notes that William I. Niedermair, President of Northwest Hydrofoil expects the VICTORIA to be ready for sea trials in Jan 1964 and that he has applied for approval to operate hydrofoils as inter-island ferries starting in late 1964.” The article concludes, “Who’s going to advance the money to build fleets of hydrofoils? Under Title Eleven of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, the Maritime Administration will guarantee a construction loan from a bank of up to 75 per cent of construction costs and then insure a subsequent mortgage, much like FHA.”
                                                                                         

                                                                                        Newspaper Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. Seattle Times’ Pictorial Magazine, three issues from the 1970s feature color photos of Boeing Jetfoils on the cover. The Nov 10, 1974 issue has four pages on the construction of JETFOIL ONE, with diagram and several b&w photos of different stages of completion. The Nov 13, 1977 issue has an article touting the Jetfoil as the Future of the Washington State Ferry System. It includes a history of Washington ferries, with b&w photos of the ELWAH, SPOKANE, QUINAULT (formerly of the San Francisco Bay Fleet), and the most infamous of the Washington ferries, KALAKALA. Also has photo of the Black Ball Lines / Puget Sound Navigation Co.’s Coleman Ferry Terminal. The April 1, 1979 issue includes two photos of the testing of the NORMANDY PRINCESS, a Jetfoil that runs between France & England.
                                                                                        2. “Hydrofoil Speeds Across the Harbor,” Boston Traveler 11 Sep 63 (No details available)
                                                                                        Hobbyist Magazines
                                                                                        Fitz-Gerald, Wm. G., “To Cross Atlantic in Thirty Hours,” Technical World Magazine, Oct 1907, The Technical World Co., Chicago IL, pp 139 -142. Includes three tinted photos. “Peter Cooper Hewitt of New York is a scientist and inventor of high reputation and proved achievement. He is not given to idle and boastful talk. consequently, when he announces that by the invention of a boat supported above the water by gliding planes he has made possible the building of ocean liners which may easily reach a speed of one hundred miles an hours, even conservative men are ready to believe the statement. To cross the Atlantic in thirty hours is the goal at which Mr. Hewitt is aiming… with the added marvel that seasickness also will be relegated to the limbo of forgotten horrors, because no longer possible! …the only problem that remains at present is that of the propeller… yet the idea is not new… forty years ago the British Government was experimenting with a device that showed how a craft would lift if it had inclined planes made fast to its hull. So wonderful were the possibilities that private inventors speedily took a hand, among the Raoul Pictet, whose water ‘flying machine’ amazed the Swiss about the classic shores of Lac Leman.”
                                                                                        cover of Technical World Magazine October 1907
                                                                                        “Ocean Skimmer for Atlantic,” Modern Mechanics, March 1930. p.79. “At last the “stepladder boats,” as the hydrofoil speeders planned by the son [sic*] of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell have been called, are to make a bid for laurels as the fastest method of crossing the Atlantic. They are to be placed in regular service soon, according to plans of the inventor, and already the preliminary engineering, based on many model and full sized tests, has been done. Tomorrow we may be able to ride in one of these super luxurious liners. We will embark in New York in the evening, and the same time a day later find ourselves flying over the water up the English Channel, having clipped three full days from what was formerly the world’s record for trans-Atlantic passages.”

                                                                                        * The article erroneously refers to engineer and Bell associate Casey Baldwin as Bell’s son.

                                                                                        Cover of Modern Mechanics March 1930
                                                                                        “Ocean Liners With Water Wings,” Everyday Mechanics, Oct 1930, Vol. 2, No. 7, combined with Illustrated Science & Mechanics, published by Hugo Gernsback, Chicago IL, p.279. Two artist conception sketches and a paragraph of descriptive text occupying one half page. “Europe in two days is the aim of the designer of this novel hydrofoil ocean liner. Small wings, like those on an airplane, immersed in the water cause the huge boat to rise as it accelerates in speed until it virtually leaves the water – only the keel and wings being submerged… True, the boat has not been built as yet, but experiments with small boats have already been conducted which proved the soundness of the theory. Of course, this ship may not be as comfortable as the present liners, but it will save time.”
                                                                                        cover of Everyday Mechanics October 1930
                                                                                        “Ship on Stilts Rides Above Waves,” Popular Science, January 1936. “Ocean liners on stilts are proposed by a Portland OR inventor to offer travelers safety and comfort at sea. His design envisages a craft supported by buoyant submarine pontoons, in such a way that the hull itself rides clear of the water. its elevation above the surface would be sufficient to allow heavy waves to pass beneath it without striking it, eliminating the buffeting to which most ships are subjected in bad weather. Rolling and pitching would thus be minimized. The streamline pontoons are so arranged that they rest in a calm level below the surface layer of disturbed water, and their broad, flattened upper and lower surfaces resist any sudden vertical movement. The propeller is situated nearly amidships, and the tunnel-like enclosure formed by the surrounding pontoons is declared to give high propulsive efficiency. The added weight of the pontoon structure would not be as great as might be imagined, since the elimination of heavy shocks and strains upon all parts of the ship would permit the extensive use of lightweight alloys in its construction.”

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Popular Science January 1936
                                                                                        “Boat Rides on Underwater Wing,” Popular Science, April 1939, Vol. 134, No. 4, p. 124. description and two drawings of the Wsevolode Grunberg hydrofoil concept. Excerpt from the article: “…a curious, airplane-type speedboat… is supported by a specially designed central keel, supplemented by two forward pontoon floats. Plans for the novel water craft call for a hull that resembles the porthole-studded fuselage of a giant transport plane, surmounted by a strut-supported engine whirling twin propellers, one facing toward the bow and the other toward the stern, to furnish both a pushing and a pulling force. The majority of the craft’s weight  is supported by a horizontal wing-shaped surface extending out at either side of the rudder, near the base of the keel. lateral stability of the craft is obtained by the bow pontoon floats, which are connected through shock absorbers to adjustable horizontal members in the form of ailerons jutting out from the prow of the ship. The weight of the vessel… is so distributed that the ship always has a tendency to nose-dive… the pontoon floats automatically keeping the craft on an even keel, since the farther they are pushed down into the water, the greater their lifting force… the inventor points out that it would be possible to use the floats as reservoirs for fuel…”

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Cover of Popular Science April 1939
                                                                                        Armagnac, Alden P. , “100 Knot Liner Has Sea Wings,” Popular Science March 1959; Drawings by Bob McCall. “An ultra-fast new way to travel, in vessels that ride high above the waves, is promised by the conquest of the sea’s speed limit.” p106-113, 238, 240, 242. “Transocean A-Liner – Atomic propulsion is entirely contained in a pod attached to the center strut… supercavitating foils, while inefficient at moderate speeds, begin to show spectacular superiority above something like 70 knots… Accommodations will be much like those for an overnight trip by rail — individual staterooms, or roomettes. Such fancy trimmings as ballrooms and swimming pools will be superfluous; and your fare may pleasantly reflect the savings in operating cost…”

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Popular Science March 1959
                                                                                        Gallager, Sheldon M., “Now You Can ‘Fly’ Your Own Outboard, Popular Science, June 1959, pp. 178-181, 210, 212. Photos by W.W. Morris. Description of two foils kits about to come on the market at that time: the Dynamics Development (subsidiary of Grumman) kit, which was to sell for about $395 and the “Roberts kit” designed by Jim Hartley, which was to sell for between $150 and $200. Most info is about the Grumman kit. The Roberts kit can be purchased already installed with an 8 ft. pram for about $460. The Roberts kit was held on by only 8 bolts; the Grumman installation was “a little trickier.” The article advises resisting the temptation to stunt-fly because “in crowded waters, the foils’ almost razor-sharp edges could mean sudden death to an unseen swimmer.” According to the article, “controllable tabs — like tiny ailerons — allow the Grumman foils to be trimmed under varying loads, but once set do not require further adjustment. The Roberts foils are trimmed by loosening bolts to adjust their angle of attack.”
                                                                                        Popular Science May 1960 – “Free Blueprint Sheet one & Sheet two: Flying Platform Boat. It’s a real quickie. Make it in two weekends… for $116. 00… with a table saw… for unsinkable fun. The first time I shoved the throttle forward on this little 4 ft. by 8 ft. fun boat, it took my breath away. In an instant, I found myself flying more than a foot above the water on homemade hydrofoils, going faster and faster… In calm water, with a 10-hp long-shaft motor, I flew the crazy little craft at 35 mph…. Next month (June 1960) you’ll get detailed instructions for mounting these same foils on any runabout up to 16 feet. An 18-hp long-shaft motor was used to fly a 14-footer. With two passengers in the front seat, the foils were carrying a gross weight of nearly 1,000 lbs. And best news of all for you: the foils can be made for less than $25, including their supports.”
                                                                                        Popular Science May 1960
                                                                                        Pfister, Herbert R., “How I Fitted Oak Hydrofoils To My 14-Foot Runabout,” Popular Science June 1960. “The most exciting water sport today is hydrofoiling. It’s boating, but different. Underwater wings lift your boat out of the water and you take to the air – or so it seems. Freed from the water, the boat rides smoother and faster on less power. If your boat is 16 feet or less in length, there’s a good chance you can equip it with foils. If you can work with wood, you can make foils. You shape them on a table saw. You’ll find the details illustrated in last month’s Popular Science. There’s also a big blueprint to help with the job. Photos and drawings show how I fitted foil supports to the sides of my 14-foot plywood hull. Broad braces on the supports distribute strain over a wide area, making the installation equally suitable for thin-skinned aluminum and fiberglass boats.”
                                                                                        Popular Science June 1960
                                                                                        Armagnac, Alden P., “Seagoing Hydrofoils Fly Over Waves at 60 Knots,” Popular Science July 1961, pp 56-59, 187-188. From the article, “This summer will see the completion of the HS DENISON for the Maritime Administration at an Oyster Bay NY shipyard. Its 80-ton size ties the record for foilborne vessels, and it will be the first ocean-going one. And the keel has been laid for the biggest hydrofoil ever built — the seagoing 110-ton subchaser PC(H)-1 due to joint the Navy next year.” The article also includes small B&W photos and text description of other hydrofoils, including the teardrop-shaped LANTERN, the FLYING DUKW, HALOBATES, XCH-4, and XCH-6.
                                                                                        Armagnac, Alden P., “60 Knot Hydrofoil, 90 tons of get-Up and Go,” Popular Science Monthly, Nov 62, pp 55-58, 180. “The fastest ship afloat will open a new era of high-speed ocean passenger service… With a thunderous roar and a faint trail of jet-fuel smoke, the extraordinary 104-foot vessel has been streaking by at an incredible 70 mph and more. As if to show it is really a ship and not some kind of waterborne missile, it has been seen executing graceful S-curves and U-turns at high speed, in a shower of spray. The flying phantom ruffles the water so slightly, despite its express-train velocity, as only gently to rock the smallest boats nearby… Long Island’s mystery vessel is the fastest ship in the world. Named the HS DENISON, she’s the first of a new generation of big US hydrofoils, both commercial and naval… A mighty gas turbine continuously delivers 14,000 hp, giving the craft its speed. Adapting such aircraft-type engines to propel hydrofoils is a major US advance.”

                                                                                        Joseph, James “Riding a Hydrofoil… Smo-o-oth,” Popular Science Monthly, Nov 62, pp 58-59. “Throttle open, ALBATROSS will carry 24 passengers, plus a crew of two. The first craft of this new US type has been successfully tested in trial runs. It’s expected to be put in service soon on a California route. Five craft are being produced initially by their designer and builder, Hydro-Capital Corp. of Newport Beach CA. Within a few more months, the firm hopes to have 15 of the boats flying.”

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Denison and Albatross, Popular Science November 1962
                                                                                        Martenhoff, Jim, “I ‘Flew’ an Outboard Hydrofoil,” Popular Science Nov. 1965, pp 79 – 81. Text and 4 B&W photos. The author describes is test ride on a 15′ aluminum Starcraft with 40 hp outboard and surface-piercing hydrofoils. According to the article, the hydrofoils were an accessory kit developed by “an American-owned Swiss corporation Supramar” and designed to fit any powerboat from 14 ft. to 20 ft. in length. Total weight for the foil kit was 140 pounds, 60 pounds for each of the foil assemblies mounted forward, plus 20 pounds for a small foil assembly at the stern. This was a test set of foils made of carbon steel, but stainless steel was planned for the production model. The rear foil assembly was permanently mounted to the hull for the test, a disadvantage because it makes trailer launch impossible. The side mounted foil assemblies can be raised out of the water by hand. The production model planned to include hydraulic retraction of all three foil assemblies. The foil angle of attack is adjustable from within the cockpit over a range of 3 degrees to compensate for changing loads. The author describes a crash landing that occurred during the test due to striking a piece of wood flotsam… no damage to the foils, and the strike was not severe enough to shear the safety pin. The installed price of the planned production kit would be $400 per boat. According to the author, “it is doubtful that fishermen would go for it: those foils are just something else to wrap a line around.”
                                                                                        “James Bond’s Weird World of Inventions,” Popular Science, January 1966, pp. 60-63. “Thunderball’s prize piece of gadgetry is a $300,000, 64-foot hydrofoil yacht… production designer Ken Adams couldn’t find a hydrofoil imposing enough for the wide-screen Panavision film, so he decided to build a cocoon aft on a 60-footer, nearly doubling the vessel’s length to an overall 110 feet… The cocoon can be jettisoned at the touch of a button, allowing the hydrofoil to zoom off at full speed. The hydrofoil has a 1320-hp Mercedes-Benz diesel and can hit a top speed of about 40 knots. But Adams can improve on that — by filming it at one-third normal camera speed. Normal projection speed makes the DISCO VOLANTE appear to do over 100 knots.”

                                                                                        Also in this issue, on page 82, is this news blurb with photo: “You can now order the 16′-4″ Larson Volero in hydrofoil-equipped models. so outfitted, the popular stock outboard runabout is capable of speeds topping 45 mph with a 60- or 75-hp motor on her transom. You swing the foils up for normal running by adjusting a hand control in the cockpit near the wheel. The boat is produced in Little Falls MN.” [This hydrofoil version was never produced, according to the Larson company – Editor]

                                                                                        James Bond Inventions in Popular Science January 1966
                                                                                        Brown, Stuart F., “World’s Fastest Sailboat — Two Masts and Three Self-Adjusting Underwater Wings Make For One Rapid Hydrofoil.” Photos by John B. Carnett. Popular Science, Volume 238, Number 1, January 1991. ISSN 0161-7370, Times Mirror Magazines Inc, New York, USA. This issue contains an article on the world sail speed record holding trimaran hydrofoil craft (trifoiler) LONGSHOT designed and built by engineer Greg Ketterman for racer Russell Long. The cover photo by John B. Carnett shows LONGSHOT sailing foilborne in choppy water. A speed of 37.18 knots (42.8 mph) was achieved on Stafford Lake in Lethbridge, Alberta while piloted by Russell Long. At the time, this was the all-out world record for sailboats (100 square foot sail area or more), though even at that time the speed for wind surfers (under 10 square metres of sail area) was significantly higher at 49.4 miles per hour. In the article, Ketterman indicated it should be possible to exceed 50 mph when sailing LONGSHOT in strong steady winds.
                                                                                        World's Fastest Sailboat Article -- Popular Science January 1991
                                                                                        Jackson, William D, Naval Architect, “Build Your Own Hydrofoil Speedboat, ” Science and Mechanics Feb 1960, Craft Print Project No. 304. p.176-179. Plans for building add-on hydrofoils for almost any boat up to 16 feet. The designs are “the result of designing and testing many different types and sizes and shapes of hydrofoils over a period of several years.” Foils are constructed of steel framework with fiberglass foil-shaped lifting surfaces. The next (Apr 1960) issue has plans to build the boat used to test these add-on foils.
                                                                                        Science and Mechanics February 1960
                                                                                        “Jet Hydrofoil Shoots at World Record,” Popular Mechanics, August 1953, pp 70-71. Five B&W photos of Frank and Stella Hanning-Lee’s WHITE HAWK. From the accompanying text: “…two Britishers, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Henning-Lee [sic], aim to break that speedboat record with their jet-powered craft, the WHITE HAWK, on Lake Mead, Nevada, this fall. The man-and-wife team collaborated on the design. Mrs. Henning-Lee [sic] (an American by birth) is the driver… Top speed of the boat to date is 125 miles per hour. But that was loafing along on a stability run in England. when Stella Henning-Lee [sic] opens it up on Lake Mead, she is certain that the speed record… will be held, for the first time, by a woman.”
                                                                                        “Carnival of New, Way Out Watercraft,” Popular Mechanics, July 1963, pp 83 – 85. Among the watercraft depicted are two hydrofoils:

                                                                                        • FRESH I,”jet-propelled hydrofoil built by Boeing for the Navy has hit 60 mph on Puget Sound, is expected to reach 115 mph with different foils system… the 53-foot flying cat is strictly an experimental craft and will be used to study super-cavitating foil design.”
                                                                                        • HYDROMARINER, “28-foot cruiser for pleasure market has beam-width surface-piercing foils that retract hydraulically, giving boat docking draft of only 1 foot.”
                                                                                        Cover of Popular Science July 1963
                                                                                        Popular Mechanics September 1967 – An 11.5 ft. one-person hydrofoil developed by Italian designer Rentato Castellani of Verbania can hit 35 mph with an 18-hp outboard engine. The steerable front foil permits tight turns and thrilling acrobatics according to PM. The fiberglass hull is foam-filled and unsinkable, plus it comes apart for easier carrying. The designer intended to sell this craft in kits, but IHS is unaware of any that were sold. Anyone with more information about the fate of this design is encouraged to contact IHS.

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Renato Castellani, Popular Mechanics September 1967
                                                                                        Zimmerman, Bob, “The Biggest, Fastest ‘Flying Boat’ Yet!” Popular Mechanics December 1968. Technical art by Fred Wolff. “It’s 212 feet long and displaces 300 tons, but when it goes up on “stilts” it skims across the water — even heavy seas — at better than 40 knots… the PLAINVIEW, made by the Lockheed Aircraft Corp., is the largest hydrofoil ship ever built… it is intended to do the work of a destroyer. A hydrofoil could become the only surface ship that can outrun and outmaneuver a nuclear submarine. It would be large enough to carry sophisticated detection and tracking gear and torpedo launchers. In a foilborne chase, it would be immune to the bouncing and tossing that can interfere with the accuracy of weapons systems in a conventional ship traveling at high speed… Other promising areas are mine warfare, recon missions, amphibious assaults, short-haul transportation of personnel, and oceanography.”
                                                                                        PLAINVIEW, Popular Mechanics December 1968
                                                                                        “Hook’s Hydrofin – Boat Rides on Stilts,” Mechanix Illustrated, Apr 1952, pp. 84-85. “The basic elements are a fuselage (completely out of the water while the boat is in motion), three fins or hydrofoils (under the surface) which are connected to the fuselage by supporting struts or hydropeds, and of course, a power plant. Then, there are two forward projecting stilts, called jockeys, which predict the water surface in front of the foils… Standard Hydrofin production models are 12-1/2, 18-1/2, and 24-1/2 feet long, carrying 2, 5, and 10 people… The manufacturers — Atlantic Hydrofin Corporation of Miami FL… “
                                                                                        Hydrofin Hydrofoil in Mechanix Illustrated April 1952
                                                                                        Mechanix Illustrated Nov 1962, HS DENISON — “World’s First Ocean-Going Hydrofoil — New US Wonder Ship To Top 90 Miles an Hour! The HS (Hydrofoil Ship) DENISON, which has flown over the water at 50 knots and which, it is hoped, will do as high as 80 knots (or about 90 mph in landlubber lingo) will be the first operational; ocean-going hydrofoil ship in the world… Development was undertaken jointly by the Maritime Administration and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. Fifty-seven contractors took part. After a thorough test program to be conducted by Grumman, the ship will be turned over to the Maritime Administration, which will charter it to Grace Lines for use as a passenger ship. Carrying 60 passengers, the DENISON will fly between Florida and the Bahamas.
                                                                                        Denison, Mechanix Illustrated November 1962
                                                                                        “All about Hydrofoil Craft,” Practical Mechanics, Aug 1961. A survey article of hydrofoil craft in service at the time, in Russia, Switzerland, Italy, Scandinavia, Japan, and South America. From the article: “Until 1959 the Shell Oil Company of Venezuela relied on orthodox high speed launches to carry workers out to the drilling rigs 40 miles off-shore on Lake Maracaibo. Now they have PT 20 hydrofoil boats which carry the same load of 66 passengers at the same speed, on well under half the horsepower… larger PT 50 boats are now working between La Guaira on the Venezuelan coast and Isla de Margharita, 120 miles away in the Caribbean Sea… the River Rhine Police have used hydrofoil launches since 1954… the Suez Canal Authority uses a hydrofoil inspection launch…the Soviet authorities plan to have 285 [hydrofoil boats] in operation on rivers and lakes by 1965… There is of course no possibility of putting ships like the CANBERRA or the QUEEN MARY on foils. The latter would require two million horsepower to make use of them, ten times her present engine room output.”

                                                                                        Granberg, W.J., “America’s First Hydrofoil Ferry,” Mechanix Illustrated, Jul 1961, p.75.  One page consisting of a paragraph of descriptive text and three B&W photos of the FLYING FISH, which operated a ferry route between Bellingham WA and Victoria BC Canada. According to the article, FLYING FISH was a “65-ft., 60-passenger aluminum-hull hydrofoil ferry boat, the first of its type to operate in American waters. Hydraulic controls in the wheel house adjust foil angles for maximum performance under particular weather conditions and at various speeds. The Italian-built craft carried passengers between Italy and Sicily before being purchased and brought to the USA by Dr. Frank A. Colderone of Hempstead NY.”

                                                                                        Mechanix Illustrated, Jan 1959. Contains article on hydrofoil boat design. No details available.

                                                                                        More Hobbyist Magazine Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. “10′ Hydrofoil Boat or Conversion,” Boat Builder’s Handbook Annual #4, #567 1960 ed, Science and Mechanics – No further details available
                                                                                        2. “Novel Hydrofoil Cruiser,” Mechanix Illustrated Boating Issue Apr 1956 – No further details available
                                                                                        3. Popular Science September 1964 – “Big Russian Hydrofoil”
                                                                                        4. Popular Science August 1963 – “Fast Hydrofoils ‘Fly’ Jet Cat”
                                                                                        5. Popular Science April 1973
                                                                                          • 250-Passenger Hydrofoil: “Jumbo Jetfoil Will Be Super-Fast, Super-Smooth,” by Ben Kocivar. pp 76-78, 152. “One of the world’s biggest airplane makers, Boeing, has announced it is going into the boat-building business. The aerospace giant will produce a fleet of 250-passenger, turbine-powered hydrofoils able to cruise in ocean waters at a zippy 50 mph. Boeing already as orders for 11 craft (at $3.5M each) for use in the Hawaiian Islands, Hong Kong, and across the English Channel. Not yet announced by Boeing, but strongly rumored, is domestic service for New York, San Francisco, and other major cities. Boeing forecasts a total market for about 40 of its boats within five years and 100 within 10 years.”
                                                                                          • “Copter-towed Sea Sled Clears Minefield, ” p. 90. “The Navy’s new Mark 105, an unmanned mine sweeper… is towed by helicopter — up to 80 knots — on four fold-up hydrofoils.”
                                                                                        6. Walker, Lester C., “Ships That Fly on Wings — Water-transportation Speed Will Triple With Boats That Don’t Float, But Fly,” Popular Mechanics Feb ’61, pp 102 – 105, 268. Good overview of commercial, military, and sport hydrofoils available and planned at the time. Photos of XCH-4, Grumman’s SEA WINGS, FRECCIA DEL SOLE, Grumman’s 15-foot runabout, Gordon Baker’s MONITOR sailing hydrofoil, a Russian Meteor, and some military vessels.
                                                                                        7. “Aeroplane-Hydroplane Designed by Dr. Bell,” Popular Mechanics, Jan 1920, p. 2. (No further info available)
                                                                                        8. Popular Mechanics May 1963 – “Squirt Gun on Hydrofoils -Spouting a 30-foot stream of water from a pipe draped over the transom, Boeing’s 2-1/2 ton turbine-powered LITTLE SQUIRT streaked across Seattle’s Lake Washington on an overcast day in January and became the first boat to successfully combine hydrojet propulsion with a fully-submerged foil system. Engineers hope that this one-of-a kind research boat will provide them with valuable information on whether hydrojet propulsion might be used on large, ocean-going hydrofoils. Power transmission, one of the toughest problems in any hydrofoil design, becomes even more difficult in the 100-ton-and-over range. Boeing’s 20-foot Pump Jet incorporates an ingenious solution to the problem.”
                                                                                        9. “Jet Hydrofoil Shoots at World Record,” Popular Mechanics, August 1953,  pp. 70-71. Short article and 5 photos of Frank and Stella Hanning-Lee and their hydrofoil WHITE HAWK.
                                                                                        10. Everyday Science & Mechanics September 1932. Contains article on Huge Flying Boat (hydrofoil). No details available.
                                                                                        11. Modern Mechanics, ???1929, “Racing Over the Water at 100 Miles per Hour!” by Charles Hall.
                                                                                        12. Quick – The Picture News Magazine, Vol. 1 No. 3 Oct. 28, 1953  “Men: Get Out of the Way!” Triangle Publications Inc., Philadelphia, Penn. Small format bi-monthly magazine, 5 x 7.25 inches, 64 pages – all pictures and no advertising. Include short article with four color photos of the the Hanning-Lee White Hawk – an early hydrofoil speedboat powered by a Rolls Royce Derwent jet engine which incidentally gave it a power/weight ratio of one which would have it allowed it to take off like a rocket if it were pointed skyward. It was piloted by Stella Hanning-Lee and designed by her husband Frank Hanning-Lee, a British experimental boat builder. The color photos include shots of Stella and the boat in action.
                                                                                        History and Classics
                                                                                        Classic Fast Ferries – “the ‘Cyberzine’ about hydrofoils, catamarans, air-cushioned vehicles (ACVs), and other classic fast ferries. This is an on-line magazine in Adobe Acrobat format, free of charge. Current and past issues can all be viewed, printed, and/or downloaded from the Classic Fast Ferry website, editor Tim Timoleon.
                                                                                        Classic Fast Ferries Cyberzine Hydrofoils
                                                                                        “US Navy on Stilts,” Sea Classics, Jan.1974. Has article on Navy PHMs, also “Hydrofoils of the Third Reich.”
                                                                                        US Navy on Stilts (hydrofoils) i n Sea Classics January 1974
                                                                                        von Schertel, Baron Hanns, “Hitler’s Hydrofoils,” The Best of Sea Classics, Summer 1975 and Sea Classics Jan 74, Challenger Publications, Inc. Canoga Park CA, USA, pp 4-9, reprinted from Aviation & Marine Magazine, France. Baron von Schertel first began experimenting with hydrofoil craft in 1927. This article gives details on German hydrofoil development during World War II. In 1939, the military first became interested in a 2.8 ton hydrofoil demonstration boat. Various hydrofoils followed that craft, including the VS 6, VS 8, VS 10, TS-1 Coastal Surveillance Hydrofoil, Single-Seat 3-ton torpedo boat, and the 4-ton Pioneer Corps workboat.
                                                                                        Hitler's Hydrofoils, Best of Sea Classics 1975
                                                                                        Keene, Tony, “Canada’s Ill-Fated Hydrofoil Sub-Hunter,” Sea Classics, June 1991, vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 46-53. “When built she represented an entirely new and radical form of sub-hunter. But her glory was short-lived and the BRAS D’OR finished her days as an ignoble museum ship… It was the Royal Canadian Navy’s objective to produce an operational vessel, a winged anti-submarine warrior capabile of patrolling the North Atlantic sea lanes. This project, designated FHE-400, resulted in a three-phase contract being signed by de Havilland Aircraft of Canada in 1963, calling for final sea trials and the handing over of the ship to the Royal Canadian Navy by 1969 when it was felt that firm proposals would have to be made to replace the old steam frigates then in service…”
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Submarine Hunter in Sea Classics June 1991

                                                                                        More Classics Magazine Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. Sea Classics, January 1983, “New Navy Hydrofoils — Two Experimental Gunboats Prove Themselves and Then Some in Harsh Tests”. No details available.
                                                                                        Ferries and Other Commercial Ships and Craft
                                                                                        Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, Volume 18, Number 7, April 1979. The International Review of Air Cushion Vehicles and Hydrofoils. Was published monthly by Kalerghi Publications, London. The magazine was later published as High-Speed Surface Craft and is currently released under the title Fast Ferry International. The cover of this issue features an artist’s impression of HMS SPEEDY by Boeing Marine Systems. HMS SPEEDY was a derivative of the Jetfoil series of passenger hydrofoils and was evaluated for a period of time by the Royal Navy. Inside the issue is a six page article on this hydrofoil by Antony Preston which includes photos of HMS SPEEDY under construction at the Boeing factory in Seattle and a number of sketches of the propulsion and control systems.
                                                                                        Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil April 1979 Features HMS Speedy
                                                                                        High-Speed Surface Craft Incorporating Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, October 1982, Vol. 21, No. 10. Published by Capstan Publishing Company Ltd, Surry, UK. This journal was previously published as Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil and subsequently became Fast Ferry International. While the cover of this particular issue features a high speed catamaran by Cougar Marine, it contains several articles on hydrofoil themes including: International Hydrofoil Society North American Association First Conference; Current status and future prospects for US commercial hydrofoils; Current status and future prospects for Far East commercial hydrofoils; The evolution of the NIBBIO class hydrofoil from TUCUMCARI; Reconstruction of the HD-4 hydrofoil; Unhappy debut for new Jetfoil service; and History of US involvement in developing the hydrofoil (part 3).
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Articles in High Speed Surface Craft Magazine
                                                                                        Pierless Magazine, Future Ferries, The Final Frontier, April 2000. Includes article on Ultra-fast hydrofoil ferry proposed by Hydrofoils Inc.
                                                                                        future hydrofoil ferries in Pierless magazine
                                                                                        Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, Vol 274, No. 5052, 26 June 1980. Published weekly by Fairplay Publications Ltd, London. This issue features a cover photo of Boeing Jetfoil 929-115 CU na MARA, which was with B+I on a Liverpool to Dublin run at the time. The issue features a two page article by Michael Hood examining two Jetfoil services.
                                                                                        Jetfoil Article in Fairplay Shipping Weekly
                                                                                        “Hitachi Zosen News” Volume 5, Number 6 of August 1962 (also apparently issue 30). The blurb about the front cover states: “The Port of Takamatsu on Shikoku Island is one of the key ports of marine traffic on the inland sea of Japan. In the photo is shown the hydrofoil boat (constructed by our company) connecting the Osaka and Kobe districts with Port Takamatsu.” Click Here for a close up of the PT-20 in the photo.
                                                                                        Cover of Hitachi Zosen News August 1962 with hydrofoil
                                                                                        Ship and Boat International, Issue 96/1, January/February 1996. Published ten times a year by The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London, UK. The cover of this issue features the second commercial example of the Kvaerner Fjellstrand FoilCat, Barca, which at the time of publication had entered service between Hong Kong and Macau with Far East Hydrofoils. The 35 metre foil supported aluminium catamaran is powered by a pair of 4485 kW GE LM500 gas turbines driving KaMeWa 80S11 waterjets through MAAG gearboxes. The craft can carry 403 passengers. While a speed of 52 knots was achieved on trials, the normal service speed is about 45 knots. This issue includes a short one third of a page article on the FoilCats. The journal from time to time features other hydrofoil production news.
                                                                                        cover of Ship & Boat International with Foilcat hydrofoil
                                                                                        Speed at Sea, The Journal for Fast Ship Operators, Volume 7, Issue 3, June 2001. ISSN 1359-4222. This Journal is published six times a year by Speed at Sea Publishing, Enfield, UK. From time to time, items related to hydrofoils or hydrofoil-assisted craft will appear in the journal. The June 2001 issue for example features a three-page review of the 54.5m hydrofoil-assisted trimaran TRIUMPHANT built by North West Bay Ships in Tasmania, Australia. The trimaran is equipped with a Maritime Dynamics, Inc. lift and ride control system for which the lifting surfaces consist of a pair of hydraulically actuated foils between the main hull and side hulls as well as trim tabs aft on the centre hull. The foils not only improve the motions of the vessel in waves, but additionally provide lift thereby enhancing the overall performance of the ship.
                                                                                        Cover of Speed at Sea with hydrofoil trimaran
                                                                                        Work Boat World, Volume 21, Number 7, October 2002. ISSN 1037-3748. This Journal is published twelve times a year by Baird Publications Ltd, Hong Kong. As with other such journals, items will occasionally feature hydrofoils or hydrofoil-assisted craft. The October 2002 issue features a one-page review of the 40.2m hydrofoil-assisted catamaran ‘Linda’ built by Almaz Marine yard in St. Petersburg, Russia. The catamaran is equipped with a pair of bow foils and the sterns of the demi-hulls support the remaining weight and incorporate a pair of waterjets.

                                                                                        More Commercial Hydrofoil Magazine Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1.  “SeaFlite Jetfoil — The Boat That Thinks It’s a Plane,” Flying Colors, (Braniff Inflight Entertainment Magazine) Vol 6 No. 1 1977
                                                                                        2. 1st Annual Encyclopedia of Vertical Lift Craft, June 1967, Vertical World . A magazine of Helicopters, V/Stols, ACV’s, Hydrofoils. Approx. 11 1/4″ x 8 1/4″. 98 pages.
                                                                                        3. Sealink News, Edition 34, September 1981, “The House Magazine for staff of Sealink UK Limited.” Feature ship is the RMT Dover – Ostend Boeing Jetfoil Princesse Clementine – full color centerspread with technical details and reports on her introduction.
                                                                                        Military Hydrofoils
                                                                                        Air West 1968 Tucumcari Article With Photos
                                                                                        Air West Magazine, 1968 50th Issue
                                                                                        Shethar, Alan, “Wings Upon the Water: The Hydrofoil,” All Hands, The US Navy Bureau of Personnel Career Publication, Jul 73, pp2-7. Photos and text descriptions of PHMs, AGEH-1 PLAINVIEW, PCH-1 HIGH POINT, and PGH-2 TUCUMCARI
                                                                                        All Hands Magazine July 1973
                                                                                        Christy, John, “Punch-Packing Sea Skimmers,” International Combat Arms, May 1985, Vol. 3, No. 3, Petersen Publishing Co., Los Angeles CA 90069, pp 39, 68 – 74. Lots of good photos. From the text: “…by the time the NNAG studies, with input from as many as 11 navies, were completed and the three signatories to the “Memorandum of Understanding,” the U.S., Italy, and the Federal Republic of Germany, had completed the signing, the size of the projected vessel had doubled. With all the performance factors cranked into the equation, and all the machinery and weapons added, the 74-foot prototype design had grown to 130 feet with a hullborne tonnage of 224 tones (39.5 meters and 228 tonnes). Cost factors were commensurate with the increase in size, and by 1974, Ital and the FRG had opted out, leaving the U.S. and Boeing to go it alone. The Italians downscaled their requirements and made a license agreement with Boeing to use the original TUCUMCARI design, modified for missile use, and the Germans decided on the Luerssen S 143 hullborne FPB…”
                                                                                        PHM Program Review in Combat Arms magazine
                                                                                        Naval Engineers Journal, Volume 95, Number 5, September 1983. ISSN 0028-1425. Published by the American Society of Naval Engineers, Inc. (ASNE). This issue features a cover photo with all six PEGASUS class PHMs flying together for the first time in US Navy history. The mission took place off Key West, Florida, where all the hydrofoils were stationed. Photo was provided courtesy of William M. Ellsworth and PHM Squadron 2 based in Key West. The caption for the photo also indicated that it would be unlikely that all six hydrofoils would operate together again, as some would be rotating through shipyard cycles. The Naval Engineers Journal from time to time has included technical articles related to naval hydrofoil design.
                                                                                        PHM Formation on cover of Naval Engineers Journal September 1983
                                                                                        Naval Engineers Journal, Volume 97, Number 2, February 1985. ISSN 0028-1425. Published by the American Society of Naval Engineers, Inc. (ASNE). This special edition features comprehensive reviews of a range of ‘advanced naval vehicles’, including hydrofoils, Surface Effect Ships (SES), Wing-in-Ground Effect (WIG) craft, Air Cushion Vehicles (ACV), Small Waterplane Area Twin Hulls (SWATH), planing hulls, and modern monohulls. This is an ideal source of background information in considering the merits of different craft types for particular roles.
                                                                                        Naval Engineers Journal February 1985
                                                                                        Naval Forces, Vol.VI, No.2, 1985. Published by Monch Publishing Group. Features cover photograph showing the USS Hercules. Although this issue does not contain an article on the PHM class, the journal does deal with naval hydrofoils from time to time. The blurb for the cover photo states: “The USS HERCULES (PHM 2), one of the six patrol hydrofoil missile craft which were built by Boeing Marine Systems in Seattle, Washington. They are currently operational with the US Navy in the Caribbean with PHM Squadron 2, at Key West, Florida. The squadron became operational in 1983. These craft are capable of over 40 knots and are armed with eight Harpoon missiles, one Oto Melara 76 mm gun and Mk 92 fire control system. This issue does contain one small black and white photo of a Chinese Huchuan class hydrofoil torpedo boat as part of an article on the Chinese navy (Hu Chwan is an alternate spelling for this boat class; it means White Swan).
                                                                                        PHM-2 on cover of Naval forces magazine
                                                                                        Copeland, Earl Jr., “Hydrofoils,” National Defense, Mar-Apr 1970, Vol. LIX, No. 329, published by the American Defense Preparedness Association, Washington DC. pp 382 – 386. Survey of the state of the art for hydrofoils at the time of publication. Discussion and photos of PHM-1 PEGASUS, FLAGSTAFF and SUPER FLAGSTAFF (concept), DENISON, PLAINVIEW, HIGH POINT, Philippine Navy Patrol Craft, H-890, RHS-140 ferry, Italy’s SWORDFISH and PAT 20, seagoing PT-150, PT-50 BALSA SEAWING, Seaflight L90 ferry, Canada’s BRAS D’OR, and TUCUMCARI. Discussion without photos of BUREVESTNIK, BYELORUS, CHAIKA, CYCLONE, DELPHIN, LUCH (Ray), MIR, NEVKA, STRELA,  Kometa, Meteor, Pchela (Bee), Raketa, Sputnik, Typhoon, Nikhr (Whirlwind), Volga, Molnia
                                                                                        “Israel’s Hydrofoils,” Defense Update International, Born in Battle, No 66, 1985. No further info available.
                                                                                        International Defense Review, Volume 16 No. October 1983. ISSN 0020-6512 (SZ), Monthly journal published by Interavia S.A., Geneva, Switzerland. In English, French, German and Spanish editions. This issue features a cover photo with the Italian Navy hydrofoils ASTORE and GRIFONE, two of a class of 60t hydrofoils built by CNR. A four page article on the Nibbio class is presented in the issue which was prepared following the delivery of the sixth and final vessel of the Italian navy. Also see Vol 4, No. 6, December 1971 of this magazine for an article on military hydrofoils.
                                                                                        International Defense Review October 1983
                                                                                        Firepower – The Weapons the Professionals Use – and How. Published weekly by Orbis Publishing Limited / Aerospace Publishing Ltd, London, 1990. Volume 3, Issue 33 features the US Navy’s PEGASUS class hydrofoil HERCULES (PHM 3) on the cover and provides the general particulars of that class and other dynamically supported and conventional fast attack craft in its contents. 23 pages of text and photos.
                                                                                        Firepower Magazine 1990 Volume 3, Issue 33
                                                                                        Navy International, Vol. 78, No. 11, November 1973. Published by Maritime World Ltd, Surrey, UK. This issue features the Italian Navy hydrofoil SWORDFISH (P 420) on the cover and a four page article of the Nibbio class hydrofoil following sea trials of the first of the class. There is also a five page article of the US Navy’s Surface Effect Ship program in this issue.
                                                                                        Navy International Magazine November 1973
                                                                                        Zimm, LCDR Alan D., US Navy, “PHMs: Unique Ships, Unique Problems, Proceedings, Volume 108/2/948 February 1982, pp 90-93. Proceedings is published monthly by the US Naval Institute, Annapolis, MD, USA. ISSN 0041-798X. The cover of this issue features USS TAURUS (PHM-3) taking a tight turn during tests at Puget Sound. The article in this issue deals with the complexities of how to manage the PHM in the USN fleet and the need for doctrine and tactics to suit the unique characteristics of the class. The article responds in part to an earlier article by LCDR Linder entitled “PEGASUS: Winner or Also-Ran?” published in the Sep 1981 issue of Proceedings .The well known aerial photo of a PHM executing a “Figure 8” is captioned, “Is the PHM here demonstrating the maneuverability of the ship or the direction of the PHM program?”
                                                                                        U.S. Naval Institure Proceedings February 1982
                                                                                        Jane’s Defence Weekly, Volume 2, Number 7, 19 August 1989. As the title suggests, JDW is a weekly defence journal. From time to time, items concerning naval hydrofoils will appear in the weekly. This particular issue features a cover photo with an Italian Navy Sparviero class (also known as Nibbio class) hydrofoil, and subtitle ‘Japan opts for Italian hydrofoils’. A half page article by Kensuke Ebata in Tokyo notes that the Japanese Defence Agency has requested three Italian Sparviero class hydrofoil missile boats for its Maritime Self Defence Force in its FY90 budget. The hydrofoils were to be built under license in Japan.
                                                                                        Jane's Defence Weekly August 1989
                                                                                        HIGH POINT Joins the Navy,” Undersea Technology, Nov 1963, Vol. 4, No. 11, Compass Publications, Inc. Arlington VA 22209, p.23. Introductory text and four B&W photos. From the text: “The new hydrofoil craft HIGH POINT , has entered the service as the Navy’s first operational hydrofoil craft. Largest hydrofoil in the Nation, she’s currently undergoing extensive testing at Puget Sound, Washington. The 110-ton ship, designed by the Navy’s Bureau of Ships and built by the Boeing Company, will soon head south to join the Pacific Fleet… armament on the HIGH POINT  consists of four MK 32 torpedo tubes, two on each side, and a .50 cal. machine gun mounted just forward of the pilot house.”
                                                                                        Farther, Spring 1987 (Vol. 2, No. 1) PHM-1 USS PEGASUS cover. Article about PEGASUS. Back in the 1980s, Electronic Arts published a magazine that was sent to people that registered their software.  These magazines featured game news and interviews with the creators. It’s not just marketing hype – there’s some good content also. No further (Farther!) information available.

                                                                                        More Military Magazine Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. Aviation Week and Space Technology 22 Feb 60 contains an industry survey of hydrofoils. No further info available.
                                                                                        2. Pacific Defence Reporter Aug 1981, “The Hydrofoil As a Weapon,” by Ian Hamilton. “The hydrofoil, with a capability of speeds close to 160 km/h, clearly has both offensive and defensive capabilities… The first hydrofoil boat was the product of an accident in 1861, when Thomas Moy, an Englishman, decided to study the aerodynamics of wings by observing the underwater swirls they created. Having attached wings to his craft, he ventured out onto the Surrey Canal. To his surprise, the ship rose from the water — and unintentionally he had invented hydrofoils. But it was not until 1898 that the first efficient hydrofoil was designed by Enrico Forlanini of Milan…”
                                                                                        3. Warship International Nov 4, 1975, Vol XII No. 4, published by the Naval Records Club (later became the International Naval Research Organization –INRO — which now publishes Warship International), “New Addition to the Fleet: Pegasus (PHM-1) Missile-carrying Hydrofoil Ship” (1 page with photo).
                                                                                        4. Our Navy Magazine Vol. 58, No. 2, February, 1963, “The Future for Hydrofoils.” No details available
                                                                                        5. Sea Combat, August 1978, Contains article on USS PEGASUS (PHM-1) hydrofoil missile ship.
                                                                                        6. 1st Annual Encyclopedia of Vertical Lift Craft, June 1967, Vertical World . A magazine of Helicopters, V/Stols, ACV’s, Hydrofoils. Approx. 11 1/4″ x 8 1/4″. 98 pages.
                                                                                        7. Naval Record Vol. III, No. 4, Jul/Aug 1968, Monitor Publications London, p. 65. Two small Boeing B&W photos, one of PGH-2 TUCUMCARI, the other of PCH-1 HIGH POINT. The caption reads, “The [HIGH POINT] is fitted for anti-submarine duties and is armed with twin fixed tubes (angled from the centreline) for A/S torpedoes on each side amidships, a 40mm gun forward, and with VDS at the stern; while the [TUCUMCARI] is armed as a gunboat with a 40mm gun forward, an 81mm mortar aft, and twin .5 inch guns abaft the bridge. Both craft have amply demonstrated their seaworthiness and manoeuvrability in rough weather trials of the West Coast, and have retractable foils for operating in the displacement mode.”
                                                                                        Yachts, Sailboats, and Motorboats
                                                                                        Multihulls Magazine, Volume 25, Number 3, May/June 1999. ISSN 0749-4122. www.multihullsmag.com e-mail: multimag@aol.com Editor: Charles K. Chiodi. The magazine is published bimonthly and from time to time may feature articles concerning hydrofoil-supported multihull sailboats. This issue includes a two-page article with photo by Dave Carlson titled “Foiling with one of the Giants”. The article describes Dave Carlson’s experience with working on and sailing a foil-supported Hobie 18 designed by the late Dave Keiper. For updates on Dave Carlson’s continued work with foil kits in Gainesville FL, visit his website or contact him by email.
                                                                                        Multihulls Magazine May/June 1999
                                                                                        Multihulls Magazine, May/June 1990 Issue. Cover illustration is of the Hobie TRIFOILER
                                                                                        Multihull World Magazine – Power and Sail, Number 47. ISSN 1034-5108. www.multihull.com.au / email: info@multihull.com.au. Editor: Paul Lynch, P&G Lynch and Associates. Issue 47, published early in 2000 features a cover with an artist’s impression of the VOLANTIS designed and to be built by HydroWing Hawaii. The four page article on this design includes a three view drawing of this 60 foot hydrofoil sailing vessel. The design has been co-developed by Sam Bradfield (hydrofoils), David Hubbard (sails) and Nigel Irens (hull). The goals of the VOLANTIS are described as “to capture the world’s speed record for sail powered craft, to break the world’s 24 hour distance record for sailing and to set new course records for open ocean races worldwide.” Other articles on VOLANTIS have been published in Seahorse Magazine (Nov.2000), Multihulls Magazine (Mar/Apr 2000), Composites Fabrication (March 2000), Canadian Yachting Magazine (Regatta 2000), and Yachting World (July[??] 2000).
                                                                                        Multihull World Magazine Issue 97
                                                                                        Yachting, April 1929. Contains article on 30-foot hydrofoil, text and photos. No other information available. If anyone can provided a photocopy to IHS, it will be greatly appreciated. Contact the webmaster@foils.org.
                                                                                        Vincent, R. E., “Beware Low Flying Boats — An Experimental Hydrofoil Craft With an Ingenious Theory for Stability,” Yachting World, May 1972, pp 98-99, IPC Transport Press Ltd, London, publishers. Article by a post-grad student. Paragraph headings are: Design Objective, Apparent Wind Analysis, Propulsion Device, Transverse Stability, Longitudinal and Directional Stability, Resultant Overall Design, Predictions of Future Developments, and Conclusion.

                                                                                        “Offshore at 40 knots,” Yachting World May 1998, pp 16-19. No details available.

                                                                                        Yachting World International, May 2002, Volume 154, Issue no. 3125. For more information on this magazine see www.yachting-world.com . This issue features the French sailing hydrofoil L’HYDROPTERE on the cover. The issue has 26 pages of content on the theme of “Greed for Speed”. Articles include “Speed Pioneers” tracing the history of speed sailing at the Portland Speed Week prepared by David Pelly, “Offshore record breakers” by James Boyd, “Breaking the 50-knot barrier?” by Matthew Sheahan, and “Pushing the Boundaries” by Elaine Bunting. There are nice photographs of the hydrofoil catamarans Spitfire, Techniques Avancees, Mayfly and Icarus, the small hydrofoil trimarans FORCE 8 and LONGSHOT, and the hydrofoil-supported trimarans PAUL RICARD and L’HYDROPTERE along with other fast sailing craft.
                                                                                        Johnston, Robert J., “Hydrofoils, Ships That Fly,” The Rudder, the Magazine for Yachtsman, The Rudder Publishing Co., 9 Murray St, NewYork 7, NY, Nov 1953, Vol. 69 No. 11, pp 30 – 33. Included 9 small B&W photos. Bob Johnston wrote this article as a Lieutenant Commander in the US Navy, serving as Hydrofoil Project Officer for the Mechanics Branch of the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The article traces the history of hydrofoil development through the contemporary date in 1953. Among the hydrofoils described are:

                                                                                        • CAPT H. C. Richardson’s hydrofoil canoe (1908) and hydrofoil dinghy (with collaboration of N. White)
                                                                                        • A. Guidoni’s application of hydrofoils to seaplanes in Italy (1911)
                                                                                        • Alexander Graham Bell’s HD-4 (with assistance of Casey Baldwin and Philip L. Rhodes) (1919)
                                                                                        • L.P. Coombs and E.T.J. Davies experiments in England with hydrofoils on seaplanes (1930s)
                                                                                        • W. Grunberg of France – his patent for automatically adjusting the foil angle of attack (1938)
                                                                                        • Sachsenberg brothers and Dr. O. Tietjiens experimental hydrofoils
                                                                                        • German hydrofoils in the World War II era
                                                                                        • J. G. Baker’s hydrofoil sailboat Monitor
                                                                                        • Christopher Hook’s Hydrofin
                                                                                        • William P. Carl’s hydrofoil research
                                                                                        • The Hanning-Lee’s White Hawk
                                                                                        Carl, William P., “The Fantastic Hydrofoil Runabout – Its Development and Future,” The Rudder, Aug 1958 – How SEA WINGS hydrofoils developed from bathtub hobby to commercial reality. “This story begins in 1938, in Bob Gilruth’s bathroom… he started with 6-inch models…from the model tests, a full scale, 12-foot sailing catamaran with hydrofoils, CATAFOIL I was built and operated in the Chesapeake for several years.” The author started a collaboration with Bob Gilruth in 1943 that led to to world’s fastest open sea waterborne vehicle — the XCH-4. But the US Navy turned down the idea of an 80 knot patrol boat, so the author turned to commercial products. In October 1955 he tested SYNOTROPUSS, an 8-foot rowboat with fiberglass foils and 7 hp outboard that made speeds over 30 mph. The next test craft was a 16-ft Goodyear family runabout fitted with foils that could do 34-mph. In August 1956, the author associated himself with Grumman Aircraft engineering Corp. After months of testing a foil-equipped 15-ft aluminum runabout in Florida, the Grumman boat was placed on the market at the New York Boat Show, January 1957. Unfortunately, “there were so many man-hours of labor involved in production it put the cost out of reach of the mass market.” At the time this article was written, a new type of mount had been developed to allow the Sea Wing foils to be attached to many makes of 14- to 16-ft runabouts.
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Runabout, Rudder Magazine August 1958

                                                                                        • “Hydrofoils – What the Future Holds,” Motor Boating, Sep 1962 (see photos). No further details available
                                                                                        • “Foilborne Ferry Approved by Coast Guard,” Motor Boating, Feb 1963. No further details available.
                                                                                        • Mitchell, James E. “The Commutaboat Hydrofoil: A Passenger Hydrofoil Boat Demonstrated at Oyster Bay,” Motor Boating, Feb 1963, pp 38-39, 101, 103 . “Except for ‘eyes’ staring from her bow, which turned out to be two powerful headlights, and for the shark’s mouth painted across it, she could have been an ordinary 22-foot outboard cruiser. On the pier, waiting to greet us were the three men who had been instrumental in bringing this controversial craft to our shores: John P. Humes, Robert C. Morrell, and C. Maxwell Carver, president and vice-presidents respectively of Commutaboat, Inc.. The corporation was formed with the option to manufacture in the US all hydrofoil designs produced by International Aquavion, Ltd. of London… And sometime in 1963 they will begin to appear on the market with a price tag of around #15,000.”
                                                                                        • “Hydrofoil Sailboats,” Motor Boating, Jun 1955. No further details available.
                                                                                        • “Hydrofoils,” Motor Boating, Apr 1950. No further details available

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Joseph, James, “Wings for Your Boat; The Astonishing Story of Hydrofoils, Powerboat Oct 1960, pp 8-13, 68-69. Explanation of how hydrofoils work and a nice survey of existing and planned hydrofoils for pleasure, commercial, and military uses. The vessels depicted in the article’s 15 photos are Midwest Hydrofofin Co.’s foil kit (featuring the Christopher Hook concept of “wave-sensing skids which ride in front of boat”), Evinrude Motors’ dreamboat JETSTREAM by designer Brooks Stevens, Baker Manufacturing’s experimental Navy craft HIGH POCKETS with tandem surface-piercing foils, Rodrigues passenger boats operating in the Mediterranean, the XCH-4 designed for the Navy by William P. Carl with seaplane hull supported by two sets of foils forward and a single strut and foil aft, a Grumman concept passenger craft designed for the US Maritime Administration, two workboat models (one numbered MA-2133), and HALOBATES, a gas-turbine powered converted LCVP.

                                                                                        More Yachts, Sailboats, and Motorboats Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. The Rudder Magazine, Oct 1911. Hydrofoil article; no copy or details available.
                                                                                        2. Pacific Motor Boat September 1932 “Hydrofoils to Increase Boat Speed.” Article is about Dr. Oskar G. Tietjens, special engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company. Describes testing of HYDRO-SKIPPER model on the Delaware River
                                                                                        3. Brennan, Walter X., “The Newest Hydrofoil Boat,” Yachting, Jan 1936, pp. 55 & 88. Contemporary news and background on the U.S. 3 hydrofoil racing boat (incl. 3 small B&W photos). Excerpts from the article: “The launching and first trials at Detroit of the new Evans hydrofoil boat aroused considerable interest in the subject… The hull, which was designed by P. L. Rhodes with F. W. (Casey) Baldwin as consultant, and built by John L. Hacker, is double planked and is extremely light… The weight of the entire hull is said not to exceed 850 pounds… A Packard Gold Cup motor is used, and aeronautical engineers who are working on the boat estimate a speed of over 150 miles per hour… Using the data they obtain in tests, they plan to build a larger boat with 50 percent more power if the plan appears practicable… More tests are to be made in Detroit waters until it becomes too cold, when the boat will be shipped to Florida for further experiments.”
                                                                                        4. Boats Magazine, Apr 1955, “Running Trials on a Hydrofoil Boat”
                                                                                        5. Mallery, Craig, “Boats With Water Wings — The New Hydrofoils,” True, The Man’s Magazine, Boating Yearbook, No. 3 1958. Includes description and photos of the Hook HYDROFIN by Christopher Hook, Grumman 15-ft. Runabout with Sea Wings (a US$595.00 option), and WATER HAZARD (“Hap Hazard sells plans for his hydrofoil system as well as aluminum extrusions for building the foils themselves.”) According to the article the Sea Wings foils were constructed of fiberglass and epoxy resin, mounted with metal retractable hinges.
                                                                                        6. Power Boat May 1962, “New Hydrofoil Boat Makes Debut” (no details available)
                                                                                        7. Miller, R.T., Commander, U.S. Navy, “Hydrofoil Craft”, Yachting March 1955, pp. 58-60, 127. Good overview of hydrofoil craft at the time, mostly engine-powered craft. Source of historical and technical data for the article was a paper “An Appraisal of Hydrofoil Supported Craft,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of naval Architects and marine Engineers (SNAME) in Nov 1953 by LCDR P.N. Leehey, USN and CDR J.J. Stilwell, USN.
                                                                                        8. Carl, William P., “Hydrofoils — The Story Behind the Wings Which Operate in Water,” Yachting March and April 1958 issues.
                                                                                        9. Drake, Elliot, “Latest Look in Hydrofoils: For a New Experience in ‘Flying’ — Fit Your Boat With Hydrofoils,” Yachting, [exact issue unknown] 1960, p.94, 180 – ?. Four pages of descriptive text and several b&w photos showing details of the Sea Wings hydrofoil kit by William Carl’s Dynamic Developments, Inc. This is a follow-up to the William Carl article on the same subject published in the March and April 1958 issues of Yachting. From the text of this article: “Until now, to fly over the water on Sea Wings, you had to buy a complete 14′-6″ Grumman aluminum runabout with foils attached. The outlay started at $1595. This left others who already owned boats too far away from…”
                                                                                        10. 1st Annual Encyclopedia of Vertical Lift Craft, June 1967, Vertical World . A magazine of Helicopters, V/Stols, ACV’s, Hydrofoils. Approx. 11 1/4″ x 8 1/4″. 98 pages.
                                                                                        Models – Display and Radio-Controlled (R/C)
                                                                                        Johnson, Frank, “1/32 Scale German VS8 Hydrofoil,” Scale Ship Modeler, Jul 82, Vol. 5, No. 4, Challenge Publications, Inc., Canoga Park CA 91304, pp 44 – 49, 57-59. The article is about the kit offered by 32nd Parallel Corp, now defunct, and is a must for anyone with this kit. The article includes 11 generously-large photos, of which 4 are in color. The text is historical information, description of the kit and of 32nd Parallel Corp. There is nothing in the way of detailed tips based on experience as to how to assemble or operate the kit (note: the IHS correspondence archives on R/C models contain discussion of operating problems and possible solutions). The author is formerly of the staff of Sea Classics Magazine. From the text: “…the VS-8 was a magnificent machine, beautiful in every respect and highly advanced for its time. Aside from the fact that the prototype’s 103-foot length made it the perfect size for 1/32 scale modeling (producing a 38.5 inch hull), it would also be the first hydrofoil (not to mention the first scale hydrofoil) ever offered in an operational R/C construction kit.”
                                                                                        Marine Modelling International – Plans and Construction Guide, 1998, Traplet Publications Ltd, Worcestershire, England. This guide features the RAPIER hydrofoil model (plan number MAR2392) designed and constructed by Graham Taylor on the front cover. There is also a photo and brief description of this 950mm long model designed for up to .40 sized internal combustion engines in the guide, but further details are contained in the December 1992 issue of the Marine Modeling Monthly magazine. See also “Wings Under Water; Graham Taylor Discusses Model Hydrofoils”, Marine Modeling Monthly, August 1991. For further details and photos of Graham Taylor’s two neat hydrofoil models, see his website. Here are citations taken from the site:

                                                                                        • “Wings Under Water,” Marine Modeling Monthly, Aug 1991: Illustrated discussion introducing hydrofoil principles and model subject potential. 903 words 7 illustrations.
                                                                                        • “Experimental Hydrofoil,” Marine Modeling Monthly, Jan 1992: Fully illustrated article outlining hydrofoil concepts and describing the design, building and experience gained from MK 1, an experimental 42ins long powered model designed by the author. 1616 words 13 illustrations.
                                                                                        • “RAPIER Model Hydrofoil Boat,” Marine Modeling Monthly, Dec 1992: Full plans, assembly details, illustrations and instructions for construction of 37ins long glow-plug engine powered radio controlled hydrofoil model designed by the author. Model featured automatic adjustment of foil incidences to achieve tight banked turns. RAPIER plans now held by Marine Modeling Monthly plans library service, plans reference no: MAR2392. 2300 words 11 illustrations.
                                                                                        • “Foiled Again!” Marine Modeling Monthly, Dec 1993: Illustrated article discussing latest developments in hydrofoil technology. 805 words 11 illustrations.
                                                                                        Marine Modeling Plans and Construction Guide 1968
                                                                                        Model Boats, Vol.47, No.558, 27 June 1997. ISSN 00819-8277. Published by Nexus Special Interests Limited, UK. Features a four page article with 13 photos and a small arrangement drawing of the Zytiron 24 model racing hydrofoil produced by Hydrofoils, Inc. This model is no longer produced.

                                                                                        (not shown) Model Maker & Model Boats, Jan 1966, “The British monthly journal for all model makers,” includes an article on Japanese hydrofoil models. No details available.

                                                                                        Bruce, Ian, “Hydrofoil Craft,” Meccano Magazine, Oct 59, Vol XLIV No. 10, pp 427 – 429, published in Liverpool England. Discussion of hydrofoil craft of the time, history, advantages over conventional craft, and explanation of how hydrofoils work. Photos of the first Saunders-Roe R-103 BRAS D’OR (re-named BADDECK in 1962 in anticipation of the construction of the larger FHE-400 which was to be given the name BRAS D’OR) and a Supramar PT-20. There is no information in the article about how to model the vessels discussed. From the text of the article: “.Compared to other types of speedboats of equal size, hydrofoil boats possess many important advantages. For instance, only half the engine power is required to attain the same speed. Fuel consumption is reduced by as much as half, and consequently the cruising range is nearly doubled. Economy in fuel, as well as the possibility of covering an increased daily distance as a result of much higher speeds, results in in a reduction of about 30 percent in operating costs.”
                                                                                        Gue, Frank, “Hydrofoils, a new dimension,” Radio Control Modeler, published by R/C Modeler Corp., 120 W. Sierra Madre Blvd; Sierra Madre CA 91024. Vol. 17 No. 5, May 1980, ISSN 0033-6866, pp. 72, 82, 84, 86-87, 90. Includes one line drawing and two small B&W photos. The author describes his successful experiments with hydrofoil landing gear on a 60″, .19-powered model airplane test bed. He created a series of model planes, logging over 1,500 flights at the time of the article. The article includes many tips on design, waterproofing, and operation. Quotes from the article: “A hydrofoil, fitted to an aircraft, lifts the immersed parts clear of the water so that displacement drag is eliminated. It also cures the glassy water syndrome, which can literally prevent respectable airplanes from taking off at all. The famous Canso patrol flying boat was subject to this… wavelets of two or three inches (scale height of more than one foot) don’t bother the model at all. On long swells, it glues down beautifully  while planing, thanks to its tricycle configuration until flying speed is reached, at which time it generally launches itself spontaneously for the top of the first swell over which it has airspeed…. Flying off hydrofoils is truly a new dimension to this marvelous hobby of ours. Try it! You’ll like it!”
                                                                                        Radio Control Boat Modeler, Vol.10, No.2, February 1996. ISSN 1043-8009. Published seven times a year by Air Age, Inc, Wilton CT, USA. Features a three page articles with photos of a 24-inch long fast electric hydrofoil model produced by Hydrofoils, Inc. This model is no longer produced.
                                                                                        Musciano, Walter A., “von Schertel’s VS-6 Hydrofoil Patrol Boat,” Young Men (formerly Air Trails Hobbies for Young Men) Nov 1955 Vol. 45 No. 2, Street & Smith Publications, Inc., New York. pp 34-35, 86. Article contains parts list, cutaway illustration, exploded view of structure assembly, and teensie-weensie plan (the full size plans were available by mail order for 50 cents: Hobby Helpers Plan #1155). The article explains a bit of hydrofoil history. An experienced modeler who wanted to model the VS-6 would find this article helpful, but the plan is tiny and short on dimensions. Too bad Hobby Helpers went out of business years ago. Some of their plans for model aircraft have been preserved and copied onto modern drafting media for sale, but it is unlikely the hydrofoil plan is available anywhere. The Hobby Helpers plans were printed on cheap paper, not designed to endure over many years.

                                                                                        Air Trails Hobbies for Young Men, July 1955, has plans for a for “Water Warrior” hydrofoil.  No further info available.

                                                                                        More Model Magazine Titles (No Photo Available)…

                                                                                        1. Air Trails Hobbies for Young Men, July 1955, has plans for a for “Water Warrior” hydrofoil, and the Nov 1955 issue has an article on a von Schertel VS-6 hydrofoil patrol boat. No further info available.
                                                                                        2. Gue, Frank, “Hydrofoils,” Model Airplane News, July 1974, pp. 50, 64. Air Age, Inc. White Plains NY. “Having trouble getting that waterbird of yours to unstick? If so, why not try hydrofoils [seplane landing gear] as suggested here!” Article includes sketch and instructions for adding hydrofoils to model seaplanes. The example used is a Navigator flying boat kit by C.A.Zaic Co; however enough specific information is given to allow addition of hydrofoils to most seaplanes, allowing for experimentation to optimize the exact location and size of the foils. From the article: “Too small a hydrofoil will not have the desired effect. Too large a hydrofoil will result in hull lift at so low a speed that the flying surfaces have no control, resulting in excessive pitching and pounding over wavelets… The hydrofoil should be far enough ahead of the center of gravity that its force vector lies ahead of the C.G. and exerts a slight nose-up couple. It should be far enough below the hull that interference is minimized and that the hull can be fully clear of the surface when the hydrofoil is still submerged. If the foil is too far forward, the aircraft will lift nose-high and plow rather than plane, throwing spray into the prop. If too far aft, of course, it will force the nose down. Foil incidence should be moderate: 4 deg. to 6 deg. to the waterline seems OK…”
                                                                                        3. Model Ship Builder March/April 1999 No. 188, pp 41 – 50, “Building the Bell-Baldwin Hydrofoil HD-4,” by Dave Acker. This article was reprinted in its entirety as a special extra edition of the IHS Newsletter in Summer 2000. Equal mix of fascinating history and instructions for building a detailed scale model. Lots of photos. “As a prelude it should be known that the hull/fuselage of the HD-4 was lightly built. She was much like an old-fashioned canoe, which is to say made of formers or bulkheads connected by longitudinal stringers. This assembly was covered spirally with scarphed veneer stock and finally topped by a layer of 1/2 in. strip laid fore and aft. Embedded in the outer shell were steel wires for stiffness in the long axis. Spirally wound about the hull were eight pairs of cables for resistance in torsion. Final covering was marine glue, canvas, and dark gray paint. The hull was a 60 ft., cigar-shaped cylinder with a maximum diameter of about 5.75 ft. this hull was the main structural member providing flotation at rest, crew accommodation, fuel, and proposed military load. The forward wing-like sponsons supported the power plants and their mountings and carried ‘balancing hulls’ or pontoons of about 2 ft in length at their extremities. The hydrofoil sets, of multiple-blades, were four in number. Each blade had an air foil cross section. The ladder-like bow preventer was essentially an anti-pitch device helping in initial rising and was clear of the water when the craft was fully extended.”
                                                                                        4. “The Mariners’ Museum’s Scale Ship Model Competition and Exhibition 2000,” Scale Ship Modeler (ISSN 1066-0275), Nov/Dec 2000 (Vol. 23, No. 5), pp. 36-37, 62. Features a 1:48 scale model of PHM-1 USS PEGASUS. Modeler Dean Leary of Statesville NC was awarded the Gold Medal under the Division I (Scratchbuilt) Class B (Powered Ships) category. “The Scale Ship Model Competition and Exhibition 2000 ran from June 17 until October 28, 2000. During these dates, visitors were able to see the top ship models in the world and participate in various activities associated with the exhibition on the opening weekend. For more information about the competition and exhibition, call The Mariners’ Museum at (757) 596-222 or (800) 596-2222, or write to: The Mariners’ Museum, 100 Museum Drive, Newport, VA 23606, or visit their Web site: www.mariner.org
                                                                                        5. Radio Control Boat Modeller, Vol.1, No.4, May/June 1986. ISSN 0268-5248. Published monthly by Argus Specialist Publications Limited, UK. Features a short one page articles on the first successful model Jetfoil marketed in the UK, this being developed by Aries Hydrafibre of Portsmouth. The model designed by Martin Seymour is to 1:32 scale and was to be on sale from 1 May 1986 for a price of about 195 UK Pounds. The model is depicted in the article.
                                                                                        6. Marine Modeling Monthly, March 1991, contains photos and drawings of the PHM Class; purpose of the article is to provide details to modelers of the PHM Class.
                                                                                        7. “Wings Under Water; Graham Taylor Discusses Model Hydrofoils”, Marine Modeling Monthly, August 1991
                                                                                        8. Gross, Colin, “Hydrofoil PT-50” Model Boats, Model & Allied Publications LTD, PO Box 35 Bridge ST, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1EE, February 1981, Volume 31 No. 360, pp. 80-82. The article is informative about the experience of assembling the model, and it contains several suggestions for modifications, for example, “The most useful modification to improve the performance of the model is to replace the stiff spring coupling between the motor and the prop shaft.. Unfortunately, the usual Ripmax/Huco universal joints do not come in the correct size. However, if two type KC42 couplings are purchased, one may be opened out to fit the prop shaft, and the other to fit the motor. When joined by the couple converter, the new coupling can still be fitted to the model by pushing the motor forwards in its clamping brackets.” According to the article, the manufacturer of the kit is Sanko Seimitsu Co. Ltd, Japan. It was imported into England by Richard Kohnstam Ltd. The kit price in 1981 was ?59.99 .
                                                                                        9. Model Boats, Vol. 32, No.382, December 1982. ISSN 0144-2910. Published monthly by Model and Allied Publications Limited, UK. Features part 6 of a series of articles on the subject ‘Model Powerboat Hull Design’ by Ron Warring. This part deals with the design of hydrofoil models and spans two and a half pages mainly concerned with sizing of foils for the model. The article does not describe or illustrate any actual hydrofoil models.
                                                                                        10. Model Boats, Vol. 45, No.527, January 1995. Published by Nexus Special Interests Limited, UK. Features a three page articles plus four A3 size plan sheets to build the ‘High Rider’ model hydrofoil designed by Graham Goodchild. This stumpy looking surface piercing hydrofoil motor launch model is about 500mm long and is powered by a single electric motor.
                                                                                        11. An article on the Boeing Jetfoil appears in the International Plastic Modeler’s Society Quarterly magazine, Vol. 17, No. 4, Summer 1982. No details available.
                                                                                        Seaplanes and Flying Boats – Hydrofoil Assist for Takeoff
                                                                                        Levy, Howard, “HRV-1 Hydrofoil Amphibian,” Air Progress – The News Magazine of Aviation, Condé Nast Publications, New York, Feb 1968, vol 22 no. 2, pp. cover, 38-39, 73-74. “… the hydrofoil seaplane can operate in sea states three times the size safely handled by a basic seaplane… For almost five years, David B. Thurston, President of… Thurston Aircraft Corporation of Sanford Maine has been conducting relatively unpublicized hydro-ski and hydrofoil development and flight evaluation programs for the US Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIRSYSCOM)… It was during Spring 1964 that the Naval Air Test Center at Patuxent conducted an evaluation of an Edo-developed Grunberg hydrofoil on a Grumman JRF-5G… A second generation seaplane hydrofoil configuration called for a single, small foil positioned below the hull. The resulting design was a single supercavitating, penetrating hydrofoil considered suitable for use on the Grumman Hy-16 Albatross… a modified 1960 Lake LA-4A Skimmer amphibian was chosen as a scale flight test bed.” Note, a summary of David B. Thurston’s accomplishments is posted on the web, and includes information about his work with hydrofoil amphibians at Thurston Erlandson Corp
                                                                                        Air Progress, February 1968
                                                                                        de Cenzo, Herbert A., “Analysis of the Possibilities Presented by Hydrofoil Equipped Aircraft, Aero Digest June 1, 1944, Vol. 45, No. 5, Aeronautical Digest Publishing Corp. New York, pp 70-73, 128, 130.  Interesting discussion of the various issues, including artist concept drawings of a jet-propelled hyplane. From the text: “The following analysis is presented to point out some of the advantages and disadvantages of hydrofoil-equipped aircraft, referred to herein as “hyplanes”… Water-based aircraft are usually of two types, namely, flying boats and seaplanes… to simplify this analysis… it is presented in two parts. The first part deals with seaplanes, while the second is devoted to flying boats… The results obtained rate the land plane, the hyplane, the flying boat, and the seaplane… the seaplanes and larger flying boats are definitely outperformed by the hyplanes. However, in the small flying boat class it is questionable from a practical standpoint if the hydrofoil-equipped airplane would be the best… In conclusion, the opinion is ventured that most of the long-range, heavy-load carrying airplanes of the future will be jet-propelled hyplanes.”

                                                                                         
                                                                                        We need more references… can you suggest any? Thanks!
                                                                                        Return to Top of This Page


                                                                                         

                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…International Hydrofoil Society
                                                                                        P.O. Box 157 – Hume, VA 22639 – USA

                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org

                                                                                        IHS is not a source for copies of the references cited above except where otherwise noted. If any library would like to start a special collection of hydrofoil reference material, IHS would like to hear from you… it is possible that we could assist in starting and building your collection.
                                                                                        Suggest Additional Reference(s)Go To Main Page
                                                                                         


                                                                                        OPPORTUNITY BLOG

                                                                                        THE INTERNATIONAL HYDROFOIL SOCIETY — ESTABLISHED 1970
                                                                                        This site is being improved, patience please

                                                                                        Main menu

                                                                                        Joint Ventures Proposed to Operate, Manufacture/Market, or Design

                                                                                        Hydrofoils — Joint Ventures Proposed to Operate, Manufacture/Market, or Design

                                                                                        Messages are posted here as a service to IHS members and visitors to the website. Please be aware that IHS does not recommend products or services. While we know of no serious problems having arisen from messages posted here, we are not able to verify that offers posted here are legitimate or that individuals responding to the offers are sincere. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in initiating and conducting business as a result of messages posted here to ensure your personal safety and the safety of your financial account information.
                                                                                        Joint Venture Sought in Fiji

                                                                                        [3 Jul 03] I am looking for a partner to lease me a high powered boat with the following 70~100 passengers and with speed of 30~35 Knots. The service is geared towards the ferrying of tourists between islands . Matt (matai@mrd.gov.fj)
                                                                                        Joint Venture Sought in the Philippines

                                                                                        {23 Jun 03] I intend to operate a hydrofoil to serve the transportation of passengers between the two main islands in the Philippines. I plan to enter into a joint venture/partnership with a vessel/hydrofoil owner wherein the operation, management and manning will come from my side. Some important details to consider: Passenger capacity: 120-150; Speed: 35-40 kts. I am currently operating two fast crafts serving the same place. — Felicito Datinguinoo (luchijane@aol.com)
                                                                                        Hydrofoils — Wanted To Buy or Lease

                                                                                        Messages are posted here as a service to IHS members and visitors to the website. Please be aware that IHS does not recommend products or services. While we know of no serious problems having arisen from messages posted here, we are not able to verify that offers posted here are legitimate or that individuals responding to the offers are sincere. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in initiating and conducting business as a result of messages posted here to ensure your personal safety and the safety of your financial account information.More info on how and where to buy/sell/restore specific categories of hydrofoils can be accessed from our Posted Messages Bulletin Board Page. Please notify the webmaster if you discover a notice that is no longer valid, or if you are unsuccessful in contacting the individual or organization that posted the message.
                                                                                        Fast Ferry Expert to Assist in Procurement of Fleet

                                                                                        [14 Oct 03] My company is looking for a fast ferry expert to assist in the procurement of a small fleet of catamarans or hydrofoil vessels. We will consider purchase, lease, or joint venture partnership. Vessels must carry up to 150 plus passengers and travel at a minimum speed of 35 kts. Please contact me if you are interested and want more information. — Tom Dempsey dempsuryy@aol.com
                                                                                        Historic Hydrofoil(s) Wanted in France

                                                                                        [9 Sep 03] I seek a few old, small Russian hydrofoils in any type of condition (Raketa, Polysie or Belarus hydrofoil). This is to make a houseboats here in Toulouse, the air and space center of France… a few people are interested in this. Also, and in addition to the houseboat project, I want to start a non-profit association to restore one medium or large Russian experimental hydrofoil (Sputnik, Chaika for example)… so I am looking for a good candidate to restore for historical purposes. The hydrofoil for non-profit restoration should be an experimental craft. — Jeff Legendre (a1493@hotmail.com)
                                                                                        Need High-Speed Ferry Boat in Indonesia / Borneo

                                                                                        [12 Jul 03] I am looking for someone to sell, lease or joint venture with me a high powered boat with the following 80~100 passengers and with speed of 30~35 Knots. The service is geared towards the ferrying people between Tarakan Island and Kalimantan. — Villepin (villepin@hotmail.com) Click Here to post a response to this message.
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Vessels For Sale

                                                                                        Following are some of the more recent announcements. More info on how and where to buy/sell/restore hydrofoils can be accessed from our Posted Messages Bulletin Board Page. Please notify the webmaster if you discover a notice that is no longer valid, or if you get no reply when contacting the individual or organization that posted the message (unfortunately, many sellers have been remiss in notifying IHS when the vessel is sold).Messages are posted here as a service to IHS members and visitors to the website. Please be aware that IHS does not recommend products or services. While we know of no serious problems having arisen from messages posted here, we are not able to verify that offers posted here are legitimate or that individuals responding to the offers are sincere. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in initiating and conducting business as a result of messages posted here to ensure your personal safety and the safety of your financial account information..

                                                                                        .
                                                                                        Grumman Runabout -1958 Museum Piece

                                                                                        [20 Aug 02, updated 01 Oct 03] For Sale: Sea Wing Hydrofoil-Grumman 1958 14’8″. New Mercury 40 HP, Trailer, Original 35 HP Evenrude Lark (stuck), Morse Controls. Runs great. I am in Georgia USA. Can deliver in Southeast USA. $15,500.00. — Myrel Harner (ireneharner@juno.com)

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        .
                                                                                        Kolkhida Hydrofoil For Sale – DELFIN 1

                                                                                        [22 Sep 03] We have for sale a seagoing hydrofoil with capacity of 124 passengers. Click Here for Technical Specifications and full set of color photos, and details of the offer (Adobe Acrobat file, 400K). Price: 270.000 Euro FOB Kolobrzeg — Miroslaw Balicki, Kolobrzeg Passengers Shipping Company (kzp@pro.onet.pl)

                                                                                        .
                                                                                        New METEORS For Sale (Two)

                                                                                        [14 Jul 03] Zelenodolsk Shipyard, Russia announces that two (2) METEOR hydrofoils in production are for sale. Projected date of delivery is April 2004. Choice of Russian engines or Deutz (Germany) engines. Price ranges from 500 000 Euros to 950 000 Euros. Includes all certificates and our guarantee (1.5 year). — Sergey Nikonov (zdsip@nimb.ru)
                                                                                        KATRAN Hydrofoils For Sale

                                                                                        [12 Jul 03] We propose for sale from direct Owners following sea-going hydrofoils:

                                                                                        – Design “Katran” (“Kolkhida”), built by Volga Shipyard, Russia in 1996 (1995 2nd vessel);- The ship was built in compliance with the Rules and under the supervision of the Maritime Register of Shipping of Russia, class KM * 2 A3 Pass. Hydrofoil;- Reclassified by RINA, 100 – A -1.1; Nav S; TP;- USCG approval- Gross tonnage/Net tonnage: 135GT/53NT;- Engines: two MTU-made 12 V 396 TE 74 diesels, each of 1260 kW (1714 h.p.); 2nd vessel – two MTU-made 12 V 396 TC 82 diesels – each of 1050 kW (1430 h.p.);- Engines’ hours: less 3000– Passenger capacity – 140 (150 2nd vessel)Length, m 34,5Breadth, m 10,3Height above water (foil-borne), m 10,8Height above water (floating), m 8,9Floating draught, m 3,5Foil-borne draught, m 1,9Light displacement, t 56Full displacement, t 72Foil-borne sailing range, miles 200Foil-borne speed, kn 34Crew 5Both vessels are equipped with air-condition system.
                                                                                        Seaworthiness:
                                                                                        – The normal operating conditions for cruising foil-borne are sea state with waves up to 2 meters high and winds up to Force 5.
                                                                                        – The most unfavorable conditions for cruising hull-borne are sea state with wave height 3 meters and wind Force 6.

                                                                                        We recently inspected the hydrofoils and confirm that the vessels are well-maintained and are in tip-top condition. Inspectable in N.America by arrangement. Additional information is available upob firm/named interest. — Brgds/Vyacheslav Fyodorov ; Cielo Trading Ltd ; Tel: +38 048 743 80 85 ; Fax: +44 870 125 34 00 (via UK) ; Email: (slava@cielo-trading.net )

                                                                                        .
                                                                                        A Gas Turbine Engine For Your PHM

                                                                                        [2 Jun 03] GTE For Sale: proposed as suitable to replace the LM2500 in a surplus PHM or a commercial vessel requiring this kind of power: 20,000 HP. Built by Mashproekt in Ukraine; No operating time accumulated; Model designation D59 (original USSR designation for same model, only with a reversing mechanism: GT16000); Maximum continuous rating (MCR) – 20,000 hp in ISO conditions; Power turbine rated speed : 5200 rpm (A 3000 RPM power section is available from Russia for only $128,000 and it includes exhaust plenum and driveshaft ready to couple up to the PHM gearbox); Direction of rotation: counter-clockwise (looking at the output shaft flange), non-reversible (reversing mechanism not needed to power a water jet) ; Fuel control system operation: stabilized fuel flow rate; MTBO – 10 000 hr: (100% MCR – 300 hr, 80% MCR – 900 hr, 70% MCR and less -10 000 hr). If engine load never exceeds 70% MCR, MTBO can be extended to 20 000 hr.; Total life time – 60 000 hr. Stored in Michigan USA; Asking US$500,000 with 2 water jet drives. I would like to be put in touch with some boat builders around the Mediterranean area who might be interested. — E J Potter email: (potterej@earthlink.net); phone: 1-561-468-3587.

                                                                                        53-Page Technical Manual(Adobe Acrobat File – 612 kb)

                                                                                        Click Here

                                                                                        .[7 Nov 02] Looking for a good home for the H/V ALBATROSS. Hull and cabin are in good condition. However, she’s missing foils, strut, shaft, rudder, and engine. Anyone knowing of a museum, school, conservator, etc. interested in having it donated to them, please let me know. — Robert Miller cbbi@aol.com

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [7 Nov 02] For historical and other information and photos about Bob Miller’s conversion of the ALBATROSS to a houseboat, Click Here. For historical information and photos about the ALBATROSS in its prime, see the Helmut Kock biography on this site.

                                                                                        .
                                                                                        Seahawk Ltd. Offers Olympias
                                                                                        [21 Oct 03] Two OLYMPIA type hydrofoil vessels for sale. Both in top condition. Hydrofoil passenger vessel. Built in Russia 1993 & 1994. Hull : alloy. L – 37.54, B – 8.40, Depth – 2.60, Draught 4.60/1.40, GRT – 298 T, NET – 89 T, DW – 82 T, Main engine – MTU 16V 396 T E 74 / 2×2000. Classification : Det Norske Veritas. Renovations : Both vessels are seriously renovated. Last serious renovation : 2000. Sale price US 1.5 MIO each. Location : Trading between Finland and Estonia
                                                                                        Seahawk Ltd. Offers Superfoil Ferry

                                                                                        [30 Sep 02, updated 21 Oct 03] Directly from the Owners can offer for sale the following air conditioned Superfoil passenger ferry. Main particulars: Built at : Almaz Marine Yard JSC, St.Petersburg, Russia in 2002; LOA : 41 m, B : 12.4 m, Draught : fully loaded at speed / 1.2 m, at rest with retracted foils / 1.7 m, at rest with foils in operational position / 3.4 m; Passenger capacity : 286; Main engines : MJP Waterjets (Mercedes) Type 4000 M70 / 4 x 1740 kW MCR / each 1900-2000 RPM / easy and quick dismantling of main and aux. engines; Gensets : TechnoScan TS90 / 2 x 70kW / 87 KV*A; Gearboxes : Four reversing flange-mounted ZF 4650 / electrically operated; Service speed at sea State 3 : 55 knots; Range (34t DW; 55 kn. speed ; 10% margin) 200 nautical miles; Seakeeping : 2.5 sign. wave height at 100% MCR; Foils : Two fully retractable hydraulically controlled forward fully submerged foils made of high-quality titanium alloy; Interceptors : Two hydraulically controlled transom interceptors made of high-quality titanium alloy; Foil & interceptors control system : MTD / AURORA active Foil & Interceptor; Control System. FICS-3 supplied; Rudders : Two hydraulically controlled suspended rudders made of high-quality titanium alloy providing great control improvement; Classification : DNV 1A1 HSLC R3 Passenger E0, IMO HSC Code, Category A; Accommodation : 62 passenger seats in business class with 1000 mm pitch, 224 passenger seats in tourist class with 900 mm pitch, Self-service bar in business class, Large kiosk/bar, 21 sq.m duty free shop, audio/video entertainment system; Deadweight: 34.000 kg.; Crew : 12×75 kg / 900 kg.; Luggage : 286 x 10 kg / 2860 kg.; Fuel oil : 4740 kg.; Fresh water : 1000 kg.; Duty free goods : 3.050 kg; Capacities : Fuel oil : 10.000 L. Fresh water : 2000 kg. Hydraulic oil : 200 L. Lube oil : 250 L. Waste oil : 250 L; Hull / superstructure : High quality marine grade aluminum alloy type 1561; Service life : 20 years; Environmentally friendly : Extremely low wash up to max speed, low noise. Fulfills IMO emission regulations of Year 2000. Sale price : USD 7.0 MIO; Location : Europe. — Y.Eero, Managing Director, Seahawk Ltd. (seahawk@estpak.ee)
                                                                                        Return to Home
                                                                                        Proudly powered by WordPress

                                                                                        Prototypes and Models

                                                                                        Prototypes and Models

                                                                                        Click below for:

                                                                                        Radio Controlled RC Model Hydrofoils, Power & Sail

                                                                                        one- or Two-Person Sports Hydrofoils

                                                                                         International Hydrofoil Society Photo Gallery
                                                                                         

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Correspondence Archives…

                                                                                         
                                                                                        TUCUMCARI (PGH-2) and Other Display Models (Collector’s Items)
                                                                                        Discussion, Advice, Information Sharing, Lessons Learned, and Networking(Last Update 6 Oct 03)

                                                                                        Click Here to View Archived Messages on Radio Controlled (R/C) Models

                                                                                        Click Here to go to the Automated Bulletin Board (BBS)


                                                                                        TUCUMCARI Model Kits
                                                                                        [23 Sep 03] For hydrofoilers in the USA: The History Channel will feature a high-flying segment about US Navy hydrofoils within its blockbuster MAIL CALL television series on Sunday night, October 5th, at 10 pm EDT/PDT and 9 pm CDT. This segment reportedly includes some never-before-seen archival footage taken in 1968 of the first fleet hydrofoil, TUCUMCARI, as well as a recent interview with her first Skipper (and IHS-member), Martinn Mandles. The International Hydrofoil Society is credited by the producers, and our IHS website is listed for viewers who would like to learn more about hydrofoils. The colorful host of MAIL CALL is a former Marine Corps drill instructor (and award-winning actor), R. Lee Ermey. This episode of MAIL CALL is a “must-watch” for all members and friends of the IHS! — Martinn H. Mandles (mhmandles@aol.com)

                                                                                        [15 Mar 02] Beginning in 1952, the U.S. Navy sponsored a research & development program to construct & evaluate a number of hydrofoil test-craft. As a result of this program, in April 1966, the Navy’s Bureau of Ships awarded contracts for two competing hydrofoil gunboats, the PGH-1 to the Grumman Corporation, and the PGH-2 to the Boeing Company. The contract to Boeing was for a fixed price of $4m. By July of 1967 the hull was completed in Portland, Oregon and transported to one of Boeing’s plants in Seattle, Washington for completion and outfitting. At the launching, PGH-2 was christened TUCUMCARI in honor of the City of Tucumcari, New Mexico. Upon completion of builders & acceptance trials, she was delivered to the Navy on March 8, 1968.

                                                                                        TUCUMCARI was powered by a Rolls Royce Proteus gas turbine driving a water-jet propulsion system that gave this 57-ton hydrofoil a speed in excess of 40 knots. She was 72 feet in length with a beam of 19.5 feet, and a draft of 4.5 feet with foils retracted and 13.9 feet with foils extended. The Navy crew consisted of one officer and 12 enlisted personnel.

                                                                                        On November 9, 1969, to evaluate these craft in a wartime environment, TUCUMCARI was deployed to Vietnam along with FLAGSTAFF (PGH-1) for river patrol operations out of Danang in Operation Market Time.

                                                                                        Following her tour in Vietnam, TUCUMCARI was loaded on USS WOOD COUNTY and transported to Europe for a NATO tour and demonstrations. From April until October 1971 she operated in European waters while performing numerous demonstrations and participations in combat exercises.

                                                                                        Upon her return from Europe she was assigned to the Amphibious Force in the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. This resulted in a sad ending to a distinguished period of performance. In November 1972, during night operations off Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, she ran onto a large submerged coral reef. Fortunately, there were no serious injuries to the crew. She was finally dragged off the reef in a difficult salvage operation and transported to Norfolk, VA where the decision was made not to attempt repair of the extensive damage. During her short life, however, TUCUMCARI adequately demonstrated the value of this water-jet propelled design as a new naval combatant with very high maneuverability and the capability of very high speed even in very rough seas. She and the other Navy R&D ships and craft served to lay a solid technology foundation for the design and construction of a squadron of six Navy Patrol Hydrofoil Missile (PHM) ships built by Boeing. They were deployed to Key West, FL where they worked with the US Coast Guard in apprehending drug smugglers and conducting search and rescue operations. — Wm. M. Ellsworth, P.E.

                                                                                        [4 May 01] Do you know what scale is this Aurora made TUCUMCARI boat? — (vsokolov@et.ru)

                                                                                        Response…[4 May 01] Based on the 71 feet length of the TUCUMCARI and the approximate 10 inches for the model, I calculate the scale to be 1/85. — Sumi Arima (arimas1@juno.com)

                                                                                        [5 May 00] My number four son has located 2 Monarch USS TUCUMCARI (PGH-2) models in Virginia They sell for $125 and $160. If anyone is interested give me an e-mail and I will get ordering info. They are not too bad. I had two of them when I was still with Boeing. Several years ago now. They cost at that time $5. — John Monk (marymonk@msn.com)

                                                                                        Response...[23 Sep 03] These model kits go up for auction on www.ebay.com fairly regularly… most that I have seen have sold for well under $100. For eBay members there is an automatic search feature under “favorites” in the “My eBay” section. This allows you to specify a keyword search with the option to receive email notification when new items are added that meet the search terms.

                                                                                        [11 Sep 98] In 1967 at age 27, I became the first officer-in-charge of the U.S. Navy’s first fleet-operational hydrofoil, the Boeing-built TUCUMCARI (PGH-2). I bid and won an ebay auction for a brand new, original TUCUMCARI model made by Aurora Plastics and still in the box. Believe it or not, my name appears on the background/instruction page. I built one and kept one of these models at the time, but they were damaged or lost in the interim, and I had given up hope of ever finding another. So the IHS referral to ebay really paid off for me (and for the seller)! — Martinn H. Mandles (mhmandles@aol.com)

                                                                                        [14 Feb 99] A good potential source of the TUCUMCARI kits is the online auction at Ebay. I have seen half a dozen kits sold there in the last few months; most recently the selling price has been US$28.00 to $US32.00. Just log on and search for the key word TUCUMCARI. Eventually you are likely to find one. Another model kit that sold recently on Ebay was a radio controlled PT 50 manufactured in Japan in the 1980s. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [4 May 98] I am trying to get some information for a friend of mine, who builds model for a hobby.  He is trying to get some specific information about the TUCUMCARI hydrofoil.  If you can direct me in the right direction it will be greatly appreciated. — BM1(SW) E.W. Enzenauer (eenzenauer@acu4.lck.mrms.navy.mil)

                                                                                        Response…[19 Apr 98] Photos of a completed TUCUMCARI Model Kit are now included in the IHS photo gallery, courtesy of IHS member Malin Dixon.

                                                                                        [20 Jan 98] I have a friend who has [another] model kit of the TUCUMCARI he would like to sell. He’s asking $75 for the kit, which is unbuilt. Please let me know if you are interested ASAP. — Bill Faulkner(WFaulk0001@aol.com)

                                                                                        [28 Oct 97] Hope you can help me find some info on the Boeing PGH-2 Hydrofoil TUCUMCARI. I have a model of this boat that I would like to build as accurately as possible to the real thing while it was stationed in the Far East. All I have to go on is the box art of the kit. The Model was made by a company called Aurora. The box is dated 1969, kit #727-250. The bad part is that Aurora is out of business, and the kits have become collector items (you don’t want to know what they go for). It is no small bit of luck that I came to have one. The kit is titled “Boeing PGH-2 TUCUMCARI Hydrofoil.” There is a sticker that says ” Designed by Boeing Aerospace Group” on the box top. I checked the Boeing web page and found two references; the first is of a Naval Hydrofoil w/ missile launchers, the other was of a hydrofoil ferry. My desire is to do the most accurate job possible in the construction of this kit. These kits can sell for over $100, so I’m going to be real careful when I build it. So research will be very important. Unlikely but possible, there is a model company called Glencoe, that is digging up the molds from long discontinued models and reissuing them. On the Ship side the Savanna and the USS AMERICA have been reissued, so who knows maybe they’ll do the TUCUMCARI someday. If they ever do, I’ll let you know. When I finish the model I’ll send some photos your way. — Bill Faulkner(WFaulk0001@aol.com)

                                                                                        Response…[30 Oct 97] Here’s a TUCUMCARI photo I just scanned. Hope it comes out o.k. It’s the only thing I have here at work. I’ll check my stash at home. — Joe Schobert (Dirigo99@aol.com)

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [31 Oct 97] The TUCUMCARI kit was put out by Aurora Plastics Corp. as kit no. 727-250 based on data provided by Boeing. This was back in 1969. I do not believe they are in production anymore. Boeing was working with one of those kit manufacturer on putting out one for PHMs. I don’t believe they ever did put it out, at least I have not seen any. I am not quite sure what kind of data is desired, but TUCUMCARI and FLAGSTAFF particulars and plan and elevation views are provided in “Boats of the USN”, Navships 250-452 issued May 1967 and was available through Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office. The booklet of general plans is PGH2-845-2533352. I know the set of drawings originally held by SUPSHIP Seattle has been destroyed by the Archive people. I thought I had a booklet put together by Boeing providing general details of TUCUMCARI but am unable to locate it. There might be one hanging around at the Naval Surface Warfare Center – Carderock Division facilities. – Sumi Arima (arimas1@juno.com)


                                                                                        Boeing PHM and Jetfoil Models
                                                                                        [5 Jan 99] I am looking a model or a model kit of the PHM-1 Class of ships. If you know of any I would appreciate the help in this matter. — Michael Brint (brint@maco.net)

                                                                                        Four Responses…[13 Jan 02, updated 30 Dec 02] White Ensign Models (WEM) offers a new 1:350 scale model kit for PHM 1 USS PEGASUS, and it’s a beauty. Click Here for details/photo. The company ships orders worldwide. Felix Bustelo has created a webpage devoted to this model with photos, hints, and reviewer comments. That page is at http://warship.simplenet.com/wem_pegasus.htm. [regrettably, Felix Bustelo’s site seems to have disappeared from the web. – Editor] Thanks to Steve Novell (steve.novell@av.com) for bringing this item to our attention. He notes that “The model thing is close enough that you can make just minor adjustments (adding H bits to the main deck, relocating the radar to the mast etc.)”

                                                                                        [6 Jan 99] I have heard of a PHM model, but I have no idea what makes or made it. There probably weren’t that many made. By the way… I’m not at Boeing any more. This is my sixth day of retirement! — Joe Schobert (DIRIGO99@aol.com)

                                                                                        [6 Jan 99] I don’t recall a PHM Model, but there was a (primitive) video game in the ’80’s called “PHM” or “Hydrofoil” that used the characteristics of the ships. Boeing provided technical assistance to the manufacturer, as I recall. — George Jenkins (georgejj@aol.com) (editor’s note: this copies of this video game are offered for sale occasionally on the Ebay Auction website.)

                                                                                        [8 Jan 99, updated 8 Aug 99] There is a plastic model kit combination of the USS Missile Frigate FFG43 USS THACH and USS Patrol Missile Hydrofoil PHM1 PEGASUS Class to a scale of 1:700 in the “Sky Wave” series produced by Pit-Road, 5-10-3 Kajigaya Takatuku, Kawasaki City, Japan. The kit number is 55 and the box is also labeled SW-1300. The FFG is only modeled down to the waterline and is about 195 mm long. The PHM can be modeled either hullborne or foilborne as there is a split in the hull at the waterline. The down side is that the PHM model is only about 59 mm long. It is fairly cute through and has reasonable detail! The decals include pendant numbers for PHM-4 through PHM-6, AQUILA, ARIES, and GEMINI. Although you appear to be looking for plastic scale model kits, I am also reminded of an article on a radio controlled semi-scale PHM model included in a Dutch radio control modeling magazine on sale in December 1995 in the Netherlands. This model was scratch built rather than a kit, but may be of interest to you if you can still trace the article from the scant description I have given. Finally, you may also be interested to know that in the UK magazine Model Boats of April 1991 (Volume 41 Number 482) featured a small advertisement for ‘Hydroflight Models, model hydrofoil and hovercraft specialists incorporating the Hydroflight Society (The Society for Model Hydrofoil and Hovercraft Enthusiasts)’. The advertisement announced that their first kit, a 48 inch model of HMS SPEEDY, a military derivative of the Boeing Jetfoil was to be released soon and included photos of the bare hull of this scale fibreglass model. The advertisement had this UK address: Hydroflight Models; Unit 4, Readers Farm; Readers Lane, Iden, Nr. Rye, East Sussex; Telephone: 0797 222406 — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        [20 Feb 99] There was a 1/700 scale plastic model kit combination of the US Navy guided missile cruiser Vella Gulf, CG 72 that also included scale models of a Harpoon-armed Pegasus class hydrofoil, an LCAC (hovercraft landing craft), and some smaller boats. Don’t have any other details. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Back to Top of Page


                                                                                        Other Models

                                                                                        High Quality Display and Test Models

                                                                                        [17 Apr 03] We offer a professional modelmaking facility, tailored to suit individual requirements of our clients, which include shipbuilders, ship owners, museums, oil companies, and private collectors. Our marine modelmaking service provides exhibition standard models for marketing and boardroom, engine room and internal layout models, wind and wave test models for design, and interference models for feasibility study. Ship models can be either full hull type, mounted on turned pedestals, or waterline type set in a realistic sea. Ship model hulls can be authentically planked on scale frames, solid (bread & butter) using English Lime, or GRP and resin when multiples are ordered. Email: dsmodelmakers@aol.com ; website: www.dsmodelmakers.co.uk.

                                                                                        PT-50 Final

                                                                                        [15 Mar 02] It’s finished. Here’s a few shots. I’ve sent off an article to Classic Fast Ferries (also will be published in the club modeling magazine). Here’s a few shots of the finished model. I did end up putting a 1/2 dozen commuters on the back verandah – you can see the rest of the detail. Thanks for your help and interest on the way thru. And to IHS and CFF generally for the additional history and reference material. — Ian Wrenford (iansharyn@bigpond.com)

                                                                                        Update on PT-50 Model Progress

                                                                                        [13 Jan 02] A further progress report on the PT50 FAIRLIGHT model. Couple more photos attached. I’ve now painted the basic hull (except for the black bits) and completed the foils. The lower deck windows were originally fitted as clear plastic sheet, the window positions then being masked over and paint applied to the remaining exposed clear plastic. Remove the masking and voila, nice clear windows. The main superstructure is also largely done and now I’m pretty much ready to start the detailing – rails, life rings, ventilators, antenna etc etc. In the photos – the foils are just bluetacked into position and the upper deck, roof and main antenna are just glued on with gravity. The deck itself has a bit of red overspray on it and no attempt has been made to paint that yet. On the base, I’ve made some modifications to the wake pattern to fit those shown in the Dee Why shot (thanks Barney/Martin for the tip). Not finished with the base yet, I have to get the model into exactly the right position before getting into it with the artists acrylics – but I’m much happier with the effect. Early to mid-Feb for completion remains my estimate. –Ian Wrenford (iansharyn@bigpond.com)

                                                                                        [30 Dec 01] Just touching base again on the PT50 scratchbuild. I’ve settled on the FAIRLIGHT and am doing it in a (static) 1:72 scale. It will be for static display only. Here are a couple of shots of the model in progress. I will be mounting it foilborne on some modeled water, which you can see in one of the photos. I have made good progress with the basic hull (ex foils) now complete and have just commenced on the superstructure. I predict I’ll have it finished by end Jan or beginning Feb 02. And I’m using plans Martin Grimm sent me (although have had to re-draw the superstructure to match the oz ones). A query: Is there any info on the deck finish on the Oz PT-50s? I’m not clear if they would have been wood, or a painted finish. — Ian Wrenford (iansharyn@bigpond.com)

                                                                                        30 Dec 01

                                                                                        30 Dec 01

                                                                                        13 Jan 02

                                                                                        13 Jan 02
                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [30 Dec 01] The decks of the PT 50s, like the rest of the hull and the superstructure are fabricated from aluminum alloy which is riveted together. The foils, due to the need for strength are steel as are deck fittings such as bollards (stainless), hand rails etc. The Sydney foils has a rough anti-slip coating applied to the decks and this had a light matt grey finish (see aerial shot of DEE WHY or close-up of forward deck of LONG REEF below). The only significant external wood items were aft cabin doors and bench seat (as seen on CURL CURL photo). Given you will probably soon be starting on the foils, I take the opportunity to send you views of the bow and stern foil units of LONG REEF while on cradles at Balmain in the late 1980s. It is only when a hydrofoil is out of the water that it is possible to really appreciate the foil configuration. On the bow foils you should be able to see flaps on port and starboard side. Also, the thin strakes on the foils are called ‘fences’ and they help to stop air from being drawn down on the low pressure side of the foil. Likewise the pair of rudders on the aft foils (slightly inboard of the propeller shafts) each have four fences clearly visible with a further fence placed on the foils below each strut connection point. The rudder tiller assembly is visible just above the aft foil supporting cross structure which is bolted to the transom. If you need any other details or views to clarify any aspect of these hydrofoils during construction of the model, let me know and I may be able to find a photo that helps. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        (Above, Left, and Below). Thanks to Martin Grimm for providing various views of PT-50 hydrofoils to assist in modeling from scratch. Additional views, both of models and the real vessels can be found in our photo gallery and in the sections of the site devoted to radio controlled models and static display models.

                                                                                        Need PT-50 Plans for Model

                                                                                        [16 Oct 01] I live in Sydney and in my childhood we had PT50 Hydrofoils operating in Sydney Harbour. I was interested in scratchbuilding a (static) model of one and was wondering if you had any thoughts on possible sources for scale plans. — Ian Wrenford (iansharyn@bigpond.com)

                                                                                        Responses…[30 Dec 01] Note that Ian Wrenford’s many impressive models are on static display at the website of the Australian Plastic Modelers Association, see specifically the following page: http://apma.org.au/membersmodels/ian_wrenford/wrenford.html. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [20 Oct 01, updated 6 Oct 03] I have a model PT.50. You can see it and other hydrofoil models at: http://home.wanadoo.nl/~hydrofoils1/dutchhydrofoilmodels.htm. — Mark van Rijzen (info@dutchhydrofoils.com) website: www.dutchhydrofoils.com.

                                                                                        [20 Oct 01] The radio controlled model I have (still unfinished and probably never will be at the rate I am going) is of a Rodriquez RHS 140 rather than the Supramar / Rodriquez PT 50. The RHS 140 was essentially a somewhat modernised version of the PT 50. It is a fairly similar size with similar passenger capacity and engines, but had a slightly different hull and superstructure. My model represents CURL CURL which you may still recall. CURL CURL was the only RHS 140 that was operated on Sydney Harbour. Most of the other Sydney hydrofoils were of the PT 50 type you mentioned, though the first one MANLY was a smaller PT 20, and the last two that were introduced, the MANLY [2] and SYDNEY were both larger Rodriquez RHS 160F types. More information on the Sydney hydrofoils is provided in issue 5 of Classic Fast Ferries by Tim Timoleon at http://www.classicfastferries.com. I built my 1:20 scale CURL CURL model from plans I drew up (also to a scale of 1:20) from a combination of arrangement drawings in journals and my own set of photos of that hydrofoil. Those plans are also not complete, but were enough to be able to build the model from. The question now is, do you want to specifically build a PT 50 model or would the RHS 140 also be suitable? Also, how accurate do you want to make your model? I don’t have accurate drawings of either the PT 50 or RHS 140 from which to build a model, but Click Here for the principal characteristics and general arrangement (this is a 1.3 meg Adobe Acrobat File). See also Jane’s Surface Skimmer Systems 1967-68, which shows some section views through the PT 50. Note that the PT 50 hydrofoils that operated on Sydney Harbour also had various superstructure configurations. Some, like DEE WHY, had a raised wheelhouse top, and others like FAIRLIGHT and LONG REEF had the wheelhouse at the same level as the rest of the superstructure. The PT 50 plans I provided here are of an older style of superstructure with less internal passenger capacity than those operated on Sydney harbour. I can send you a selection of scanned photos of mainly either CURL CURL or LONG REEF once you indicate whether you have a preference for building any particular one of the Sydney hydrofoils. I assume you would be building the model to around 1:72 scale? I look forward to hearing more about your plans to build the model. In particular, once you do build such a model, make sure to send a photo of it to the IHS. There is a page on the IHS website under the photo gallery where photos of various hydrofoil models are included. Two other modellers in Australia have built PT 50 models, but neither are complete as far as I am aware. They are larger scale models made of wood and one is radio controlled. They were built from plans provided by Rodriquez but I was told that the plans may have in fact been for a mix of PT 50 and RHS 140 types, so that made it a bit confusing to build the models. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        [9 Dec 01] I am attaching some photos and a postcard image of the Sydney PT 50s. They include: (1) An old postcard featuring FAIRLIGHT sent to me by Andrew Gowanlock, a fellow hydrofoil buff in Sydney. The card by the Kruger company of West Germany and numbered 797/61 is titled “Sydney Hydrofoil Ferry with Kirribilli in background”. It seems like a composite photo to me! Click Here for close-up of FAIRLIGHT. (2). A photo taken by Andrew Gowanlock showing FAIRLIGHT in the foreground and PALM BEACH and DEE WHY (the latter two with raise wheelhouse) in the background after they were withdrawn from service; and (3). A photo of LONG REEF of which I have a selection of other photos while it was in maintenance. LONG REEF and FAIRLIGHT had a very similar appearance. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Chinese Military Hydrofoil Info Needed For Model

                                                                                        [31 Jul 01] As a hobby I make 1/700 plastic models of warships from various countries, and I am interested in hydrofoils of the modern Chinese Navy. Does anyone know of a book or website that has pictures of these warships? I have researched various internet search engines to no avail. — Chris King (chris_a_king@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[31 Jul 01] You can get some information from an old copy of Jane’s Surface Skimmers, say between 1979 and 1984, but not enough to make a model from. There were over a hundred hydrofoil torpedo boats of the Hu Chwan (White Swan) class active in that era, all built in Hutans Shipyard. Also, some were sold to Albania, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Romania. According to Jane’s, about 20 hulls of this design slightly modified were built in Romania. There was also a Hema class military hydrofoil about which I have no details. It may be worth the effort to inquire of the Naval Attaché at the embassies of the various countries involved to see if they would provide any info… it’s a small chance, but you have nothing to lose but the cost of the stamps.– Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Need FLYING FISH Design Details for Model

                                                                                        [18 Feb 01] I’m searching for further information — plans, etc., on the FLYING FISH for a model I plan to build. FLYING FISH was outfitted at Miami Shipbuilding Corp. for her role as the DISCO VOLANTE. In the limited edition DVD of the movie Thunderball, there is a section on the “Making of Thunderball” that has a scanned photo (b+w) of the FLYING FISH in the MSC yards.– Doug Binish (email address withheld)

                                                                                        Plans For BRAS d’OR

                                                                                        [19 Feb 99] Do you know where I can get a set of plans of the BRAS d’OR?. I would like to build a model of her. Growing up in Nova Scotia, I got to see her in action. Quite a sight. — Ron Schofield (sco@hfx.andara.com).

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [19 Feb 99] Click here for present location of the Fast Hydrofoil Escort BRAS d’OR. Maybe the museum has the plans. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        FHE-400 BRAS D’OR Dimensions for Model

                                                                                        [8 Sep 00] Can you tell me where I can find “dimensional drawings” for the Canadian FHE-400 hydrofoil destroyer ? I wish to make a 40″ model of her that actually flies ( yes I have the technical ability). The only thing I have found is the book “The Flying 400” by Thomas G. Lynch. — The book gives the length as 151 Feet but no usable drawings — Dan MacLean (dmaclean@quik.com)

                                                                                        Responses…[13 Oct 00] The ship itself is on display, and there is a small museum associated with it. Good luck with your model, and by all means send some photos and details when you are done for possible publication in the IHS newsletter. There was also a scale model of the FHE400 on display at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia some years ago. I have uploaded a couple of scans of figures taken from old technical papers. Click Here and Click Here. You may need to use the View/Zoom feature on your browser or Paint program to read the dimensions on these, but they can be read. – Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [20 Jan 03] Did you ever receive a response on your question as to drawings on the Bras D’Or? My father was the Principal Naval Overseer who laid her down…he suggests contacting the Hull Drawing Office who was the successor to the Naval Central Drawing Office. — Anne Lynch (aelynch@shaw.ca)

                                                                                        [08 Aug 03] I have been building model Canadian warships for twenty years, and it was suggested that the Bras d’ Or would make an interesting model. Are plans available for her? — George E. Onley (ggonley@onlinl.net)


                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…
                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society
                                                                                        PO BOX 51 – CABIN JOHN MD 20818 – USA
                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org


                                                                                        Return to Posted Messages Bulletin BoardGo To Main Page


                                                                                        BOEING’s “AQUA-JET” HYDROFOIL RESEARCH HYDROPLANE

                                                                                        (ALSO KNOWN AS THE “HTS” HYDRODYNAMIC TEST SYSTEM)

                                                                                        From 1961-1966, the Boeing owned and operated Aqua-Jet provided a continuous “water tunnel” between its sponsons in which to measure the hydrodynamic parameters of many small, scale model hydrofoil “wings” of different designs at various angles of attack, depths and speeds. The instrumentation was such that a complete “polar” plot (of lift and drag versus angle of attack at any one foil depth and speed) could be obtained in a run time of only 30 seconds!

                                                                                        Except for the unique sponson configuration and pure turbojet propulsion, HTS resembled the American Power Boat Association’s “Unlimited Class” racing hydroplanes of that era. HTS was 38 feet long, with a beam of 17 feet. Initially powered by an Allison J-33 turbojet with 4,600 lbs. of thrust, the brown-and-white HTS then displaced about six tons and was capable of speeds of up to 100 knots (115 mph). In 1963, after major modifications to the hull and the installation of a Pratt & Whitney J-48 turbojet with 6,350 lbs. of thrust, the blue-and-white HTS displaced closer to eight tons with a top speed of 130 knots (150 mph).

                                                                                        Operating on Lake Washington in Seattle only on calm water and during daylight hours, HTS proved to be indispensable in adding to the knowledge of hydrofoil design and performance at that time and in the years that followed.

                                                                                        (Rev. 110418 MM)

                                                                                        c
                                                                                        (10k)
                                                                                        d
                                                                                        FRESH-1 – The purpose of the 53-foot, 16.7 ton Foil Research Experimental Supercavitating Hydrofoil, designed and built by Boeing for the US Navy in the 1962-63 time frame was to evaluate a variety of foil designs and foil system arrangements at high speed. The twin-hull catamaran arrangement provided a large clear space between the hulls, within which different foil systems could be mounted. There was complete freedom for the arrangement and location of foils relative to each other. FRESH-1 capsized at 70 knots during a high speed Acceptance Trial on 18 July 1963. The incident strongly influenced the US Navy’s decision to abandon its goal of a 100-knot hydrofoil and concentrate instead on achieving reliable 50 knot operations.
                                                                                        LITTLE SQUIRT
                                                                                        More information and more photos
                                                                                        Pioneers

                                                                                        Pioneers

                                                                                        Click on:

                                                                                        NOTE: Work in progress.  Links to bios will be provided ASAP.  Ray

                                                                                        Baron Hanns von Schertel … Picture obtained from a 1970 Supramar AG brochure
                                                                                        (21k)
                                                                                        Carlo Rodriquez … Picture obtained from October 1962 issue of Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil
                                                                                        (31k)
                                                                                        R.E. Alexeyev … Picture obtained from October 1964 issue of Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil

                                                                                        KOCK 97-2000
                                                                                        LANG 97-2000
                                                                                        KEIPER 97-2000
                                                                                        ALEKSEEV 97-2000
                                                                                        MILLER 97-2000

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Reprint…
                                                                                        The Miller Hydrofoil Sailboard
                                                                                        For racers of the future, this design provides fast acceleration and a smoother ride
                                                                                        on choppy seas
                                                                                        Reprinted by permission from the
                                                                                        San Francisco Bay Boardsailing Association
                                                                                        (SFBA) Newsletter
                                                                                        May 1997
                                                                                        <new!>
                                                                                        Rich Miller’s free 28-page Illustrated Technical Paper:
                                                                                        Click Here
                                                                                        (Adobe Acrobat file)
                                                                                        <new!>
                                                                                        Sam Bradfield’s, Harken Board Sailing Hydrofoil Pictures, Product Catalog and the Harken
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Flight Manual courtesy of a current owner Jonathan Levine. He reports that it was made only
                                                                                        briefly by Harken, appearing in their 1986 catalog. They recently told him that they sold somewhere
                                                                                        around 50 of them.:
                                                                                        Click Here
                                                                                        (Adobe Acrobat file) (wnw070911update)
                                                                                        See also:
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Sailboards, Windsurfers, Surfboards

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Inventors, Designers, and Their Craft

                                                                                        Ship Yards

                                                                                        Disclosure: IHS President Ray Vellinga is part owner of Gig Harbor Marina and Boat Yard.  For more on Gig Harbor Marina and Boat Yard click on Home, below:

                                                                                        Home

                                                                                        Joint Ventures Proposed to Operate, Manufacture/Market, or Design

                                                                                        Joint Ventures Proposed to Operate, Manufacture/Market, or Design

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Correspondence Archives…

                                                                                        Sources of Engines, Their Maintenance, and Repair Parts
                                                                                        (Last Update: December 20, 2013)Go to the BBS Bulletin Board
                                                                                        Go to the Directory of Archived Messages

                                                                                         


                                                                                        Correspondence

                                                                                        Diesel Engineering Text

                                                                                        [30 Mar 11] Author: Andrei Makartchouk
                                                                                        Title: Diesel Engine Engineering 2: Thermodynamics, Turbocharging, Dynamics,
                                                                                        Design, Control
                                                                                        ISBN: 0984634606
                                                                                        Available on Amazon.com

                                                                                        This book is a revised and extended edition of my previous book below, and provides the foundation for design of diesel engines based on traditional methods in
                                                                                        thermodynamics, dynamics, structural analysis, chemistry, heat transfer, applied analysis of system operation, and etc. This edition offers an additional material and examples for calculation of combustion process, thermal efficiency, heat release, NOx emissions, and etc. A diesel turbocharging is included into this edition also.

                                                                                        Providing detailed strategies to analyze, control, and design diesel engines, their systems, and major components, this text can be used as a manual for calculation of diesel engine thermodynamics and dynamics, design of turbocharging, evaluation of structural mechanisms, and modeling of diesel engine systems for optimal performance, efficiency, and maintenance in marine, industrial, automotive and genset applications.

                                                                                        Thank you, Andrei

                                                                                         

                                                                                        A Gas Turbine Engine For Your PHM

                                                                                        [2 Jun 03] GTE For Sale: proposed as suitable to replace the LM2500 in a surplus PHM or a commercial vessel requiring this kind of power: 20,000 HP. Built by Mashproekt in Ukraine; No operating time accumulated; Model designation D59 (original USSR designation for same model, only with a reversing mechanism: GT16000); Maximum continuous rating (MCR) – 20,000 hp in ISO conditions; Power turbine rated speed : 5200 rpm (A 3000 RPM power section is available from Russia for only $128,000 and it includes exhaust plenum and driveshaft ready to couple up to the PHM gearbox); Direction of rotation: counter-clockwise (looking at the output shaft flange), non-reversible (reversing mechanism not needed to power a water jet) ; Fuel control system operation: stabilized fuel flow rate; MTBO – 10 000 hr: (100% MCR – 300 hr, 80% MCR – 900 hr, 70% MCR and less -10 000 hr). If engine load never exceeds 70% MCR, MTBO can be extended to 20 000 hr.; Total life time – 60 000 hr. Stored in Michigan USA; Asking US$500,000  with 2 water jet drives. I would like to be put in touch with some boat builders around the Mediterranean area who might be interested. — E J Potter email: (potterej@earthlink.net); phone: 1-561-468-3587.

                                                                                        53-Page Technical Manual(Adobe Acrobat File – 612 kb)
                                                                                        Click Here

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Kart Engine Utility

                                                                                        [11 Nov 01] I am considering building a hydrofoil as a university project and I’ve already been looking into some of the practicalities. Today I have mostly been considering how to power a small hydrofoil and looking at lots of engine and propeller websites. One option I’ve been looking at is the widespread availability of Kart engines. Do you think a 28HP Kart engine could be geared down to provide propulsion for a lightweight hydrofoil say 12-15ft in length? It just got me thinking because kart engines are very lightweight and also surprisingly cheap. — Mark Landers (mark.landers@baesystems.com)

                                                                                        LITTLE SQUIRT‘s Gas Turbine Engine

                                                                                        [20 Oct 01] In the article on Boeing’s LITTLE SQUIRT it mentions Boeing 425 hp gas turbine engine. Do you know any more about this engine or who might. Are these available or something comparable? — Matt Kirk (matric39@gte.net)

                                                                                        Response…[21 Oct 01] Boeing built the small gas turbine for about 20 years primarily for the air start carts used to start jet engines at the airports. I believe some may have been used as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) as well. The jet planes have the APU usually near the tail to provide hydraulics, electricity, and starting air so they can be independent of ground services. Due to the age, I don’t know if they are still in service. Other gas turbines of this horsepower range that I am aware of were built by Solar (I believe the parent organization was International Harvester) and Airesearch. I know Aireasearch was bought out by Garrett who was bought but again, but I don’t remember the name of the current owner. Current versions of the gas turbines in this category are about half the size of the previous units. — Sumi Arima (arimas1@juno.com)

                                                                                        [26 Feb 03] Boeing made these engines: T50BO-12 also T50BO-10, T50BO-8. I have a few of them and have used them in my boat. — Tim Pratt (timp%@compatiblecomputers.com)

                                                                                        Reactivating the Indonesian Jetfoil Fleet

                                                                                        [24 Jan 01, updated 17 Feb 01] Would you advise who know the Standard Test for Fuel Nozzle of Allison 501 KF Gas Turbine Engine used on Boeing Jetfoil 929 type? There are five Jetfoils in our country, Indonesia. One is a commercial type with around 225-passenger seats. This vessel has been in use for several years, and the 2 501 engines are burned out. There are Allison documents with the ship, but I can’t get the answer to my question from them. Two of the other Jetfoils are troop transport type with around 100 passengers on first deck. We plan to operate one of these at Surabaya-Indonesia as a chartered vessel for plant or offshore services. Another two Jetfoils are patrol type unfinished yet. The two patrol type units are hull (one deck) with engine and Automatic Control System (ACS) only. They have never been used since they arrived in our country in the beginning of the 1980s. We have planned to modify Patrol type to be a Commercial type. Do you have any idea how much the approximate cost for this project? Do you know who has the surplus of Allison 501 KF engine; we need two units. — Sentot Adi Pramono, Operation Director at PT Indonusa Ocean (sentot@lycos.com); Jln. Dukuh Kupang XXI – 16 Surabaya, 60225; Indonesia. Phone: 62 81 133 6557; 62 31 567 2257; Fax: 62 31 561 2293

                                                                                        Response…[17 Feb 01] Allison was bought by Rolls Royce in 1995. There is a descriptive information about the Allison 501 engine on the Rolls Royce website (use the search feature to search for “Allison,” but no specific info on sales of new or reconditioned units or on maintenance procedures. They do offer parts and maintenance service in various countries, but you will have to contact them directly for specifics. The US Navy uses this engine, but I have no idea whether they have put any into surplus. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Need Meteor Parts…

                                                                                        [18 Jul 00] I am hoping someone can tell me the contact numbers for the Zelenedolsk Ship yards who manufacture the Russian hydrofoil Meteor. — Hans Enri (hengermarine@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[18 Jul 00] The Zelenodolsk Shipyard has its own website.

                                                                                        Source of Engine Parts for Russian Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [5 May 00] My company, Comeract, Ltd is a source of spare parts of Russian engines, including engines in Russian hydrofoils like Kometa and in other Russian vessels of the type Alexander Green and Efpatoria. My fax is: 0030 241 22728; address is: 9 Mitropolitou Apostolou; Rodos-Greece — Mihail Hatziapostolou (comeractgr@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Russian Source of Spare Parts

                                                                                        [1 Mar 00] I wanted to let you know that my company has successfully ordered new spare parts out of Russia. We have received our 1st shipment (5 propeller shafts and 1 V-drive). Also have we ordered 3 (new) front and 2 (new) aft foils. — Mark van Rijzen (dutchhydrofoils@wanadoo.nl)

                                                                                        Warbird Engine

                                                                                        [31 Dec 99] I am looking for information about the gas turbine engines made in the USA by Avco Lycoming that were used on the Grumman OV1 Mohawk airplanes. These engines are the turboprop version of the famous Huey helicopter engine. I am looking for a engine specification list, installation drawings, and an operations manual. If anybody out there knows how to get these documents, please contact me. You are probably wondering why I am asking: I have a idea that these engines will suit a Russian Voskhod hydrofoil perfectly as a main propulsion engine. The light weight and small dimensions will suit ideally for this application. I know that in the USA, Unlimited hydroplane race boats also use the bigger version T55 as main engine. — Peter Venema (venem107@wxs.nl)

                                                                                        Response…[31 Oct 98, updated 5 May 03] There is a web-based bulletin board for buying and selling aircraft and parts. Use the “Search Ads” function to look for ads with Mohawk as the key word.  — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        2nd Response…

                                                                                        [7 Nov 99] Check out our website at www.ssturbine.com. We would love to supply technical information regarding LM-1500 and LM-2500 power plants, as well as potentially supplying engines. If there is any interest, please contact us. — Robin C. Sipe (rsipe@solarwinds.com)

                                                                                        Russian/Chinese Parts Sources

                                                                                        [30 Oct 97] I am looking for the manufacturer or maker of hydrofoil engines that is supposedly based in China. Originally the manufacturer of this particular model was from Russia. The vessel is a ferry. I am not sure of the manufacturer of the engines, but I know it is the same engine as used in the Chinese Navy. I also have the specs, (not with me at the moment) but it was like an M-104A model. — Rachel L. Haynie (Rachel@hol.gr)

                                                                                        Responses…[updated 24 Jul 98; originally 2 Nov 97] We use engines M401A and M417A on hydrofoils METEOR and VOSKHOD produced now in Russia. The producer of these engines is AO “ZVEZDA”: Russia, 193012, St. Petersburg, ul. Babushkina, 123; phone: +7-812-2620747, marketing department: +7-812-2628142, fax +7-812-2673776. — Konstantin Matveev (matveev@cco.caltech.edu) (website: www.hydrofoils.org)

                                                                                        [10 Nov 97] I contacted China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) that is the state owned enterprise and controls the most of shipbuilding industry in China, including shipbuilding, engines and ship equipments. Under CSSC there are a number of diesel factories for marine use. Among those, there are two factories manufacturing high speed diesel engines for high speed crafts and hydrofoils. They are Luoyang Diesel Factory and Sichuan Diesel Factory. Luoyang Diesel Factory is in Luoyang, Henan Province. It manufactures 12V180 diesel, 1200 HP and MWM diesel 400-1000 HP. They have the license of manufacturing MWM. Sichuan Diesel Factory is in Sichuan Province. They have the license to manufacture STYER diesel about 1000 HP. If you need detail information, please let me know the items. CSSC promised to offer the information. — Shi-Tang Dong, Professor in Ship Hydrodynamics (stdong@online.sh.cn)


                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…International Hydrofoil Society
                                                                                        PO BOX 51 – CABIN JOHN MD 20818 – USA

                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org

                                                                                         


                                                                                        <Go To IHS Main Page> <Go to the BBS Bulletin Board> <Go to the Directory of Archived Messages>


                                                                                        Hydrofoils — Joint Ventures Proposed to Operate, Manufacture/Market, or Design

                                                                                        Messages are posted here as a service to IHS members and visitors to the website. Please be aware that IHS does not recommend products or services. While we know of no serious problems having arisen from messages posted here, we are not able to verify that offers posted here are legitimate or that individuals responding to the offers are sincere. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in initiating and conducting business as a result of messages posted here to ensure your personal safety and the safety of your financial account information.

                                                                                        Joint Venture Sought in Fiji

                                                                                        [3 Jul 03] I am looking for a partner to lease me a high powered boat with the following 70~100 passengers and with speed of 30~35 Knots. The service is geared towards the ferrying of tourists between islands . Matt (matai@mrd.gov.fj)

                                                                                        Joint Venture Sought in the Philippines

                                                                                        {23 Jun 03] I intend to operate a hydrofoil to serve the transportation of passengers between the two main islands in the Philippines. I plan to enter into a joint venture/partnership with a vessel/hydrofoil owner wherein the operation, management and manning will come from my side. Some important details to consider: Passenger capacity: 120-150; Speed: 35-40 kts. I am currently operating two fast crafts serving the same place. — Felicito Datinguinoo (luchijane@aol.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoils — Wanted To Buy or Lease

                                                                                        Messages are posted here as a service to IHS members and visitors to the website. Please be aware that IHS does not recommend products or services. While we know of no serious problems having arisen from messages posted here, we are not able to verify that offers posted here are legitimate or that individuals responding to the offers are sincere. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in initiating and conducting business as a result of messages posted here to ensure your personal safety and the safety of your financial account information.More info on how and where to buy/sell/restore specific categories of hydrofoils can be accessed from our Posted Messages Bulletin Board Page. Please notify the webmaster if you discover a notice that is no longer valid, or if you are unsuccessful in contacting the individual or organization that posted the message.

                                                                                        Fast Ferry Expert to Assist in Procurement of Fleet

                                                                                        [14 Oct 03] My company is looking for a fast ferry expert to assist in the procurement of a small fleet of catamarans or hydrofoil vessels. We will consider purchase, lease, or joint venture partnership. Vessels must carry up to 150 plus passengers and travel at a minimum speed of 35 kts. Please contact me if you are interested and want more information. — Tom Dempsey dempsuryy@aol.com

                                                                                        Historic Hydrofoil(s) Wanted in France

                                                                                        [9 Sep 03] I seek a few old, small Russian hydrofoils in any type of condition (Raketa, Polysie or Belarus hydrofoil). This is to make a houseboats here in Toulouse, the air and space center of France… a few people are interested in this. Also, and in addition to the houseboat project, I want to start a non-profit association to restore one medium or large Russian experimental hydrofoil (Sputnik, Chaika for example)… so I am looking for a good candidate to restore for historical purposes. The hydrofoil for non-profit restoration should be an experimental craft. — Jeff Legendre (a1493@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Need High-Speed Ferry Boat in Indonesia / Borneo

                                                                                        [12 Jul 03] I am looking for someone to sell, lease or joint venture with me a high powered boat with the following 80~100 passengers and with speed of 30~35 Knots. The service is geared towards the ferrying people between Tarakan Island and Kalimantan. — Villepin (villepin@hotmail.com) Click Here to post a response to this message.

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Vessels For Sale

                                                                                        Following are some of the more recent announcements. More info on how and where to buy/sell/restore hydrofoils can be accessed from our Posted Messages Bulletin Board Page. Please notify the webmaster if you discover a notice that is no longer valid, or if you get no reply when contacting the individual or organization that posted the message (unfortunately, many sellers have been remiss in notifying IHS when the vessel is sold).Messages are posted here as a service to IHS members and visitors to the website. Please be aware that IHS does not recommend products or services. While we know of no serious problems having arisen from messages posted here, we are not able to verify that offers posted here are legitimate or that individuals responding to the offers are sincere. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in initiating and conducting business as a result of messages posted here to ensure your personal safety and the safety of your financial account information..

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        Grumman Runabout -1958 Museum Piece

                                                                                        [20 Aug 02, updated 01 Oct 03] For Sale: Sea Wing Hydrofoil-Grumman 1958 14’8″. New Mercury 40 HP, Trailer, Original 35 HP Evenrude Lark (stuck), Morse Controls. Runs great. I am in Georgia USA. Can deliver in Southeast USA. $15,500.00. — Myrel Harner (ireneharner@juno.com)

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        Kolkhida Hydrofoil For Sale – DELFIN 1

                                                                                        [22 Sep 03] We have for sale a seagoing hydrofoil with capacity of 124 passengers. Click Here for Technical Specifications and full set of color photos, and details of the offer (Adobe Acrobat file, 400K). Price: 270.000 Euro FOB Kolobrzeg — Miroslaw Balicki, Kolobrzeg Passengers Shipping Company (kzp@pro.onet.pl)

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        New METEORS For Sale (Two)

                                                                                        [14 Jul 03] Zelenodolsk Shipyard, Russia announces that two (2) METEOR hydrofoils in production are for sale. Projected date of delivery is April 2004. Choice of Russian engines or Deutz (Germany) engines. Price ranges from 500 000 Euros to 950 000 Euros. Includes all certificates and our guarantee (1.5 year). — Sergey Nikonov (zdsip@nimb.ru)

                                                                                        KATRAN Hydrofoils For Sale

                                                                                        [12 Jul 03] We propose for sale from direct Owners following sea-going hydrofoils:

                                                                                        • – Design “Katran” (“Kolkhida”), built by Volga Shipyard, Russia in 1996 (1995 2nd vessel);- The ship was built in compliance with the Rules and under the supervision of the Maritime Register of Shipping of Russia, class KM * 2 A3 Pass. Hydrofoil;- Reclassified by RINA, 100 – A -1.1; Nav S; TP;- USCG approval- Gross tonnage/Net tonnage: 135GT/53NT;- Engines: two MTU-made 12 V 396 TE 74 diesels, each of 1260 kW (1714 h.p.); 2nd vessel – two MTU-made 12 V 396 TC 82 diesels – each of 1050 kW (1430 h.p.);- Engines’ hours: less 3000– Passenger capacity – 140 (150 2nd vessel)Length, m 34,5Breadth, m 10,3Height above water (foil-borne), m 10,8Height above water (floating), m 8,9Floating draught, m 3,5Foil-borne draught, m 1,9Light displacement, t 56Full displacement, t 72Foil-borne sailing range, miles 200Foil-borne speed, kn 34Crew 5Both vessels are equipped with air-condition system.
                                                                                        • Seaworthiness:
                                                                                          • – The normal operating conditions for cruising foil-borne are sea state with waves up to 2 meters high and winds up to Force 5.
                                                                                          • – The most unfavorable conditions for cruising hull-borne are sea state with wave height 3 meters and wind Force 6.

                                                                                        We recently inspected the hydrofoils and confirm that the vessels are well-maintained and are in tip-top condition. Inspectable in N.America by arrangement. Additional information is available upob firm/named interest. — Brgds/Vyacheslav Fyodorov ; Cielo Trading Ltd ; Tel: +38 048 743 80 85 ; Fax: +44 870 125 34 00 (via UK) ; Email: (slava@cielo-trading.net )

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        A Gas Turbine Engine For Your PHM

                                                                                        [2 Jun 03] GTE For Sale: proposed as suitable to replace the LM2500 in a surplus PHM or a commercial vessel requiring this kind of power: 20,000 HP. Built by Mashproekt in Ukraine; No operating time accumulated; Model designation D59 (original USSR designation for same model, only with a reversing mechanism: GT16000); Maximum continuous rating (MCR) – 20,000 hp in ISO conditions; Power turbine rated speed : 5200 rpm (A 3000 RPM power section is available from Russia for only $128,000 and it includes exhaust plenum and driveshaft ready to couple up to the PHM gearbox); Direction of rotation: counter-clockwise (looking at the output shaft flange), non-reversible (reversing mechanism not needed to power a water jet) ; Fuel control system operation: stabilized fuel flow rate; MTBO – 10 000 hr: (100% MCR – 300 hr, 80% MCR – 900 hr, 70% MCR and less -10 000 hr). If engine load never exceeds 70% MCR, MTBO can be extended to 20 000 hr.; Total life time – 60 000 hr. Stored in Michigan USA; Asking US$500,000  with 2 water jet drives. I would like to be put in touch with some boat builders around the Mediterranean area who might be interested. — E J Potter email: (potterej@earthlink.net); phone: 1-561-468-3587.

                                                                                        53-Page Technical Manual(Adobe Acrobat File – 612 kb)

                                                                                        Click Here

                                                                                        .[7 Nov 02] Looking for a good home for the H/V ALBATROSS. Hull and cabin are in good condition. However, she’s missing foils, strut, shaft, rudder, and engine. Anyone knowing of a museum, school, conservator, etc. interested in having it donated to them, please let me know. — Robert Miller  cbbi@aol.com

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [7 Nov 02] For historical and other information and photos about Bob Miller’s conversion of the ALBATROSS to a houseboat, Click Here. For historical information and photos about the ALBATROSS in its prime, see the Helmut Kock biography on this site.

                                                                                        .

                                                                                        Seahawk Ltd. Offers Olympias

                                                                                        [21 Oct 03] Two OLYMPIA type hydrofoil vessels for sale. Both in top condition. Hydrofoil passenger vessel. Built in Russia 1993 & 1994. Hull : alloy. L – 37.54, B – 8.40, Depth – 2.60, Draught 4.60/1.40, GRT – 298 T, NET – 89 T, DW – 82 T, Main engine – MTU 16V 396 T E 74 / 2×2000. Classification : Det Norske Veritas. Renovations : Both vessels are seriously renovated. Last serious renovation : 2000. Sale price US 1.5 MIO each. Location : Trading between Finland and Estonia

                                                                                        Seahawk Ltd. Offers Superfoil Ferry

                                                                                         

                                                                                        [30 Sep 02, updated 21 Oct 03] Directly from the Owners can offer for sale the following air conditioned Superfoil passenger ferry. Main particulars: Built at : Almaz Marine Yard JSC, St.Petersburg, Russia in 2002; LOA : 41 m, B : 12.4 m, Draught : fully loaded at speed / 1.2 m, at rest with retracted foils / 1.7 m, at rest with foils in operational position / 3.4 m; Passenger capacity : 286; Main engines : MJP Waterjets (Mercedes) Type 4000 M70 / 4 x 1740 kW MCR / each 1900-2000 RPM / easy and quick dismantling of main and aux. engines; Gensets : TechnoScan TS90 / 2 x 70kW / 87 KV*A; Gearboxes : Four reversing flange-mounted ZF 4650 / electrically operated; Service speed at sea State 3 : 55 knots; Range (34t DW; 55 kn. speed ; 10% margin) 200 nautical miles; Seakeeping : 2.5 sign. wave height at 100% MCR; Foils : Two fully retractable hydraulically controlled forward fully submerged foils made of high-quality titanium alloy; Interceptors : Two hydraulically controlled transom interceptors made of high-quality titanium alloy; Foil & interceptors control system : MTD / AURORA active Foil & Interceptor; Control System. FICS-3 supplied; Rudders : Two hydraulically controlled suspended rudders made of high-quality titanium alloy providing great control improvement; Classification : DNV 1A1 HSLC R3 Passenger E0, IMO HSC Code, Category A; Accommodation : 62 passenger seats in business class with 1000 mm pitch, 224 passenger seats in tourist class with 900 mm pitch, Self-service bar in business class, Large kiosk/bar, 21 sq.m duty free shop, audio/video entertainment system; Deadweight: 34.000 kg.; Crew : 12×75 kg / 900 kg.; Luggage : 286 x 10 kg / 2860 kg.; Fuel oil : 4740 kg.; Fresh water : 1000 kg.; Duty free goods : 3.050 kg; Capacities : Fuel oil : 10.000 L. Fresh water : 2000 kg. Hydraulic oil : 200 L. Lube oil : 250 L. Waste oil : 250 L; Hull / superstructure : High quality marine grade aluminum alloy type 1561; Service life : 20 years; Environmentally friendly : Extremely low wash up to max speed, low noise. Fulfills IMO emission regulations of Year 2000. Sale price : USD 7.0 MIO; Location : Europe. — Y.Eero, Managing Director, Seahawk Ltd. (seahawk@estpak.ee)
                                                                                        Building Hydrofoils

                                                                                        Building Hydrofoils

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Correspondence Archives…

                                                                                        Posted Messages and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


                                                                                        Build Your Own Hydrofoil
                                                                                        (Last Update 28 March 2011)See also the FAQ page on Student Projects and visit the IHS Links Page for sources of design information

                                                                                        Return to Posted Messages Bulletin Board


                                                                                        Crash Recovery

                                                                                        [11 Sep 01] About 1970 I designed and built a hydrofoil called “Sabrefoil”. The boat had a 40 HP Chrysler engine with a long shaft. The picture here shows me at the helm, and my father-in-law is hanging on. It rocketed me at about 30 – 35 MPH down the Fox River in Illinois. Of course I crashed, went through the windshield, broke my nose, almost drowned and came down with pneumonia a few weeks later. I probably shouldn’t have gone that fast, tested in November, and used that much power on a small boat. The experience suppressed my compulsion to fly for a scant 30 years and now I’m ready to go again, this time with a more efficient design & less power. And that’s what I am working on now. — Ray Vellinga (rvell@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Rotating Foils?

                                                                                        [26 Jun 01] Has anyone ever built a low speed hydrofoil which uses autorotating foils to allow it to get out of the water at much lower speeds? Like an under water autogyro. Does this make sense or do I need to explain myself better? — Toby (toby-peers@cableinet.co.uk)

                                                                                        Responses…

                                                                                        [26 Jun 01] An idea along the lines of what you propose has been demonstrated before on a working model. That was called the “Hydrocopter” and was developed by a Boeing engineer, since retired, named Francis Reynolds. If you are able to get hold of the following magazine you can read all about it: US Boat and Ship Modeler, Fall 1991, Volume 4, Number 16. Rather than being based on autogyro principles, the “Hydrocopter” model consisted of four powered rotor like disks mounted on inclined vertical shafts. Each shaft was connected to a centrally mounted internal combustion (chain saw) motor via drive belts and pulleys. The model floated on a catamaran hull structure while not underway. The model could in principle have hovered above the water on its rotors, but the concept was not intended simply for slow speed operation. I think the idea had a lot of potential and it is a pity nothing further has apparently become of it. Since I had come up with a similar concept to the “Hydrocopter” in the late 80’s, I corresponded with Francis Reynolds after the magazine article was published and he provided me with additional details of his work. Unfortunately I have never had the opportunity to explore this concept further myself and regrettably I failed to maintain contact with Francis Reynolds since our initial correspondence in the early 90’s. Perhaps you could write to us with further details of what you had intended to do with your idea? Did you want to experiment with such a concept by building models? I am attaching a pair of images of the “Hydrocopter” extracted from the magazine article, one of the model floating in still water, the other of it underway. — Martin Grimm, Naval Architect and Hydrofoil Enthusiast, Canberra, Australia (seaflite@alphalink.com)

                                                                                        [27 Jun 01] I’ve never seen something such as you describe, but I’ve run across quite a few human-powered hydrofoils which are designed for take-off speeds in the four to ten knot range. They use pedals and propellers to generate the thrust, and all are of a fixed wing design. I can share more details if you like, and I’d be interested in getting a better idea of what you’re thinking with the “autorotating foils”. — Ron Drynan (info@humanpoweredboats.com)

                                                                                        [4 Jul 01] I have made an autorotating pump, driven by the wave action, to circulate water. I can’t think of any reason why the reverse shouldn’t work, although I don’t know of any work in the field. Sounds clever though. — Nat Kobitz (KobitzN@ctc.com)

                                                                                        [4 Jul 01] Hello again, I have been searching the internet for occurrences of “hydrocopter” as mentioned in my previous response and came across the following site which briefly makes reference to its possible application as a human powered vehicle: http://www.ihpva.org/pipermail/hpv-boats/2000q1/000142.html — Martin Grimm

                                                                                        Hydrocopter out of the water
                                                                                        Hydrocopter in the water
                                                                                        Sportfoil Plans Wanted

                                                                                        [18 Jun 01] I am particularly interested in building my own SportFoil, but Michael Stevensen (Back Yard Boats) was sold out. Is it possible to advertise for a used set of plans for SportFoil somewhere at Your web site — Regards Dag Jahnsen (dagjahns@online.no) Nesalleen 15, 3124 Tønsberg – Norway; Phone +47 3301 5005 – Mobile +47 920 20 912

                                                                                        Industrial Designer Wants to Correspond in German about Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [16 Feb 01] Ich bin Industrie-Designer und arbeite als Entwickler in der Vorentwicklung einer Firma in der Naehe von Koblenz. Ich entwickle seit Jahren nebenbei an Segelboote und Muskelkraftboote in Verbindung mit Tragflügeln. In erster Linie in Zeichnungen und Konzepte, da mir fuer die Umsetzung im Moment die Zeit fehlt.Trotzdem würde ich mich ueber Kontakte sehr freuen. — UlrichPaul (u-u.paul@freenet.de)

                                                                                        English Translation…My name is Paul Ulrich. I am an Industrial Designer working in the design development area of a firm near Koblenz in Germany. As a sideline, for many years I have been designing sailboats and human powered vessels with hydrofoils. These designs are mainly in way of concepts and sketches / drawings. I don’t at the moment have sufficient spare time to translate these into complete designs. Nonetheless, I would most welcome anyone who wishes to contact me about these concepts.

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [27 Apr 02] Mein Name ist Amminger Heinrich und ich baue an einem Boot, das sehr schnell segeln soll. Wenn Sie gute Vorschläge oder Ideen haben an deren Realisierung Sie interessiert sind, so habe ich immer Interesse an einer fruchtbringenden Diskussion. Würde mich über einen Kontakt freuen. — Heinrich Amminger (amminger@knapp.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Amphibian – Need Plans

                                                                                        [19 Nov 00] I am interested in amphibious hydrofoils. I read in in your website that Bob Johnston was involved. Are there any other principals who are still around? Also I was told by someone that they had seen a photo of what appeared to be a non-assault and perhaps commercial amphibious hydrofoil. I would appreciate any additional information you might be able to provide. We would like to retrofit a DUKW as a hydrofoil and it would be invaluable if I could contact any of the original engineers as well as the blueprints. — Dan Clark (danielclark@ureach.com)

                                                                                        Sportfoil Plans Sold Out

                                                                                        [8 Sep 00] I’m afraid the Sportfoil plans are no longer available. We finally ran out of them a while ago, and it’s not really practical to reprint. We still have the Interflight Hydroflier page on our web server (http://www.stevproj.com/Carz/XBoats2.html) as a point-of-interest for people. — Michael Stevenson (mike@stevproj.com), Back Yard Yacht Club (BYYC)

                                                                                        Roving, RAVE-ing Folksinger

                                                                                        [11 Jun 00] I’m researching foils now. I’ve done a lot of boatbuilding, primarily because I can afford boats that way, and because I enjoy it. Since I can’t afford to buy my own Windrider RAVE, I guess I’ll have to build a hydrofoil next. I was working on a planing sort of boat, sort of a trimaran built with windsurfer hulls, but my experience sailing a borrowed RAVE from Florida across the Gulf of Mexico to the Yucatan and on to Belize has got me started in the direction of a foiler craft. Hmm, I guess its my way of saying thanks to share this story with you. The entire Captain’s Log about my RAVE trip and also my personal journal for this trip are at part of the archives section of my main site. Hope you find it interesting, I just buckled on my swash and went for a little trip. — Brian Douglas, Folksinger (folksinger@iname.com)

                                                                                        Response…[11 Jun 00] Your narrative is reminiscent of Dave Keiper’s book Hydrofoil Voyager about his travels across the Pacific in his 31-foot hydrofoil sailing yacht WILLIWAW. You seem to have a similar seafaring spirit of adventure and appreciation for hydrofoils. I don’t know if you have read this book; unfortunately it has gone out of print. Anyway, WILLIWAW would seem to be more suited to open ocean than RAVE; it might be possible to recreate this vessel from the original plans and design calculations, but it would be a major project. — Barney C. Black (webmaster@foils.org)

                                                                                        Boat Plans

                                                                                        [5 May 00] I am looking for plans for a small outboard hydrofoil. — Michel Bourgault (bourgaul@ntic.qc.ca)

                                                                                        Response…[5 May 00] Look at //archive.foils.org/popmags.htm. Also, read the article at //archive.foils.org/upright.htm.

                                                                                        Which Foils Are Best to Use?

                                                                                        [29 Mar 00] I’d like to design a hydrofoil sailboat, and I need data about the foil profiles to use. This boat is not for business. I just want to build my own race boat with a friend and sail it as fast as possible. I’d like to know whose profiles are frequently used for 5 to 20 knots speed (length ratio / thickness / profile name / symmetric or not) and at which angle to use them. The goal is not to lift the entire boat (surfing shaped hull) but to help it. — (Francois.Rougier@matranortel.com)

                                                                                        Build a Sailing Hydrofoil

                                                                                        [12 Feb 00] I just came on your site because I’m researching foils now. I’ve done a lot of boatbuilding, primarily because I can afford boats that way, and because I enjoy it. Since I can’t afford to buy a RAVE, I guess I’ll have to build one next. I was working on a planing sort of boat, sort of a trimaran built with windsurfer hulls, but an experience with foils has got me started in this direction. — Rusty Clauss (rustyclauss@erols.com) website: http://www.pan.com/folksinger

                                                                                        Wanted: Small Hydrofoil Sailboat Design

                                                                                        [4 Dec 99] I am very interested in Frédéric Monsonnec’s sailing mini-foil, but he has not answered repeated requests for more information. Has anyone else built something like his trimaran? Specifically, a sailing hydrofoil that holds one person, and can be built cheaply? It looks like the outer foils pivot. Is this the case? I would appreciate information about cheap, car-toppable(if possible), home-built hydrofoiling one-or two-person sailing multihulls.

                                                                                        Response…[4 Dec 99] David Keiper’s 14 ft STORMY PETREL (now owned by Buck Trippel) and Donald Nigg’s FLYING FISH (contact AYRS for info) come to mind. It couldn’t hurt to contact Dave Carlson, who successfully installed Dave Keiper’s hydrofoil kit to his catamaran. Also, take a look at the TRIAK with hydrofoil option. [Unfortunately, the Team Triak website has disappeared from the net. If anyone finds the site at a new URL please notify the IHS webmaster] Suggest you also visit the IHS Photo Gallery page devoted to sailing craft, though admittedly this needs a lot of expansion (member and visitor contributions are solicited and appreciated… send them in!) — Barney C. Black (webmaster@foils.org)

                                                                                        Home-Built Foil Test Bed For Sale

                                                                                        [11 Sep 99] 25′ hydrofoil powered by a 454 marine power. Hull is home built. Used as test bed for new foil designs. Hull and engine has aprox. 300hr. Information and pictures on request. — David Thomas; 405 Dominion Rd.; Chester, Md 21619 USA; phone: 410-643-5180; fax 410-604-3317; email: dthomas@skipjack.bluecrab.org

                                                                                        Need Source of Hydrofoil Extrusions

                                                                                        [1 Oct 99] I am interested to know if there is a convenient source for small (4″ to 6″) hydrofoil extrusions for a pet project (6×6 amphibious hydrofoil). — David Rauseo (rauseo@totalnetnh.net)

                                                                                        Response…[1 Oct 99] I don’t know of anyone that offers foil extrusions for sale “off the shelf” for hobby purposes, but there are some potential sources. At least a few people have gotten spare foils for the Trampofoil water bike and have used them for other purposes. Evidently the price is reasonable. A fellow in Europe, Chris Plaass was preparing to order a foundry run of extrusions to be used by people for adding foils to daysailing catamarans. I have put him down for a copy of this email, but I do not know if he ever followed through with his plan. Finally, there were several articles in the handyman magazines back in the 1950s/60s on how to add hydrofoils made of wood and fiberglass to motorboats. You can find info on some of this on our website. This might be a workable approach for you, at least for a prototype. — Barney C. Black (webmaster@foils.org)

                                                                                        Best Lifting Shapes For a Hydrofoil Sailboat

                                                                                        [7 Aug 99] I am currently working on an experimental hydrofoil sailboat and would like some recomendations on the best lifting foil shapes for these types of boats. My boat is about 23 feet and will top out at about 200 lbs. I’m no engineer, so recommending an NACA foil number would be perfect. — Richard B. Johnson (Richard.B.Johnson@kla-tencor.com)

                                                                                        Response…[7 Aug 99] Well, if I were trying to set a speed record, I’m not at all convinced that a hydrofoil is the way to go. In my opinion, hydrofoils are niche vehicles, and the current speed record has passed beyond their niche. The only NACA airfoils that would be good hydrofoils are the 6-series. You would have to match their design lift coefficients to your requirements to pick the right one. But I wouldn’t use a NACA airfoil, as there are more modern ones designed specifically for use in hydrofoils. Look for a book by Richard Eppler, “Airfoil Design and Data,” Springer-Verlag, 1990. Now out of print, but your library can probably get a copy for you. His E817 is designed to have minimal caviation for lift coefficients between 0.12 and 0.60, and is 11% thick. E818 is thinner at 9.4%, but has a much more critical leading edge shape. Whether you use an Eppler hydrofoil or a NACA airfoil section, you must be sure to build it to a high degree of accuracy. I would shoot for a tolerance of 0.01″ and maybe 0.005″ if you can achieve it. For speeds around 60 kt, subcavitating hydrofoils may not be possible, and you’ll have to design a supercavitating hydrofoil. And if you do that, you may not be able to achieve the lift/drag ratios needed to get to 60 kt. I’ve sailed 60 mph in a landyacht, and you’re going to need an extraordinarily efficient craft to do that on the water. For example, let’s say you plan to hit 60 kt in a 30 kt wind. If you can achieve an L/D of 10 for everything that’s in the water and an L/D of 4 for everything that’s in the air, including the drag on the hull, you can just do it. Wind tunnel tests of a landyacht with a rigid wing sail, tested with no wheels, had a peak L/D of 4.4, so that is in the ballpark. But getting an L/D of 10 for the foils…. You may not be an engineer, but you will have to do some sophisticated engineering to achieve your goal. When I talked to Greg Ketterman about designing LONGSHOT (record breaking forerunner to the Hobie TRIFOILER), he said that a velocity prediction program was absolutely essential. — Tom Speer (tspeer@tspeer.com); http://www/tspeer.com

                                                                                        A Small, Fun, Cheap Hydrofoil

                                                                                        [16 May 99, updated 17 Feb 03] I ‘m the “webmaster” of a little site : “PK hydroptere de loisirs” (with alta vista, key word: hydroptere) I have designed and built a little hydrofoil boat for only $800! This is not a boat for speed record but for “the pleasure” ! — Frédéric Monsonnec (frederic.monsonnec@wanadoo.fr)

                                                                                        [25 Aug 98] I have been working on [a hydrofoil sailboat design] project, off and on, for over 25 years… I came up with the basic superstructure in 1970-1 !! This is one of my life long loves. My goal is to see my craft “fly”, and put my concepts into record breaking reality (I am not really interested in becoming a boat manufacturer. I don’t know the potential market well enough to venture an opinion as to its marketability/ profitability). The few people I have discussed parts of this project with are impressed. Parts of it have already been “borrowed” over the years, as a result of those discussions, hence my wariness. But life is too short. I have renewed interest in bringing my craft to life. I am hoping that through this inquiry, perhaps I can connect with someone I can trust, and who will participate in some way… even that I haven’t thought out. That’s part of the fun of it all!! The physics are pretty easy, it’s the human element that gets complicated! — Tyler Ahlgren (tallgreen@earthlink.net)

                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] I want to turn my cat into a high flying above the water speed machine. Please let me know where I could get more info in this area. — Brent (brent@gator.net)

                                                                                        [20 Mar 98, updated 30 Oct 00] You have several options as follows:

                                                                                        • You can buy an add-on hydrofoil kit. These were to be available from DAK hydrofoils, but unfortunately the owner Dave Keiper died in 1998 before he could complete the design. The DAK website is still open at http://www.wingo.com/dakh/ www.wingo.com/dakh. You may be able to buy the dies to have a foundry extrude Dave’s foils; Contact Frank Keiper at dak.hydrofoils@home.com. A copy of Dave Keiper’s recent files related to the proposed kits is available from IHS; for details click here.
                                                                                        • You can design and install hydrofoils yourself, though this is an effort for a really dedicated hobbyist. There is an article in the Winter 97-98 IHS Newsletter by Tom Lang who did just this in the 1950s and sold the kits on the open market. The newsletter comes with IHS membership, $20 per calendar year. There is lots of design info available through reprints and back issues of the Amateur Yacht Research Society and Multi-Hulls magazine.
                                                                                        • You can trade in your existing boat for one designed as a hydrofoil such as Hobie TriFoiler or WindRider Rave.

                                                                                        — Barney C. Black (webmaster@foils.org)

                                                                                        [14 Dec 97] I am looking for a picture/s of a Sea Scooter built in the late sixties. Attached is a drawing taken from a US patent number 3,456,609 by Peter Thomas and Mence Nott from 1969. The craft was actually built. I saw some foilborne video clips of the craft with one person riding it. I think they tried to market it and I don’t know the outcome of this attempt. — Amiram Steinberg, Naval Architect (amiram@netvision.net.il)

                                                                                        [26 Mar 98 updated 28 Mar 2011] I am looking for the plans to build the Solo Hydrofoil that was in the September 1967 issue of Popular Mechanics. It is a 1-man Hydrofoil; foam-filled fiberglass hull by Italian designer Renato Castellani. I now have about a 1/4 page line drawing of this of this craft that is just wild looking. Have others built this that you are aware of? Is there a more modern design? I’m dying to make one but no one seems to know of him or this craft. — George Faulknor (georgefaulknor1@comcast.net)

                                                                                        [14 Nov 97] I have a 22 ft aluminum bay runner to which I am interested in installing foils. The boat is powered by two 75 hp Honda outboards. I commercial fish and wish to increase the boat’s performance. Any information that you feel would be of help would be of help as I know nothing about foil design. — Jerry Jones (boat@ix.netcom.com)

                                                                                        [25 Sep 97] IHS Member Malin Dixon is undertaking to design a small hydrofoil boat that is an alternative to a Rigid Inflatable Boat (RIB). Malin runs an electronics company in England and finds that the main thing he is short of is time to apply to this project. Is there an engineering graduates who would be interested in coming to work for Malin to get this off the ground (or water)? Is there a designer with a similar or compatible project in mind that would like to collaborate? If so, contact Malin Dixon by email for more information (gallery@foils.org).

                                                                                        [24 Aug 97] I am interested in getting some help with designing my first hydrofoil for personal use and should be capable of carrying two people and enough fuel to circumnavigate the mainland of Australia and out run anything else on the water. It would be best if it would be tri-hulled (for stability) and should be very small indeed! mark79@ibm.net

                                                                                        [15 Sep 97] I am trying to find plans to build a hydrofoil. I live in Juneau Alaska, and I am a marine mechanic. More efficient means of transportation for Southeast Alaska are desperately needed. I am talking about a motor craft, and I do have an existing hull to experiment with. It seems there is a lot of mystery around this kind of project; no one seems to know the basics. Is there a formula for weight to power to drag ratio? I don’t know if I’m asking the right question. A basic foil design would be nice… I could fabricate it if I had plans and dimensions. — Cary Taylor (CTaylor169@aol.com)

                                                                                        [18 Sep 97; updated 23 Nov 00] Our experience with home-built hydrofoils has led us to the conclusion that low wing loading is VERY preferable. Most builders go for low drag, which means small foils, which leads to high loads. I took a look at the DAK site, http://www.wingo.com/dakh, and it does have some good looking foils. Another site you should look at is ours! We have a set of plans for building a small powered hydrofoil (which may be smaller than you want). At any rate, you should look at different approaches to narrow down what you want to build. Our Sportfoil plans are viewable at: http://www.stevproj.com/SpecPurp.html. [As of mid-2000, Sportfoil plans are sold out, with no plans to reprint them – Ed.] Our latest, but not available, hydrofoil project is at: http://www.stevproj.com/XBoats.html. Building a pretty good sport hydrofoil is not really magic. You should be able to have a lot of fun, but don’t let the preponderance of technicalities weigh your project down. –Mike Stevenson (mailback@stevproj.com)

                                                                                        [18 Sep 97] I have found that most people who call/ Email are enthusiasts or would-be designers / builders; that is they want to build a hydrofoil, not buy one. When asked the cost I answer that the conversion of a 24 foot outdrive-powered craft such as [I did to create] TALARIA III would be about US$20,000. Not expensive, in boating terms, but beyond the casual hobbyist’s budget. The callers are usually deterred when they find out it requires an autopilot. If so, I suggest the Hobie TRIFOILER mechanical submerged foil concept or the Russian and Florida model boat hydrofoil surface piercing design concepts as approaches to consider. The bulk of the questions are usually about the hydrofoils, an area where I have little knowledge; my background is better in the fields of automatic control, hydraulics, analog electronics, and software. I am pleased talk with anyone who I can be of help to. Regarding the sale of kits/conversions, the market interest has not so far been sufficient, i.e. no one has expressed an interest in buying a kit [to duplicate the TALARIA conversion]. — Harry Larsen (talaria@foils.org)

                                                                                        [18 Aug 98] TALARIA III’s price is US$35,000, delivered in Seattle. It includes a trailer modified for launching TALARIA III. I have had a few persons in the Seattle Washington USA area or visitors stop by to see the boat. If mutually convenient I can take them for a ride. (It is kept on a trailer). — Harry Larsen (talaria@foils.org)

                                                                                        I am currently thinking of building a 2 man craft capable of traveling through the afternoon chop of Peconic Bay on Long Island. I work with aluminum, and have access to CNC Router and many other shop tools. Please contact me if you could help. — Chris Marotta (WCREEK@msn.com)

                                                                                        I have for several years, been very interested in designing, discussing, and building a prototype. I looking forward to meeting your members and learning more about the organization. — Bill Hodge (bill.hodge@daytonoh.ncr.com)

                                                                                        [29 May 97] I’m interested in designing and building a high speed single or two seater hydrofoil and need as much info as I can get. I’m still in the concept stage and would like to discuss ideas with other hydrofoil designers/builders. — Neil Morris (morrisn@ihug.co.nz)

                                                                                        [10 Aug 97, updated 11 Sep 01] If you are talking about a motor powered craft, you can get plans and components for this project from Hydrofoils Inc.; PO Box 6006; Lake Worth FL 33466; 561-964-6399 voice or fax; web page, www.hydrofoil.com. Also, check out the Back Yard Yacht Club’s SPORTFOIL (plans US$15), P.O. Box K; Del Mar CA 92014, 619-481-3111, e-mail: byycord@stevproj.com. [As of mid-2001, Sportfoil plans are sold out, with no plans to reprint them – Ed.] If you are talking about a sailing vessel with hydrofoils, contact DAK Hydrofoils, 123 South Pacific Street, Cape Girardeau MO 63703, phone: 573-651-6582, (web site: www.wingo.com/dakh/). [Unfortunately Dave Keiper died, and DAK hydrofoils is no more. The website is still active, though. Dave’s brother Frank answers his email at dak.hydrofoils@home.com. – Ed.] Another contact for sailing hydrofoils is Dr. Sam Bradfield. He can be reached at: Prof. S. Bradfield; Hydrosail, Inc.; 3040 South AIA Highway # 154 F; Melbourne Beach FL 32951, email: hydrosail@aol.com. — Barney C. Black(webmaster@foils.org)

                                                                                        Back to Top of Page


                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…
                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society
                                                                                        PO BOX 51 – CABIN JOHN MD 20818 – USA
                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org


                                                                                        Return to Posted Messages Bulletin BoardGo To IHS Main Page


                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Suggest Yahoo Group Message Boards – (Scott)     07-18-16 – 6:58 PM

                                                                                          •  I am the creator of the worldwide Vintage Ultralight and Lightplane Assoc (V.U.L.A.)   and have been relying on Yahoo Group Forums
                                                                                        for 15 years for the many different specific topics relating to this
                                                                                        very narrow segment of aviation.     I am trying to be very helpful
                                                                                        here and not critical in any way but I have been in the computer business
                                                                                        since 1978 and recognize when a large group of people interested in
                                                                                        narrow topics could benefit from some upgrades in the functionality
                                                                                        of their information storage and retrieval systems.   Please let me be of
                                                                                        some assistance by asking that some decision makers and leaders of
                                                                                        this organization contact me for some discussion.   I have a total of nine thousand user/group members in sixteen different Yahoo groups
                                                                                        and we do not pay a penny for the services which include data base
                                                                                        file storage,  photo album maintenance and forum message management
                                                                                        etc.    I firmly believe that with easier and more powerful info sharing
                                                                                        tools there would be much more activity and info sharing among the
                                                                                        group members here.    I personally have a few projects that I came here to get help with 1.  a pedal powered boat that I want to use
                                                                                        some alum helicopter rotor blades ( great airfoil shapes ) as hydrofoils.
                                                                                        I also want to incorporate either the surfboard or waterski hydrofoils
                                                                                        in the Federal Aviation Administration specified  103 seaplane
                                                                                        design that would not require any regulation of building or certification
                                                                                        of pilots etc.  These are the reasons for my visiting this website.
                                                                                        Contact me at 678-290-0507  Scott Perkins or

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Academic Papers BLOG ARCHIVES

                                                                                        Academic Papers BLOG ARCHIVES

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                        The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Correspondence Archives

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Updated last November 1, 2009

                                                                                        R/D: Student Projects/Thesis etc.
                                                                                         

                                                                                        R/D: Student Projects/Thesis etc.      Top

                                                                                        Wake Energy and Damage From Fast Ferries
                                                                                        Click below to open Archive.

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/wake.htm

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-21-2002 – 10:47 PM]

                                                                                        Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=236659]
                                                                                        Cavitation
                                                                                        Cavitation Bucket Diagrams…

                                                                                            • [2 Mar 01] We are French students working on foils and the problem of cavitation. In the FAQ of your web site, we have read a message of Mr Martin Grimm who speaks about cavitation bucket diagrams. We would like to find an example of these diagrams to illustrate a tutorial project. Could you help us by sending us a diagram or any valuable information? — Mathilde Pascal (

                                                                                        Mathilde.Pascal@etu.enseeiht.fr

                                                                                            • ) and Ludovic Léglise (

                                                                                        hya54@etu.enseeiht.fr

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • Responses…
                                                                                            • [2 Mar 01] I’ve attached an excerpt from the paper I just gave to the Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium. It shows such a diagram and discusses its relevance to the hydrofoil design. I’ve also included an enlarged version of the diagram. I’ve chosen a somewhat idiosyncratic way of plotting this diagram. The X axis is often angle of attack, but I’ve chosen to use lift coefficient because different sections have different zero-lift angles of attack and lift coefficient is what really counts to the designer. But the biggest difference is that I have plotted velocity ratio on the Y axis instead of pressure coefficient or cavitation number. I did this because pressure coefficient is proportional to velocity squared, so it emphasizes areas of high velocity which are not of real interest. By plotting vs. velocity ratio I have expanded the bottom of the chart which is where the section will be operating when cavitation is a concern. The other thing you will find on this chart that I’ve never seen on any other diagram is an overlay of freestream velocities and foil loading corresponding to incipient cavitation. I found this really helped me to understand the section curves in the context of the boat’s design. I haven’t actually plotted it out yet, but I suspect that had I used pressure coefficient for the Y axis, the lines of constant foil loading would have been straight lines. Finally, my apologies for using English units. I’ll leave conversion to metric as an exercise for you students! — Tom Speer (

                                                                                        tspeer@tspeer.com

                                                                                            • ) website:

                                                                                        www.tspeer.com

                                                                                            • ; fax: +1 206 878 5269
                                                                                            • [6 Mar 01] Tom Speer has already given you a good reply following your request for examples of ‘cavitation bucket diagrams’. I will however provide you one more example which is presented in the more usual manner with section cavitation number on one axis and foil angle of attack on the other. The attached diagram has been adapted from one of the figures in a very well presented and comprehensive book on the subject of marine propellers, namely: Marine Propellers and Propulsion, by J.S. Carlton (Senior Principal Surveyor, Technical Investigation, Propulsion and Environmental Engineering Department, Lloyd’s Register) Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP First published 1994. ISBN 0 7506 1143 X.
                                                                                            • There are no scales on the axes of the diagram as it is illustrative only. You can see from the shape of the curve where the ‘cavitation bucket’ term came from. Even though you may already be familiar with the terminology on the diagram, I will run though it for completeness:
                                                                                            • The section cavitation number is defined as:
                                                                                            • Sigma o = (po – pv)/(0.5 rho V2)
                                                                                            • where:
                                                                                            • po = Free stream pressure in absolute terms, i.e. not relative to atmospheric pressure (SI units would be Pa).
                                                                                            • pv = Vapour pressure of the water in absolute terms (SI units of Pa).
                                                                                            • rho = Water density (SI units would be kg/m3)
                                                                                            • V = Free stream velocity, i.e. well upstream of the foil (SI units would be m/s)
                                                                                            • (I have avoided using subscripts or the usual Greek symbols so that I can send you this message in plain text)
                                                                                            • For a foil traveling say 1 metre below the water surface in salt water, po can be calculated as:
                                                                                            • po = patm + rho.g.h
                                                                                            • where:
                                                                                            • patm = Atmospheric pressure, say 101300 Pa
                                                                                            • g = Acceleration due to gravity, say 9.81 m/s2
                                                                                            • h = submergence of the foil (in metres if using SI units consistently)
                                                                                            • hence:
                                                                                            • po = 101300 + (1025 x 9.81 x 1.00) = 111355 Pa
                                                                                            • In salt water you can take the vapour pressure to be say: pv = 17000 Pa to be on the conservative side. The vapour pressure of distilled fresh water can be as low as 1700 Pa.
                                                                                            • You can see from the diagram that at high angles of attack, cavitation will occur on the top side of the hydrofoil (called the ‘back’ in propeller terminology). At low or negative angles of attack, the low pressure moves to the bottom of the hydrofoil (this being called the ‘face’ on propellers). If the water flow past the foil is fast enough and the foil is not deeply submerged, then cavitation can even occur when the foil is at the zero lift angle of attack. This form of cavitation is referred to as bubble cavitation because of its appearance. This cavitation occurs simply a result of the thickness of the foil which causes the water velocity to increase slightly as it passes the sides of the foil and in turn the local pressure of the water drops below the vapour pressure.
                                                                                            • These days, there are techniques available to design foils which are fairly tolerant of variations in their angle of attack and so can avoid the onset of cavitation. Such foil sections have a fairly wide cavitation bucket (defined by the parameter “alpha d” on the figure), though the limit at which bubble cavitation occurs may then shift to higher cavitation numbers so the bucket is no longer as deep. — Martin Grimm (

                                                                                        seaflite@alphalink.com.au

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • Follow Up…
                                                                                            • [10 Mar 01]We have built a model of a foil with a NACA 0015 profile. Where could we find the cavitation bucket diagram corresponding to this kind of foil? Mathilde Pascal (

                                                                                        Mathilde.Pascal@etu.enseeiht.fr

                                                                                            • ) and Ludovic Léglise (

                                                                                        hya54@etu.enseeiht.fr

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • Follow Up Response…
                                                                                            • [11 Mar 01] Here is how you build a cavitation diagram:
                                                                                            • Go to

                                                                                        http://raphael.mit.edu/xfoil/

                                                                                            • and download XFOIL. This is the most powerful airfoil section design tool available. Do not think of using anything else you can download from the Web -they are all inferior to this program.
                                                                                            • Put in the coordinates for your foil.
                                                                                            • Analyze the section for a number of angles of attack, covering the intended range of operation. Examine the pressure distributions for each angle of attack.
                                                                                            • For each angle of attack, record the minimum pressure coefficient that occurs anywhere on the section. The cavitation number, sigma, is simply the negative of the minimum pressure coefficient, Cp. (sigmai = -Cpmin where sigmai is the cavitation number for incipient cavitation and Cpmin is the minimum pressure coefficient)
                                                                                            • Plot the minimum pressure coefficient vs angle of attack or lift coefficient, according to which you prefer.
                                                                                            • Repeat steps 2 through 5 for each section you wish to consider.
                                                                                            • I recommend you plot sigmai vs CL for the following reasons. If you disregard the vapor pressure of water, which is small, the critical speed for incipient cavitation at the surface is approximately
                                                                                            • Vcrit = 14/sqrt(sigmai) m/sec
                                                                                            • sigmai = (14/Vcrit)2
                                                                                            • Vcrit is the freestream velocity above which cavitation may occur. Note that this is a horizontal line when superimposed on a cavitation diagram. If you know the freestream velocity (boat speed) and you know the lift coefficient, then you know how much load each square meter of the foil is carrying:
                                                                                            • L = CL * 1/2 * rho * V2 * S
                                                                                            • [L/S]crit = CL * 1/2 * rho * (Vcrit)2
                                                                                            • [L/S]crit = CL * 1/2 * rho * 142/sigmai
                                                                                            • sigmai = {1/2 * rho * 142 / [L/S]crit} * CL
                                                                                            • Note that for any given foil loading (L/S), the quantity inside the braces {} is a constant so this is a diagonal line extending from the origin of a sigmai vs CL plot.
                                                                                            • Finally, to put together the whole cavitation picture, do the following:
                                                                                            • Lay out axes of sigmai vs CL
                                                                                            • Plot horizontal lines corresponding to the critical cavitation boat speeds.
                                                                                            • Plot diagonal lines corresponding to the foil loading for incipient cavitation. Note that this forms a grid which is independent of the choice of foil section.
                                                                                            • Plot sigmai vs. CL for the hydrofoil section.
                                                                                            • Now, not only do you have the cavitation diagram for the section, you can relate it to key design aspects of the boat as a whole. You can see immediately how heavily the foil can be loaded and how fast the boat can go before encountering cavitation. Since the grid is universal, it can be used to define the requirements for designing a hydrofoil section, which you can do with XFOIL as well.
                                                                                            • There is an excellent paper on the cavitation of hydrofoils in the latest issue of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers’ Journal of Ship Research, written by researchers at the Institut de Recherche de l’Ecole Navale, 29240 Brest-Naval, France: J.-A Astolfi, J.-B. Leroux, P. Dorange, J.-Y Billard, F. Deniset, and S. de la Fuente, “An Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Inception and Development on a Two-Dimensional Hydrofoil,” Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec. 2000, pp. 259-269. It shows more cavitation diagrams and also the degree to which experimental cavitation occurs at Cpmin. The agreement is excellent at the bottom of the bucket and Cpmin is a conservative estimate for the sides of the bucket. They also discuss the interaction of cavitation and laminar flow, which will be important for your low Reynolds number experiments. — Tom Speer (

                                                                                        tspeer@tspeer.com

                                                                                            • ) website:

                                                                                        www.tspeer.com

                                                                                            • ; fax: +1 206 878 5269

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-22-2002 – 11:50 PM]

                                                                                        Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237110]
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Racers — Power or Sail
                                                                                        Hydrofoil Racers — Power or Sail

                                                                                        Student Project: Racing Hydroplane

                                                                                            • [5 Mar 02] I am currently a student at Teesside University in England studying Computer Aided Design Engineering. As part of a project we have to improve on an existing hydrofoil design. The boat my team has chosen to improve upon is to be capable of racing in the 2002 Unlimited Hydroplane Series of which the boat MISS BUDWEISER is currently the title holder. Could you please advise me as to where I may find design specifications of such boats especially in relation to the cockpit area (safety) and the steering mechanism incorporated in the craft? — Ben Coward (

                                                                                        bencoward1@hotmail.com

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • Responses…
                                                                                            • [5 Mar 02] You have an interesting project, however our site is concerned mostly with fully submerged and with surface piercing hydrofoil designs. We have next to nothing on hydroplane racing craft. I am sending a copy of this response to Leslie Field (

                                                                                        www.lesliefield.com/

                                                                                            • ) and to Simon Lewis (

                                                                                        www.simonlewis.com/

                                                                                            • ) in the hopes that they can suggest a source the design specs you seek. You may have luck by contacting directly the racing crews of specific craft or the racing association. — Barney C. Black (

                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • [15 Mar 02] The American Power Boat Association puts out all the specifications for the various classes of hydroplane racing crafts. MISS BUDWEISER is in the unlimited class. I believe they are presently headquartered in Detroit, Michigan. I had some discussion at one time with a former crew chief of a hydroplane racing team who wanted to put hydrofoils on the sponsons. I believe he proposed it to the APBA but was rejected at the time. — Sumi Arima (

                                                                                        arimas1@juno.com

                                                                                            • )

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-23-2002 – 12:51 AM]

                                                                                        Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237128]
                                                                                        Archive; Hydrofoil-Related Student Projects
                                                                                        Click on link below to open

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/students.htm
                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 1:20 AM]

                                                                                        Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237490]
                                                                                        Info wanted on Hydróptero

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • At 08:02 PM 4/24/02 -0400, you wrote:
                                                                                            • Hellow,
                                                                                            • I’m student of Transport, and I have to investigate for

                                                                                        Hydróptero

                                                                                            • . I want to now if hydrofoils and hydróptero are the same type of boat?
                                                                                            • If you have more informatión of characteristics, possibilities and restriccions for hydróptero, I apreciate you send me by E-mail.
                                                                                            • Sonia Madera

                                                                                        somade@cantv.net
                                                                                        [Date/Time=04-26-2002 – 9:00 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Sonia Madera somade@cantv.net, [Msgid=252390]
                                                                                        Info wanted on Hydróptero

                                                                                            • There are many magazine articles and books about hydrofoils. Visit the following page:

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/refpop.htm

                                                                                            • . Or, for a long list of technical references:

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/refs.htm

                                                                                            • .

                                                                                        [Date/Time=05-03-2002 – 7:20 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=255144]
                                                                                        Swath ships architecture Thesis

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Dear Sirs,
                                                                                            • My name is Giancarlo Raiola and I am a student of Naval Architecture at the Federico II University in Naples (Italy).
                                                                                            • I write to you because I visited your web site and I found very interesting all the information about Swath ships. As a matter of fact, Swath ships architecture will be the subject of my graduation thesis, so I would be very pleased if you could send me some more detailed information about them, as for example their general plans and about active motion control sistem .
                                                                                            • I look forward to receiving your answer soon.
                                                                                            • Best regards
                                                                                            • Raiola Giancarlo

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-04-2002 – 3:23 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Raiola Giancarlo raiola.roberto@tin.it, [Msgid=278810]
                                                                                        Swath ships architecture Thesis

                                                                                            • Dear Raiola,
                                                                                            • The International Hydrofoil Society is primarily concerned with hydrofoil craft and to somewhat of a lesser extent the application of hydrofoils to other marine vehicles. As a consequence, you will not find a significant amount of information about Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) vessels on the IHS website.
                                                                                            • A good overview of SWATH vessels is provided in Naval Engineers Journal, Volume 97, Number 2, February 1985. ISSN 0028-1425. Published by the American Society of Naval Engineers, Inc. (ASNE). More details of that issue can be found on the IHS website under the section about magazines related to hydrofoils.
                                                                                            • There is a hybrid between a hydrofoil and a SWATH known as Hydrofoil Supported Small Waterplane Area Single Hull (HYSWAS) and you may find more information about that craft on the website.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-13-2002 – 3:57 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=281953]
                                                                                        Info wanted on Hydróptero

                                                                                            • Hi Sonia, there is a French hydrofoil with name of “L’Hydroptere” go to http://perso.wannadoo.terrasse.web/hydroptere800.html (No longer available as of 060130WNW)
                                                                                            • Brush up on your French, as the site is French.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-19-2002 – 5:13 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Vivian Dewey vvdewey@yahoo.co.uk, [Msgid=312049]
                                                                                        Hydroplane Formula`s?

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am wondering how do i figure out the lift of a foil and the lift coefficients (what formula’s do i use).
                                                                                            • This is for a fourth year mech eng project. Basically iam looking at a V-shaped waterplane and a torpedo shaped one with winglets on the front and back of the torpedo. The boat we are trying to design is about 1m in height, 2m in length and 1m in width and weighs about 1500 lbs and has to hydroplane at 20 knots(min). So if anyone could help me out with advice or formula’s i would greatly appreciate it. Thanks

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-29-2002 – 9:26 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Kris MacKenzie krismackenzie@hotmail.com, [Msgid=316589]
                                                                                        Hydroplane Formula`s?

                                                                                            • There are a number of different ways to calculate lift and drag of simple hydrofoils. For following two NACA papers are useful.

                                                                                        http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/reports/1958/naca-tn-4168/naca-tn-4168.pdf

                                                                                        http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/reports/1955/naca-report-1232/naca-report-1232.pdf

                                                                                            • Alternately if your library has a copy of Du Cane’s “High Speed Small Craft” the is a chapter which presents somewhat simpler formulas for hydrofoil calculation.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=09-30-2002 – 12:09 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Gunther Migeotte gmigeotte@artanderson.com, [Msgid=316835]
                                                                                        Hydroplane Formula`s?

                                                                                            • thanks for the info
                                                                                            • i’ll read the 2 papers and see what i can come up with

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-01-2002 – 12:58 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Kris MacKenzie krismackenzie@hotmail.com, [Msgid=317375]
                                                                                        Info Source for Foil Profiles

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am a mechanical engineering student at the University of Nottingham, England. As part of my course I have been given the task of designing a human-powered hydofoil designed to carry two people. The craft needs to travel at a speed of 5m/s and be small enough to fit on a trailer. I have decided that a two-hull design would be best with a fan-powered propulsion system using simple gears and chains to transmit power. The problem I am having is finding information on foil designs, and in particular, foil profiles with information on how much lift and drag each profile generates with information on how these values are determined. I would be extremely grateful if you could send me any information you have on foil profiles or any links for me to follow up. Also if you have any information on human- powered hydrofoils and how I should aproach my design.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-21-2002 – 6:49 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Ben Jones emyubdj@gwmail.nottingham.ac.uk, [Msgid=326753]
                                                                                        Info Source for Foil Profiles

                                                                                            • There is very little literature on hydrofoil sections, but all the equations and software available for aeroplane wings works for hydrofoils. One of the standard works is “Fundamentals of Aerodynamics” by John D Anderson. The latest edition is quite expensive, but if you can find a previous edition they are a lot cheaper.
                                                                                            • There are various software applications that can calculate the lift and drag coefficients for any foil section and angle of attack. I have used an application called “Panda” from Desktop Aeronautics Inc for this. I think that these applications use 2-dimension finite element analysis to work out the flow patterns and pressure at each point on the foil.
                                                                                            • The actual lift and drag can be calculated from the coefficients and the liquid density, speed and dimensions, with suitable adjustments for the aspect ratio. All the equations are in Fundamentals of Aerodynamics. They are quite complicated.
                                                                                            • This approach is probably only valid for high aspect ratio wings, and won’t model the interaction with any struts. However human powered hydrofoils will certainly have high aspect ratios. Strut to wing interaction is not a big problem. Even Boeing has only recently learned how to model it, so it must have been relatively unimportant.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-22-2002 – 7:53 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Malin Dixon gallery@foils.org, [Msgid=327252]
                                                                                        Info Source for Foil Profiles

                                                                                            • In addition to Malin’s excellent suggestions, here are a few additional resources you may find helpful:

                                                                                        http://www.humanpoweredboats.com/Links/L_Research.htm

                                                                                            • – Various links to research articles and informational web-sites. Not all hydrofoil specific, but some will be helpful to you.

                                                                                        http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0873228278/o/qid=947990877/sr=8-1/104-9565347-4271660

                                                                                            • – “Human Powered Vehicles Book” by Abbott & Wilson. This has a very detailed chapter on human powered hydrofoils, written by Dr. Allan Abbott, co-builder of the “Flying Fish” series of boats. You will find just about all the calcs needed for human powered hydrofoils in this book.

                                                                                        http://www.humanpoweredboats.com/Photos/HydrofoilHPBs/HydrofoilHPBs.htm

                                                                                            • – Photo gallery of successful human powered hydrofoils.

                                                                                        http://lancet.mit.edu/decavitator/Decavitator.html

                                                                                            • – Web-site for MIT’s “Decavitator”, which won the DuPont prize for fastest human powered hydrofoil in 1991.

                                                                                        http://www.orange.or.jp/~jsha/

                                                                                            • – Japanese Solar and Human Powered Boat Association. The Japanese teams are currently the best in the world, and recently set the multi-rider world-record at 34.59 km/h over a 100m course.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-24-2002 – 9:02 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Ron Drynan Ron@humanpoweredboats.com, [Msgid=328140]
                                                                                        Info Source for Foil Profiles

                                                                                            • The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) has published the technical bulletin

                                                                                        Blade and Hydrofoil Section Design

                                                                                            • . This bulletin includes the Blade and Hydrofoil Section Design Codes with a 29-page Owner’s Guide, and a 184 page Technical Report. It updates and complements T&R Bulletin 1-17. The Design Codes and Owner’s Guide provide tools for the design and performance evaluation of blade and hydrofoil sections. The programs are provided in both DOS and Mac formats and will run on most personal computers. The Technical Report provides analytical background information and is of interest primarily to those who wish to adapt or enhance the programs. This new publication is identified as Technical and Research Bulletin 1-45. It is being issued as a CD-ROM, and may be ordered by contacting

                                                                                        cpujols@sname.org

                                                                                            • or by calling +1-201-798-4800. It is priced at USD50 (USD25 for SNAME members).

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-29-2002 – 7:20 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=330718]
                                                                                        Ways to Cross the Channel

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am doing a research project on different ways to get across the English Channel. I was wondering if you have any useful links or information about using hydrofoils.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-31-2002 – 5:43 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Tracy Bickford tracybickford@hotmail.com, [Msgid=331484]
                                                                                        Ways to Cross the Channel

                                                                                            • IHS does have a links page at

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/linksout.htm

                                                                                            • . You should also check our page on popular books (

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/popbook.htm

                                                                                            • ). You may be able to find some of these books such as Hovercraft and Hydrofoils in your library. We have a similar page for popular magazines at

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/popmags.htm

                                                                                            • . Finally, I note that Steve Gillett of the Red Funnel ferry company recently sold two of the Shearwater hydrofoils through a notice on the IHS site. I don’t know if he would answer you, but there is an email address and phone number for him in his notice, which is on our page at

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/buyferry.htm

                                                                                            • . Hopefully one of those resources will get you started.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-31-2002 – 5:50 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=331485]
                                                                                        Supercavitating Propellers

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am a student at Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Faculty of Istanbul Technical University. I have homework about supercavitating propellers. If you have any text,photos,videos or CD about supercavitating propellers, could you help and post me?

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-05-2002 – 8:37 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Yasin Uslu usluyasin@hotmail.com, [Msgid=333656]
                                                                                        Supercavitating Propellers

                                                                                            • The SES S/C prop data is still classified.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-07-2002 – 8:23 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Nat Kobitz KobitzN@ctcgsc.org, [Msgid=334738]
                                                                                        solar hydrofoil

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • might be a usefull link for anyone researching this stuff.

                                                                                        www.ses.marquette.edu

                                                                                            • would love to hear comments from anyone.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-17-2002 – 1:07 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Terrence Breitsameter Bensenvill@aol.com, [Msgid=339189]
                                                                                        solar hydrofoil

                                                                                            • Terry
                                                                                            • Thanks for the reference to the Solar Hydrofoils.
                                                                                            • I will add it to our IHS links page. They are very interesting. If you have any more performance details we would welcome your comments.
                                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                                        [Date/Time=11-23-2002 – 6:47 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Bill White whitewn@flash.net, [Msgid=342528]
                                                                                        Surf Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • hi there, I am studying Surf Science at the university of Plymouth. I am looking into the application of hydrofoil technology to surfboard fin design for my third year project.
                                                                                            • I am going to construct a hydrofoil fin that can lift a surfer at between 8-20 knots.
                                                                                            • I have been researching foil cross sections but am at a bit of a loss as to which one too choose due to the vast amount of sections and data
                                                                                            • presented. My initial thoughts were to use a symmetrical NACA 0012 foil but then thought that something like the NACA 2412 would be more suitable and provide more lift. I also noted that many of the Eppler E8’s such as E874 were reccomended for hydrofoil use. How do symmetrical foils compare to non and do you have any recommendations for foil cross sections that I could use.
                                                                                            • Thank you for your time.
                                                                                            • Ben Bryant.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-07-2003 – 1:26 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Ben Bryant benjamin.bryant-mole@students.plymouth.ac.uk, [Msgid=374049]
                                                                                        Re; Surf Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                            • You might take a look at this section,

                                                                                        http://www.nasg.com/afdb/show-airfoil-e.phtml?id=1187

                                                                                            • , since it was specifically designed for sailing hydrofoils.
                                                                                            • The main benefit of a cambered section over a symmetrical section is that camber shifts the section characteristics to a nonzero lift coefficient. Maximum lift is generally increased, and the minimum drag can be centered on the operating lift coefficient instead of zero lift. Of course, this means you also have to estimate what the operating lift coefficient is, and this will come from the foil loading (weight carried per unit area) and the speed.
                                                                                            • The Hydronautics handbook on the AMV CD has an excellent chapter on foil sections and optimizing the foil span and planform.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-08-2003 – 2:15 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Tom Speer me@tspeer.com, [Msgid=374620]
                                                                                        Re; Surf Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                            • The AMV CD referred to by Tom Speer is the collection of Advanced Marine Vehicle design documents available on CD-ROM from the International Hydrofoil Society at a cost of USD 5.00, including shipping worldwide. For details, see the IHS website at

                                                                                        https://foils.org/

                                                                                            • . Note that IHS is very close to releasing a second AMV-CD with additional documents. The Hydronautics handbook is on the first (original) CD-ROM.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-09-2003 – 7:06 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=374969]
                                                                                        Re; Surf Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                            • In my humble experience with playing with hydrofoil wave-riding vehicles, I’ve found that the most critical problems I’ve faced are related to stability and control. I’ve used both symmetrical and asymmetrical airfoil sections, but so far I’ve not been able to discern any significant difference in speed as I’ve been too busy with control issues.
                                                                                            • The importance of the foil section also will also depend on your primary design goal. If your primary goal is pure speed (and you will be towed into a wave, as with the Air Chair-based hydrofoil boards under development by Laird Hamilton), then the section choice becomes more significant than if you’re interested in traditional surfing (i.e. paddling to catch the wave) and/or in maneuverability.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-20-2003 – 12:13 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Terry Hendricks thendricks@pacbell.net, [Msgid=381786]
                                                                                        Re; Re; Surf Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • thanks a lot friend, im draving cad plans to my model, your help and experience is apreciate, regards from spain.
                                                                                            • fernando palacio

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-26-2003 – 4:44 PM]

                                                                                        Name:fernando palacio edreira armadillo@teleline.es, [Msgid=385452]
                                                                                        Re; Re; Re; Surf Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                            • Please note that there is no need to post identical messages in each forum of the BBS. In the future, please select the one forum most appropriate for your message and post it there one time. Thanks!

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-11-2003 – 12:49 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=393772]
                                                                                        Stability of planing vessels

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am a student at Plymouth University (UK) and am doing a project on the stability of high speed planing vessels. Any suggestions? I need info! Thanks.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-21-2003 – 7:28 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Nick Farrer nickfarrer@hotmail.com, [Msgid=400452]
                                                                                        Re; Stability of planing vessels

                                                                                            • I don’t know your exact interest, but if you’re good with the Internet, you’ll find it all. My favorite linear theory porpoising papers were by Peter Payne and Milton Martin. Some experimental work was done recently by students at USNA and in Korea. Lateral stability is a little tougher. Blount and a few others have looked at nonlinear effects. A good starting place is the old Peter DuCane book. We’ve been working on augmenting stability for small planing boats (like ferry ride control systems) here in the US. I can probably help you track down what you need.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-22-2003 – 12:14 PM]

                                                                                        Name:jim hynes jhynes@socal.rr.com, [Msgid=401113]
                                                                                        HELP ; how to build a hydrofoil boat

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • hi i am a student in the 9th grade. my partner and i are doing a project on mini hydrofoil boats for our science class. could you give us a list of materials and stuff to build a small hydrofoil boat, about 10×5 in.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-25-2003 – 8:05 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Jabari Gilkes greatone__316@hotmail.com, [Msgid=403010]
                                                                                        Plans and parts list for model needed

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I presume you propose to build an operating, radio-controlled model hydrofoil as opposed to a static model that just sits on display. This sounds like a fun project, although there will be some costs associated with the control equipment. To get an overview of different models that other people have done, and also to get the names and email addresses of people who you might want to ask to advise you, please see the following pages on the IHS website:

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/modelrc.htm
                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/gallery/models.htm
                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/linksout.htm#plans

                                                                                            • For a good example of a motor-powered model hydrofoil boat, see Graham Taylor’s website at

                                                                                        http://www.home-taylor.freeserve.co.uk/content/rapier%20page.html

                                                                                            • For a good example of a sail-powered hydrofoil boat, see the 750mm sailing yacht model website at:

                                                                                        http://www.home.aone.net.au/cybernautics//750.html

                                                                                            • After you are successful with your model this year, you may want to build a hydrofoil that you can actually ride in for next years project. There are plans available in back issues of Popular Science and Science and Mechanics. The May 1960 issue of Popular Science has plans for a 4′ x 8′ wooden boat with wooden foils. The June 1960 provides mounting instructions to add the foils from the prior month’s issue to any existing boat up to about 16 feet.
                                                                                            • The Feb 1960 issue of Science and Mechanics has plans for foils made of steel frames and fiberglass foil surfaces. The following issue (Apr 1960) has plan for building a small runabout that you can add the foils to.
                                                                                            • For information on these magazines and suggestions where to find copies of these old issues, see our page at:

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/popmags.htm#hob

                                                                                            • Hopefully that information is of some use to you. Good luck on your project.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-26-2003 – 5:07 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=403688]
                                                                                        re; rc sailing hydrofoils

                                                                                            • Barney, he might also check out:

                                                                                        www.microsail.com

                                                                                            • for pictures ofour F3 the worlds ONlY production sailing hydrofoil multihull. We are also about to introduce the microMOTH a 36″ radio controlled MONOHULL foiler…..
                                                                                            • I’m also willing to answer any questions at all. He might also check out:

                                                                                        www.rcmultihulls.com

                                                                                            • a site that has several articles about foils on RC sailing hydrofoils.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-27-2003 – 8:03 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Doug Lord lorsail@webtv.net, [Msgid=404079]
                                                                                        Les Voiliers a Hydrofoils

                                                                                            • Deleted by request 091101

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-29-2003 – 6:31 PM]

                                                                                        HYSWAS Senior Design Project

                                                                                            • I am currently working with a team on the design of a working HYSWAS model for a senior design project at Florida Atlantic University (FAU). Our team needs information on hydro coefficients so we can run computer simultions to find out how much hp will be needed to generate enough speed to plane. If you have or would like to share any information that would be great.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=10-13-2003 – 11:42 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Roger Moore dakine42007@hotmail.com, [Msgid=524345]
                                                                                        build working model foil for science fair

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am in 6th grade and I am building a small working model of a hydrofoil craft for the school science fair. what advice do you have on things like what material to use, where i could find a good engine, the simplest design that will work.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-06-2004 – 11:54 PM]

                                                                                        Name:James Cobert beth_cobert@mckinsey.com, [Msgid=567742]
                                                                                        build working model foil for science fair

                                                                                            • Hi James,
                                                                                            • This sounds like a very nice project to work on. Do you plan to make the model radio controlled or “free running”?
                                                                                            • I would recommend that you make a model driven by an electric motor rather than a petrol engine. These are more clean and quiet and will start easily. With a fully charged NiCad battery pack, such a model should run for 10 minutes or so if built light and well.
                                                                                            • The hull could be built of thin plywood or balsa wood as these materials are easy to work with. If you use balsawood, make it at least 3mm thick. Be sure to seal it well with paint or varnish to ensure it does not get waterlogged.
                                                                                            • I would recommend building a model based on the full scale Supramar / Rodriquez PT 20 design. The reason for this is that:
                                                                                            • 1. The hull is quite a straightforward shape.
                                                                                            • 2. The foils are of a surface piercing type, so the model should naturally run well while foilborne without wanting to tip over in any direction.
                                                                                            • 3. This design has a single propeller mounted behing an inclined propeller shaft. This means you only need to buy one motor etc and the driveline is straightforward.
                                                                                            • You can get away with a 2 channel radio control system for a hydrofoil model. One channel is for controlling the motor speed (or simply on and off) and the other is for controlling a rudder.
                                                                                            • You can build the foils of hardwood if you are not easily able to work with something stronger like aluminium.
                                                                                            • There are several photos of the PT 20 in our photo gallery so you can get an idea of how that hydrofoil looks. There are also a variety of photos of hydrofoil models in the photo gallery.
                                                                                            • Also, plans to build a PT 20 model were once distributed by a company in Europe. That design was intended to be propelled by a petrol engine but could be converted to electric power instead. If you look through the archive of old posted messages on this website there are more discussions of radio controlled hydrofoil model building including more details of the above plans.
                                                                                            • If you let us know how big you would like to make the model and how much time and money you are able to spend on this model, then possibly we can give more advice. Have you built any radio controlled boat or aircraft models before or is this all new to you?
                                                                                            • Hope this helps in the meantime.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-07-2004 – 8:19 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=567827]
                                                                                        build working model foil for science fair

                                                                                            • James,
                                                                                            • I just had an afterthought that you can also look at the articles on building hydrofoil models which are regularly featured in the free on-line magazine “Classic Fast Ferries” produced by Tim Timoleon. The address is:

                                                                                        http://www.classicfastferries.com

                                                                                            • The most recent issue includes two different models of the PT 50 design, one of them was once sold as a kit. The PT 50 was a larger twin engined design based on the PT 20 which I reccommended you could build.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-07-2004 – 8:35 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=567836]
                                                                                        build working model foil for science fair

                                                                                            • As a science fair project, I recommend you make a long-ish tank with some plywood and 2×6’s, lined with a plastic sheet. At the end, put a pulley with a string that goes from the bow of your model to a weight. You may need to have a vertical frame at the end, too, with a second pulley so the string goes from the model to the first pulley, up to the second, and down to the weight. This will let the weight drop far enough to pull the boat down the whole length of the tank.
                                                                                            • With this system, you can release the weight and time how long it takes to pull the model down the tank. The weight times the height it drops provides a known amount of energy and thrust on the model. So the faster the model goes, the less drag it has.
                                                                                            • Make a series of runs with different amounts of weight pulling the models, recording the time required at each weight. If you use a water bottle as a weight, you’ll have to carefully measure the weight or the amount of water in the container each time. If you use solid weights, you can measure them once and reuse them. Plot the drag (amount of weight used to pull the model) versus speed (distance traveled divided by the time) to see that relationship. Then repeat the whole series of tests with a different model. With this simple tow tank, you can compare boats with and without hydrofoils and different kinds of hydrofoils.
                                                                                            • Alexander Graham Bell did experiments like this, pulling his hydrofoil models behind boats. Go to

                                                                                        http://bell.uccb.ns.ca/agbi_docs_frm.asp

                                                                                            • and select “Beinn Bhreah Recorder”, Volume 12, page 366b and then click through tne next several pages.
                                                                                            • The report that follows the pictures gives an interesting view to how research is really done. Compare the idea at the end with the report by Bell’s chief engineer, Baldwin, in Volume 23, page 49 of Bell’s HD-4 hydrofoil. There you’ll see the final result that came from the idea in the sketch.
                                                                                            • Other Bell hydrofoil model experiments are in:
                                                                                            • Vol. 10 pg. 347 – 365
                                                                                            • Vol. 12 pg. 363a – 366b
                                                                                            • Vol. 13 pg. 32 – 33
                                                                                            • Vol. 9 pg. 75a – 77b
                                                                                            • Bell also tested a water ski-like model (Vol 14 pg 85a – 86c, Vol 14, pg 228a – 229b; Vol 14, pg 398a – 401b) that would be a good model for you to test for comparison with a hydrofol.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-11-2004 – 11:05 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Tom Speer me@tspeer.com, [Msgid=570036]
                                                                                        build working model foil for science fair

                                                                                            • Thanks very much for your suggestions, which were really helpful. If you don’t mind, I still have some questions about how go ahead with the experiment that you describe.
                                                                                            • 1. The Boat/Foil:
                                                                                            • Do you have any ideas about a very simple model boat to which I can attach the foils? I would prefer to buy a boat or make a model from a kit since that would be easiest. I tried the hobby shope where I live but they didn’t have any. I have seen some models on the internet for small wooden boats about 8″ long and 3 ” wide. Would it be possible to attach hydrolfoils to a boat like this one? what shape boat should I look for? Or, do you have suggestions about very simple plans for boats/foils that I could build? Also, materials for constructing the hydrofoils
                                                                                            • 2. The Tank:
                                                                                            • I liked your suggestions about the plywood and plastic sheet. What dimensions for the tank would work in terms of length? How deep should it be? would the 2×6 pieces be for the sides or what else might work. For the frame, it sounds like I should attach a vertical piece as the end as the anchor for teh second pulley. If you have any more specific ideas here, that would be great.
                                                                                            • Thanks so much for all of your help — I will let you know how things turn out.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-13-2004 – 11:57 PM]

                                                                                        Name:James Cobert beth_cobert@mckinsey.com, [Msgid=571144]
                                                                                        build working model foil for science fair

                                                                                            • You might try building a simple catamaran from model rocket tubes and balsa nose cones. Add a skeg to the stern of each hull to make it track straight. This has the advantage of being light and stable.
                                                                                            • You could make the hydrofoils out of balsa, or spruce (stronger than balsa), or sheet metal. Or a combination of all 3. You could even cut strips out of a Coke can and glue them to balsa struts with epoxy. You’ll find the aluminum can to be somewhat brittle, but you can cut it with a pair of scissors. You may find plastic extrusions that could be modified into hydrofoils, too.
                                                                                            • Go to a hobby shop and use your imagination – lots of model airplane or even model railroad stuff could come in handy. If there’s a model airplane club that meets near you, I bet you can find lots of advice and help there, too.
                                                                                            • Ideally the tank should be as long as possible, but is limited by practical considerations. One is the height you can drop the weight. Most ceilings are 8 ft high, so the tank would be less than 8 ft long. You could double the distance the weight will pull the model by putting a pulley on the weight, anchoring one end of the cable to the top of the frame, and using the other end to pull the model. This will mean the tension on the cable is half the driving weight, but it will pull it twice as far.
                                                                                            • So one way to make the tank might be to take a piece of 4’x8′ plywood (1/2″ thick, maybe?), rip it in half to form two 2’x8′ pieces, and hinge them end-to-end. That would make a 16′ tank that you could fold into 8′ for transport when you take the plastic off. With the 2×4 or 2×6 walls, the tank would have to fold bottom-to-bottom, of course, with the walls on the outside. The tank would sit flat on a couple of folding tables.
                                                                                            • I’ll leave it to you to figure out how much weight would be on each table, based on the volume of water in your tank, and decide if that’s too much for the tables or not. The tank can be drained with a garden hose used as a siphon. Or you can get a waterbed kit for filling and emptying it. These often have a venturi pump that can suck the water out faster.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=01-25-2004 – 8:47 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Tom Speer me@tspeer.com, [Msgid=578107]
                                                                                        Student project

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Hi,
                                                                                            • I am currently studying for my degree in marine technolgy at the university of plymouth.  For part of this degree I have to do an honours project which involves looking into an aspect of marine design.  I have chosen to look into how t-foils effect the performance of small 14ft racing sailboats, and in particular how they help stop the pitching of the boat.
                                                                                            • Hence I would be very gratefull if you could send me any information on this subject, and in particular any calculations and foil tests that you have done.
                                                                                            • Thank you for your time.
                                                                                            • Matt Chapman

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-26-2004 – 11:12 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Matt Chapman matthew.chapman@students.plymouth.ac.uk, [Msgid=604277]
                                                                                        How foils work?

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • I am a student in year 10 currently doing a project on hydrofoils and building a model. I am having lots of trouble finding any research on how a hydrofoil works and how it creates lift. I know it resmbles an aeroplane wing but i am having trouble explaning how the lift is created. Iff you could help me out by maybe explaining or providing me with some information it would be greatly appreciated. My assignment is due in 2 and a bit weeks so any help will be greatly appreciated. Thanks, Chris

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-26-2004 – 11:18 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Chris Phillips pooman45@hotmail.com, [Msgid=604282]
                                                                                        Re; Student project

                                                                                            • Please check our IHS web site section on sources and discussions on the subject. You should find what you need there.

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/texts.htm

                                                                                            • If you need more detail, try our CDs which have lots of technical papers on the subject.
                                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-27-2004 – 11:00 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=604482]
                                                                                        Re; How foils work?

                                                                                            • Please check our IHS web site section on sources and discussions on the subject. You should find what you need there.

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/texts.htm

                                                                                            • Also try our page on the basics of Hydrofoils at

                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/basics.htm

                                                                                            • Good luck
                                                                                            • Bill White

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-27-2004 – 11:02 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=604485]
                                                                                        Science Fair project on hydrofoil boats

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • My son is doing a science fair project on hydrofoil boats. We are looking for a video and model we can purchase. We thought you could tells us where we could purchase them.
                                                                                            • Thank you Janet Harrison

                                                                                        [Date/Time=02-28-2004 – 6:51 PM]

                                                                                        Name: Janet Harrison JSHtennis@aol.com, [Msgid=605177]
                                                                                        Science Fair project on hydrofoil boats

                                                                                            • Hello Janet,
                                                                                            • Unfortunately there are few hydrofoil model kits available these days as they are all out of production. One option to track such a model down would be to keep a look out on Ebay online auction site for one to be offered. This may not be a practical proposition for you.
                                                                                            • For a videos on hydrofoils, follow the link “Books, Videos and Popular & Trade Magazines” from the main age of the IHS website and see what is listed. One video which has a good overview of hydrofoils is listed as follows:
                                                                                            • [13 Oct 03] The new Discovery Canada video Hydrofoils: Flying on Water is available in VHS format for $29.95, including shipping and handling within the U.S. and Canada. IHS assisted in compiling historical photos and video clips for this production. More details and a description of the video are on the internet at

                                                                                        www.thesea.ca/hydrofoils.htm

                                                                                            • . To purchase a copy of the VHS tape, send a cheque or money order to: Lucy Decoutere; 1657 Barrington St., Suite 138; Halifax, Nova Scotia; Canada B3J 2A1; Tel: 902.446.3414; Email:

                                                                                        lucy@thesea.ca

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-06-2004 – 7:47 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=608656]
                                                                                        Lift off Speed?

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Hello,
                                                                                            • I am building one man hydrofoil boat, and I am planning to put hydrofoils
                                                                                            • on a rowing boat! I am wondering what speed I need to get the boat out of
                                                                                            • the water. Doe sit depend on the size of the Hydrofoil. I would like to
                                                                                            • get the boat out of the water at the slowest possible speed, I hope this
                                                                                            • is possible.
                                                                                            • Many Thanks
                                                                                            • Philip Rage

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-12-2004 – 8:48 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Philip Rage philip.rage@radley.org.uk, [Msgid=678447]
                                                                                        Re; Lift off Speed?

                                                                                            • Hello Philip,
                                                                                            • I suggest you contact the webmaster at the HPMV website with this question, also see the information available on that site:

                                                                                        http://www.humanpoweredboats.com/

                                                                                            • I note that all the hydrofoil-equipped rowing shells seem to use a cycle or pedal-based propulsion system rather than oars.
                                                                                            • The IHS website has several links to human powered boat websites:

                                                                                        http://archive.foils.org/linksout.htm#human
                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-13-2004 – 5:02 PM]

                                                                                        Name:Barney C Black barney@alum.mit.edu, [Msgid=678957]
                                                                                        model rocket boat

                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                            • Im currently working on a model rocket boat project for an internship. we are given several pieces of aluminum, an estes d-12 model rocket engine, and a few requirements like it cant get airborn. the object is to make it go the farthest. I was interested in puting a hydrofoil on it to reduce drag from the water and increase distance. I dont really have any experience with hydrofoils though. Is the idea feasable with such a small boat? will it work with a rocket engine? will it be stable with no remote control? Anything will help, thanks

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-14-2004 – 1:22 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Alan alancarr3@hotmail.com, [Msgid=679221]
                                                                                        Re; model rocket boat

                                                                                            • The difficutly you have, is testing the boat prior to an actual rocket powered run. It took two non radio controlled “crashes” for me to get a rocket car to run straight. And these runs, it was radio controlled. Not that you could steer it during a run, but it did give us some measure of steering during a run. See this link.

                                                                                        http://mysite.verizon.net/res1tf1s/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/rocketcar2.mpg

                                                                                            • What should be noted, is that from the start, the nose was weighted with at least 150- 200 grams of lead to keep the nose down. The roll over you see in the first run is due to too large a drag chute.
                                                                                            • The point I try to make here, is that you will need to run the boat several times to get the boat trimmed. Especially on hydrofoils.
                                                                                            • In a hull born boat, The rocket at a slight down angle and a skeg at the back of the transom would probably be enough to keep the nose down and fairly level. Once you lift the boat out of the water on a foil, the dynamic will change completly. If you keep the foils low, and can do some testing using an electric motor, you probably have a good chance of succeeding.
                                                                                            • Safety first always. Once a rocket is lit it won’t stop.
                                                                                            • Aimee Eng

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-17-2004 – 12:26 AM]

                                                                                        Name:Aimee Eng umi_ryuzuki@hotmail.com, [Msgid=680936]
                                                                                        Re; model rocket boat

                                                                                            • I have contributed the report to the model R/C hydrofoil. It got interested in your model rocket hydrofoil. Would you teach [ you ] me the model rocket hydrofoil under plan in detail? Then, I think that I can provide you with the idea of a useful hydrofoil. It is the size of * rocket engine, and a weight * injection thrust, * injection time and the above item that I want to know. I wait for a reply. Please see the BBS contribution report of my model R/C hydrofoil.

                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-17-2004 – 12:44 AM]

                                                                                        Name:yoichi takahashi skyex@triton.ocn.ne.jp, [Msgid=680941]

                                                                                        PRE 2002:

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Correspondence Archives…

                                                                                        Hydrofoil-Related Student Projects
                                                                                        Descriptions, Advice, Sources of Information, and Requests For Help
                                                                                        (Last Update: 11 Nov 03)See also the BBS archive: “Build Your Own Hydrofoil
                                                                                        Go to the Posted Messages Bulletin Board(BBS) for more recent messages

                                                                                         


                                                                                        Notice: IHS receives many cryptic inquiries to the effect of, “Send me information about hydrofoils.” This is No Good! To help you, we need details… power or sail, large or small, surface piercing or fully submerged, recreational, commercial, or military… stuff like that! Oh, yes, and please remember to tell us your name! Thank you, thank you, thank you.

                                                                                        Suggestions: Describe your project and let us know your schedule and deadlines. Also, please ask specific questions so we can forward your request to experts who may have an answer! Feel free to contact any of the students whose inquiries appear here… their projects are probably finished now, and they could help you with “lessons learned.” Finally, click on some of the other FAQ links such as the one on Hydrofoil Texts and Sources of Design Information.


                                                                                        Hydrofoil Rise and Fall

                                                                                        [2 Apr 02] I am currently doing an assignment on hydrofoils at Southampton Institute Of Higher Education and I was looking for information on the rise and fall of hydrofoils in commercial and military use, I was wondering whether you could send me the names of any other websites or reports on this subject. — Nicholas Hayles (nickhayles@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[5 Apr 02] Hydrofoils for commercial applications really ‘took-off’ in the late 50’s and into the 60’s and beyond. The decline in production has probably been since the late 80’s or early 90’s. You could track the production rates of different types of commercial fast ferries by consulting Fast Ferry International magazine which for many years has annually reported on production numbers of the different types of ferries, be they monohull, catamaran, hovercraft, hydrofoil, Surface Effect Ships, SWATH (these are usually slower) or hybrids of some form. Being a hydrofoil enthusiast, I wouldn’t say that hydrofoils have ‘fallen’, rather they seem to have gone out of vogue at the moment. I think they will make a comeback! My personal view on why they have gone out of vogue is that operators these days probably consider them to be complicated craft and a ‘simple’ catamaran or displacement monohull is easier to operate. The same can be said for Surface Effect Ships which looked like they would become the ‘fast ferry of choice’ in the 80’s and 90’s (many designers and shipyards had proposals available) but apart from a number of sales, nothing substantial eventuated. One of the folk at an Australian shipyard that had built a limited number of SES once told me that operators would prefer a ferry that is like a ‘truck’ rather than something that is high tech. In other words, they are looking for simplicity and reliability in operation. The tricky thing is to convince operators that hydrofoils can offer fuel savings over some other types of fast ferries of similar capacity and speed and that any additional effort to maintain foils is offset by the fuel cost savings. Unfortunately, I don’t have the hard evidence to demonstrate that myself as I am not a hydrofoil operator. Another thing I find interesting is that many conventional catamarans and monohulls are having hydrofoil based ride control systems added to them to improve their seakeeping performance in waves (and so achieve reduced seasickness of passengers). These ride control systems seem to be accepted as not adding complexity to ‘simple’ catamarans and monohulls even though they are essentially just scaled down versions of the same types of foils that support pure hydrofoil craft. In fact, some designers offer catamaran designs with more substantial hydrofoil units fitted between both hulls to partially support the weight of the craft as these are stated to reduce the total resistance for a given displacement and speed and so reduce fuel consumption. Apart from the above, it would probably be fair to say that the manufacturing cost of hydrofoils (and SES and hovercraft for that matter) would be higher than for comparable displacement vessels such as catamarans. An operator would therefore need to invest more up front in purchasing the craft before the potential through life cost savings are achieved. If you would like to read some of the views on the future of hydrofoils while they were first becoming popular, I would recommend you hunt down journal papers written by Baron Hanns von Schertel (see IHS website for more details of this hydrofoil pioneer). These usually appeared in the Journal “Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil”. One had the title “Future of the Commercial Hydrofoil” but I don’t have details of which issue that was in, but it would have been the late 60’s or early 70’s. There is an interview with him in the October 1971 issue (Volume 11, No.1) with the title “The views of Baron Hanns von Schertel” where he also recalls some of the trials and tribulations of the development of hydrofoils. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Student Project – Lateral Stability of Surface-Piercing Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [31 Mar 02] I am a final year student of Naval Architecture in Australia and am currently involved in doing a research thesis on lateral stability of SP hydrofoils. — Nigel Lynch (masterlynch@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[27 May 02] Are you a student at University of New South Wales in Sydney or at the Australian Maritime College in Launceston? I suspect the former because I first proposed a research project on this topic to Phil Helmore about two years ago, and I know he has offered it to students as a thesis option this year. I am of course delighted that someone has taken this project on if my assumption is the correct. Regardless, I would be keen to give you some suggestions on what can be done to make it a really interesting project for you. Anyway, I think you are off to a good start having found the IHS website. We probably have more hydrofoil information and references than any other single source. If you look under the section “Technical References, Articles and Books” and go to entry #86, you can download a short article I wrote on the subject for the IHS newsletter a few years ago (following details extracted from website): Grimm, Martin, “‘Transverse Stability of Surface Piercing Hydrofoils,’ IHS Newsletter, Summer 1998, pp. 7-9. The stability criteria presented in the IMCO Code of Safety for Dynamically Supported Craft, now superseded by the International Maritime Association (IMO) High Speed Craft Code, provides an equation for assessing foilborne metacentric height (GM) of surface-piercing hydrofoils in the design stage. An alternative method which addresses several limitations of this equation has been implemented in a short computer program, and representative results for typical foil designs are presented. A more extensive assessment of the results, a source code listing, and example input files are available from the author to those willing to examine this subject in further detail and share their findings.” In closing, see the image of my model hydrofoil with a ‘test rig’ catamaran owned by a friend of mine (pictured). Actually, the catamaran has been used for solar boat races in recent years but is ideal for towing models. The idea was that this could be used to do experimental tests of transverse stability of the model while foilborne on a calm day. We just have not got far enough with the idea yet! Far more ideal of course would be to perform the tests in a towing tank! — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Student Project: Racing Hydroplane

                                                                                        [5 Mar 02] I am currently a student at Teesside University in England studying Computer Aided Design Engineering. As part of a project we have to improve on an existing hydrofoil design. The boat my team has chosen to improve upon is to be capable of racing in the 2002 Unlimited Hydroplane Series of which the boat MISS BUDWEISER is currently the title holder. Could you please advise me as to where I may find design specifications of such boats especially in relation to the cockpit area (safety) and the steering mechanism incorporated in the craft? — Ben Coward (bencoward1@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Responses…[5 Mar 02] You have an interesting project, however our site is concerned mostly with fully submerged and with surface piercing hydrofoil designs. We have next to nothing on hydroplane racing craft. I am sending a copy of this response to Leslie Field (www.lesliefield.com/) and to Simon Lewis (www.simonlewis.com/) in the hopes that they can suggest a source the design specs you seek. You may have luck by contacting directly the racing crews of specific craft or the racing association. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [15 Mar 02] The American Power Boat Association puts out all the specifications for the various classes of hydroplane racing crafts. MISS BUDWEISER is in the unlimited class. I believe they are presently headquartered in Detroit, Michigan. I had some discussion at one time with a former crew chief of a hydroplane racing team who wanted to put hydrofoils on the sponsons. I believe he proposed it to the APBA but was rejected at the time. — Sumi Arima (arimas1@juno.com)

                                                                                        Student Membership Requirement

                                                                                        [2 Feb 02] I have one doubt regarding membership, that is, for which kind of membership I should apply. Being a PhD student I am not sure if student membership can be applied in my case or it is reserved for undergraduates only. A practical question: does IHS issue some kind of “diploma” as a proof of membership (equivalent to RINA, SNAME, IMARE, ASNE…)? — Sasha Jovanovic (salespanac@serbiancafe.com)

                                                                                        Response…[3 Feb 02] Student membership is available to anyone who is a full-time student, from children up to masters and doctoral candidates. The idea is to reduce the price for people who go to school full time and therefore do not have a full time job. No proof of student status is required. Your word is your bond. All members receive a certificate of membership when they first join. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Student Project – Foil History

                                                                                        [21 Nov 01] I`m a student in Spain, and I’m making my final project. I need information about: (1) History of Eppler foils and his geometry, (2) History of H105 foil, and (3) History of keels of windsurfer boats. Could you help me, please? — Beatriz Marco Burguete (beatrizmarco@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[25 Nov 01] Richard Eppler was a professor at University of Stuttgart, along with Wortmann and Althaus. You might say that Eppler was the theoretician, Althaus was the experimentalist, and Wortmann the applied designer because Wortmann designed many successful sections using Eppler’s computer code, and Althaus did the wind tunnel testing published in the Stuttgarter Profilkatalog. (Althaus, D., Wortmann, F.X.,’Stuttgarter Profilkatalog 1′, F. Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1981.) However, Eppler was more than just a theoretician, having designed the world’s first fiberglass sailplane, the PHOENIX. Try http://www.aae.uiuc.edu/m-selig/ads/airfoil_references.html for additional information. Together, the three of them revolutionized modern airfoil design and established the practice of using an inverse computer code to calculate the shape of an airfoil from its required aerodynamic characteristics, so as to create an airfoil precisely tailored for each specific aircraft design. The H105 section is my own design (data and coordinates at http://www.nasg.com/afdb/index-e.phtml). It started with correspondence between the late David Keiper and myself. I offered to design a section for Keiper and pay for the die if he would have extrusions made for use in his catamaran hydrofoil kits. I was looking to get some experimental feedback on the design. I intend to build an ocean-going sailing hydrofoil loosely based on Keiper’s WILLIWAW ( For details, see my paper: http://www.basiliscus.com/CSYSpaper.pdf), and I will probably use the H105 for my hydrofoils. The requirements for the H105 were:

                                                                                        • to be able to operate at low Reynolds numbers (300,000 and above)
                                                                                        • to be resistant to caviation
                                                                                        • operate over a wider range of lift coefficients than the Eppler hydrofoil sections
                                                                                        • to have minimum drag comparable to the Eppler sections

                                                                                        My first designs put too much emphasis on high lift. High lift is not as important to a surface-piercing hydrofoil because the craft can operate with a much smaller angle of attack range, changing wetted area to vary the lift instead of angle of attack. The H105 design specifically traded off some high lift performance for better cavitation performance. The good low Reynolds number performance was obtained by using a convex velocity distribution on the upper surface. This was tailored to control the movement of the laminar separation bubble. The result was transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer via a short laminar separation bubble that moved smoothly to the leading edge as the angle of attack increased. This allowed long runs of laminar flow at low lift coefficients, but ensured that the boundary layer was turbulent at high lift coefficients, and eliminated the laminar separation which caused the sharp stall in the Eppler hydrofoil sections at low Reynolds numbers. Compared with Eppler’s hydrofoils, my section is slightly more prone to cavitation at medium lift coefficients, but has better high lift and low Reynolds number performance. At low lift coefficients and high speeds the performance is nearly equal between the two. See the CSYS paper for a more detailed comparison. The emphasis on low Reynolds numbers was so that I could build a subscale model of the cruising hydrofoil and still obtain valid data. A section that is designed for low Reynolds numbers will generally work well at high Reynolds numbers, but one can rarely operate a section much below its design Reynolds number range. So by designing a section that would be suitable for the model, I created a good all-round section is not as critical as the Eppler hydrofoil sections. — Tom Speer (me@tspeer.com) website: www.tspeer.com

                                                                                        Kart Engine Utility

                                                                                        [11 Nov 01] I am considering building a hydrofoil as a university project and I’ve already been looking into some of the practicalities. Today I have mostly been considering how to power a small hydrofoil and looking at lots of engine and propeller websites. One option I’ve been looking at is the widespread availability of Kart engines. Do you think a 28HP Kart engine could be geared down to provide propulsion for a lightweight hydrofoil say 12-15ft in length? It just got me thinking because kart engines are very lightweight and also surprisingly cheap. — Mark Landers (mark.landers@baesystems.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil-Assisted Take Off for Flying Boat

                                                                                        [1 Nov 01] I am student at the University of Southampton studying Aerospace Engineering. As part of our course we have been given a group project in which we are designing an amphibious flying boat. Our initial intentions were to design a 767 sized cargo plane. We then thought of adding a hydrofoil to reduce the takeoff distance. Having looked through your site we were wondering if you could provide us or direct us to where we could find some more detailed information such as different designs of hydrofoils and typical takeoff speeds of hydrofoils. — Andy Fidler (fidler81@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Responses…[3 Nov 01] The most recent example of hydrofoil-assisted takeoff for aircraft that I know of can be found in Air Progress Magazine of Feb 1968. There is a cover photo of the magazine and an abstract of the article on Popular Magazines page. The article has some good photos and technical info. You may be able to find some additional info about other experiments of this type on the NACA website… they have archived many hundreds of technical reports that are searchable by key word. A couple of other sites with some history: “A History of Sea – Air Aviation: Wings Over the Ocean Part Three” by John M. Lindley and www.curtisswright.com/history/1908-1919.asp — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [11 Nov 01, updated 10 Mar 02] I am providing the details and a short summary of a paper on “Sea Loiter Aircraft: Papadales, Basil S. Jr. (DTNSRDC) ‘A Review of Sea Loiter Aircraft Technology’, AIAA / SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington, Virginia, September 20-22, 1976. Paper No. 76-876. The interest in sea loiter concepts, namely aircraft that could float on the sea surface for extended period including in moderate sea state conditions, was prompted by their potential for extended time on station for such roles as Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Command, Communications and Control (C3), and Strategic Deterrence. The paper reviews past work in the areas of take-off and landing hydrodynamics, sea loiter hydrodynamics (ie floating motion behaviour), and propulsor-water interaction (spray generated from aero propellers or jets). About two pages of the 11 page paper are devoted to reviewing previous work with hydroski or hydrofoil equipped sea planes. With the exception of the XF2Y-1 Sea Dart jet aircraft with hydroskis, all the other hydroski or hydrofoil test aircraft appear to be those described in the February 1968 issue of Air Progress you have already noted. The paper mentions hydroski tests on a Lake LA-4 amphibian aircraft (see attached photo) in which four configurations of hydroski were tested, and it is in these tests that it was found that the aircraft could operate in waves three times higher than the basic hull. The first modern application of supercavitating hydrofoils to a seaplane was on a Grumman JRF-5G Goose (see attached photo) which utilised the Grunberg foil configuration with the foil slightly aft of the aircraft centre of gravity and two small skis located forward of the bow. The skis served to trim the aircraft prior to lift-off and to prevent diving. The stainless steel foil had a loading of 1270 psf at full gross weight. Directional and lateral instability was encountered during planing and this created serious take-off problems. Further research on the concept was terminated. In 1966 the Thurston Aircraft Corporation modified a Lake LA-4 amphibian to employ a retractable supercavitating surface piercing hydrofoil. This had a loading of 3310 psf at full gross weight. The foil was a 6.25 degree aluminium wedge. It showed a 70% reduction in landing impact loads and a 30% reduction in take-off time could be gained with the foil and that it had a significantly better performance than any ski configuration. Other hydrofoil related references cited are:

                                                                                        • ‘Preliminary Design Data for Water-Based Aircraft with Hydrofoils or Skis’, Martin Company Report ER 9433, June 1957.
                                                                                        • Vagianos, N.J. and Thurston, D.B., ‘Hydrofoil Seaplane Design’, Thurston Aircraft Corporation Report 6912, May 1970.
                                                                                        • Vagianos, N.J. and Rhodes, W.B., ‘Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the JRF-5G Hydrofoil Seaplane’, NATC Technical Report FT2121-35R-65, July 1965.
                                                                                        • Thurston, D.B., ‘Flight Test of the Hydro Research Vehicle HRV-1 Equipped with Hydrofoil No.1 on Strut No.2’, Thurston Aircraft Corporation Report 6702-3, February 1967.

                                                                                        — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        LR-4 With Hydroski

                                                                                        JRF-5G with Hydrofoil

                                                                                        Planing Sailboard

                                                                                        [10 Aug 01] I am from the University of Natal and need assistance on the theory of planing. I am doing a dissertation on the hydrodynamics of planing sailboards. If you have any information on this it would be greatly appreciated. Would a copy of the 1994 Shanghai Conference proceedings be of any use? — Gordon Cook (981189683@stu.und.ac.za)

                                                                                        Responses…[10 Aug 01] Try the following two websites:

                                                                                        Tom Speer (tspeer@tspeer.com) website: www.tspeer.com

                                                                                        [13 Aug 01] Planing theory has been covered in depth by many papers authored by Dan Savitsky at Stevens Institute. “High Speed Small Craft” by Peter Du Cane (Temple Press, London – 1964) is a good reference. The Heller-Jasper paper on this subject is a classic (SNAME, late 50s I believe). Joe Koelbel has also published some good basic small planing craft design guidance – in papers and magazine articles. — Ken Spaulding (secretary@foils.org)

                                                                                        Patrol Boat Foil Design, Student Project

                                                                                        [15 Jan 01] I am a senior naval architecture student and for my final design project I am attempting to design a hydrofoil patrol boat. I was wondering if you knew of any papers on the design process on deciding foil shape, size, placement, etc. Thank you for any help you can give me. — Earon S. Rein, MIDN USN (m015346@nadn.navy.mil)

                                                                                        Responses…[15 Jan 01] I assume you are aware of the model of a HYSWAS design built by the Naval Academy and testing of same in the tank. See John Hill, if you haven’t. I was there last Thurs to see it running. The Hydronautics Report TR-463-1 we sent you should be good for a conventional hydrofoil. Hope you can work your way through it OK. Some years ago we did a design of a HYSWAS Patrol craft for the Coast Guard. It was about 235 tons with long range and excellent seakeeping characteristics. — John Meyer (president@foils.org)

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] For my final year project at university I also worked on a patrol boat design but didn’t want to try to develop a hydrofoil design as a student because I thought it would be too hard to do! I left my hydrofoil interest for a separate thesis project that looked specifically at the heave and pitch motions of a surface piercing hydrofoil in waves. In hindsight, I wish I did do a hydrofoil design as a project as well! At the time I worked on the thesis I collected a number of papers dealing with general hydrofoil design and foil layout. While I didn’t need to apply most of those papers in my studies, here are some which may be useful for your design project:

                                                                                        • Walderhaug, H.Aa., “A note on seakindliness of hydrofoil vessels as influenced by foil characteristics and centre of gravity position.”, I believe this was published in International Shipbuilding Progress but can’t be sure.
                                                                                        • Pascoe, Norman P. and Hobday, A.W., ‘A theoretical study of the relative behaviour of three fully submerged hydrofoil configurations with regard to dynamic longitudinal stability and incidence-cavitation boundaries’, Hovering Craft and Hydrofoil, Vol. 2, No.1, pp31-35, October 1962.
                                                                                        • Jewell, D. A. “Hydrofoil Performance in Rough Water”, Paper presented at AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, San Diego, CA, February 25-27, 1974.

                                                                                        Before reading those more detailed papers, I suggest you get a good overview of general hydrofoil design considerations but also including foil size and layout considerations by looking though the following books or journals listed on the IHS website:

                                                                                        • Hook, Christopher and Kermode, A.C., Hydrofoils – Without Formulae Series (No. 16?), Pitman Paperbacks, Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons Limited, London, 1967.
                                                                                        • Du Cane, Peter High-Speed Small Craft , David and Charles (Holdings) Limited, Devon, 1974, Fourth Edition, Chapter 3, pp 12-54, Eames, M.C., “Principles of Hydrofoils.”
                                                                                        • Naval Engineers Journal, Volume 97, Number 2, February 1985. ISSN 0028-1425. Published by the American Society of Naval Engineers, Inc. (ASNE). This special edition features comprehensive reviews of a range of “advanced naval vehicles,” including hydrofoils.
                                                                                        • Crew, P. R., “The Hydrofoil Boat; Its History and Future Prospects.” Quarterly Transactions, The Institution of Naval Architects, Vol. 100, No. 4, October 1958 gives good background information.
                                                                                        • Bakken, Sigmund and Merritt, Richard G., “Hydrofoils – ideal for the North Sea”, Navy International, Vol.82, No.3, March 1977 compares the seakeeping performance, namely sustained speed versus wave height, of hydrofoils with conventional naval surface ships.

                                                                                        There are also a number of previous questions and answers concerning foil design on the website which may assist you. Before considering the foil layout you also need to decide whether you want to develop a fully submerged hydrofoil design or a surface piercing design. The US navy hydrofoil developments culminating in the PHM were almost exclusively of the former type, though surface piercing hydrofoils were also operated by some navies mainly as coastal patrol craft. Examples of the latter are militarised Supramar / Rodriquez PT 20’s and also Chinese patrol hydrofoils. The Canadian ASW hydrofoil (items 13, 17 and 18 of the IHS website deal specifically with this) was more of an ocean-going surface piercing hydrofoil design. Surface piercing hydrofoil designs are generally naturally stable in heave, pitch and roll. Fully submerged hydrofoil designs are reliant on autopilot controlled flaps etc to remain stable. If you are seeking good rough water seakeeping characteristics, I would suggest you opt for a fully submerged hydrofoil design with an autopilot system for maintaining the attitude of the craft as these are generally regarded as having better seakeeping performance than similarly sized surface piercing hydrofoils. I don’t think you will be in a position to develop the autopilot design as part of the design project unless you are a real whiz kid. I think it would be sufficient to try to perform a resistance estimation for the craft from hullborne to foilborne condition as part of the project and assume that with a foil layout similar to other past fully submerged hydrofoils that it will somehow be possible to develop a satisfactory control system around it to keep the boat stable in waves. I don’t know what size or capability of hydrofoil you are thinking about for your project but if I were in your shoes, I would probably search for any literature on the USN PEGASUS class Patrol Hydrofoils (PHM) and adapt your design from that! After all, naval architecture is an evolutionary rather than revolutionary business! — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Follow Up Question…

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] We were sort of toying with the idea of using supercavitating foils. Do any of you know where I can get some good information on supercavitating foil sections, or the design of supercavitating hydrofoil vessels. I don’t remember who asked, but I am pretty sure we are just doing our hull with FastShip and then doing analysis using NavCad. If you have a better suggestion (which can be handled at an undergraduate level) Id love to hear it as well. — Earon S. Rein, MIDN USN (m015346@nadn.navy.mil)

                                                                                        Responses…

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] Two suggested sources:

                                                                                        • Altman, R., “The Design of Supercavitating Hydrofoil Wings,” Technical Report 001-14, Hydronautics Inc., April 1968.
                                                                                        • Martin, M., “The Stability Derivatives of A Hydrofoil Boat – Part II”, Technical Report 001-10(II), Hydronautics Inc., January 1963.

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] The best info I’m aware of on supcav foil sections is the Carderock work in the 1970s on the “TAP-2” series of base-vented supercavitating foils. The work may have been done by Young Shen but I’m not sure. — Mark Bebar (bebar@foils.org)

                                                                                        The Future of Hydrofoils, Student Project

                                                                                        [12 Jan 01] I’m working on assignment on sea transportation. I really hope you will be able to help me out. What I was wondering is if you know who builds them, for whom, why do we need them, how are they made, where, when and the future? If you don’t know these things, do you any good sites that I could find them out? I have had horrible luck finding any information on both the Internet and encyclopedias. — Stephen Aiken <(saiken@attcanada.net)

                                                                                        Response…[12 Jan 01] I suggest first that you read the Regional Ferry Plan San Francisco Bay Area – Final Report. Also, I have sent you a paper called Defining a Ferry Business. These sources will give you the idea of the various issues involved and the analysis required. As to manufacturers, look on the IHS links page. Also look at the BBS page. In the USA the “buzzword” for transportation design is “Intermodal” i.e. in designing systems for the transportation of passengers and freight, one mode of transportation can feed into or draw from another… the routes are coordinated, and the interfaces are compatible and optimized. The USA funds research and demonstration projects to promote this concept. For more info, search the internet for “TEA-21” and “ISTEA”. If you have specific questions after reading these sources, please send them to me by email… the more specific you can make your questions, the better chance you have of receiving a useable answer. Also, look at the FAQ page devoted to student projects and feel free to correspond directly with anyone there you think might be of help to you. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [18 Jan 01] I think there definitely are niches in which hydrofoils are the best craft for the application. The PHMs and other hydrofoils have shown how seaworthy and fast a small ship can be, and there will be future roles requiring such performance. Hydrofoil-assisted catamarans have shown how great a boost in speed can be obtained by adding a foil or two, as compared with just adding more power. The large number of surface-piercing hydrofoils operated on rivers and lakes in Russia and elsewhere have shown their comfort and reliability and good performance for a relatively low cost. It’s a bit of a mystery to me why more companies requiring these kinds of performance aren’t choosing hydrofoils. It’s probably due in part to a misperception that the cost has to be high, or that the hydrofoils and control systems must be complicated and therefore insufficiently rugged. At this point I think I see a new reason for considering hydrofoils: the growing concern about wake and wash produced by fast marine vehicles. I think hydrofoils can naturally produce less wake and wash, with their energy going mainly into underwater turbulence rather than into surface waves. (What the negatives may be from that I’m not sure — someone will think of a bunch, no doubt.) As for size, when we had our IHS panel discussion on the future prospects for hydrofoils, on the occasion of the IHS 25th anniversary, we reached a consensus that about 1500 tons seemed to be a practical upper limit. The upper limit on speed was set by foil cavitation and was thought to be about 55 knots or so, I think — although more recently there has been comment about 70 knots being attainable. — Bill Hockberger (hockberg@erols.com)

                                                                                        Model Sailing Yacht

                                                                                        [5 Dec 00] I am studying A-Levels in England at the moment and for my main project I’m building a model yacht (monohull). It is for a competition run by Strathclyde Uni. in Glasgow. There are few design restrictions and having spoken to the university I have confirmed that I can have a hydrofoil design. The restrictions that I have are as follows: Max LOA: 700mm, Max Draft: 300mm, Max Mast Height: 900mm, Min Mass: 2kg, Max Sail Area: 2000mm2, Keel bulb must be no more than 55% of total mass, must be monohull in the true sense of the word. I was thinking of having a ‘Y’ shaped keel with the diagonals as hydrofoils as I can only have one keel. What I need is, one: Will it work? and two, What kind of hydrofoils should I use for the best results, if any. — Philip Eltringham (phill_eltringham@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Construction Methods and Materials

                                                                                        [19 Nov 00] I was wondering if it was possible for you to send me some information on the construction of hydrofoils. I am doing a college term paper on the construction of hydrofoils and I am having some trouble finding information on that topic. I’m mainly looking for material specs, type’s of steel used to reduce weight, propulsion systems, foil systems, welding techniques, and hull considerations. I checked out the webpage and saw all the basic constructions but, if possible, I need some more specific information. — Matt Ferruccio (matt300@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[19 Nov 00] There are three pages of hydrofoil references accessible from the main page of our website: Technical References, Popular Magazines, and Popular Books. Most of these are out of print, but many can be found in libraries, book sales, online auction sites, especially Ebay. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Student Project, Grade 12

                                                                                        [11 Nov 00] I was wondering if you could give my partner and me some tips or problems that might occur when building a hydrofoil boat. My partner and I are building a model hydrofoil boat for a physics project at school. It will be powered by 2 airplane engines. The hull structure is 36in long and 9in wide. It will be covered by thin sheets of wood, which will be coated with a special waterproof paint. Our hydrofoil concept design is a bit different compared to the one you did. There will be wings that extend directly from the port and starboard side. Directly below the end of the wings, will be the hydrofoils themselves. We are wondering whether this is a good design for a hydrofoil boat. How would this compare to other hydrofoil designs? — Chris Chang and Warren Pringle Grade 12 (Christopher_Chang@sac.on.ca)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Amphibian – Student Project

                                                                                        [11 Nov 00] I am an graduate student from India pursuing a project on creating a amphibian craft… a vehicle that can move both in land and water. After a wide area of thought we have considered using hydrofoils with wheels at the bottom to enable us to have not only a large wheel clearance but also lesser drag in the water. I would like to know if there is any information regarding such a project anywhere else in the world. — Janak (ragus@netkracker.com)

                                                                                        Response and follow-up…[11 Nov 00] In the 1950s and 1960s, the US Army, Navy, and Marines all experimented with hydrofoil landing craft. Some of these were amphibians, specifically: the DUKW (by AVCO Lycoming and Miami Shipbuilding Corp for the US Army) , LVHX-1 (by AVCO Lycoming for the US Marines), and LVHX-2 (by Food Machinery Corp for the US Marines). Photos and more information about these vessels can be found elsewhere on our site, specifically in the History of Miami Shipbuilding Corp (MSC) and in the 1950s section of the Photo Gallery. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        [18 Nov 00] I would like to know what difficulties were experienced, for such crafts seem to have completely vanished. Then too, the 1960s is a very long time ago. The DUKW and the LVHX2 both seem to have either retractable hydrofoils or fixed ones, the wheels being extendable. I was wondering if we could place the wheels directly onto the hydrofoils. That would give the rider a perfect birds eye view . Although such a craft would not be very road friendly, they would definitely be very useful near the shore and on the beach. Another idea was to use non submerging fans, like the ones used on hovercrafts for propulsion. That would enable us to have free moving wheels. If the wheels were also submerged, there would be no necessity for separate rudders, the wheels may itself act as rudders. That will help simplify mechanics. For added stability at low speeds, we are also thinking about using a trimaran type hull. Please let me know what you feel about these ideas. Knowing what went wrong with the 1960s projects may help us. We hope to first start with making a scale model. — Janak (ragus@netkracker.com)

                                                                                        [19 Nov 00] The DUKW and LVHX craft were successful, although they were mechanically very complex and heavy for their payload capacities. Their amphibious capability is greatly exceeded by Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs). Use of a trimaran hullform will add stability and reduce powering requirements. The design challenge is to obtain satisfactory cargo volume on a trimaran center hull that is more slender than a monohull of equal full load displacement. — Mark Bebar (bebar@foils.org)

                                                                                        Drag Testing of Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [21 Nov 00, updated 2 Dec 00] I am currently working on a project that deals with tests the drag produced by two different hydrofoils. One would be a conventional hydrofoil and the other would be modified so that an electric field is produced (interacts with ions in the water). I am a Georgia Tech Aerospace Engineering student. We are currently working on presentations in a fluids laboratory and everyone has been assigned a topic. My topic deals with these two hydrofoils and the goal is to come up with the best experimental technique and present it to the class. I found some info on the David Taylor Model Basins and they seem like a great idea for testing hydrofoils. It does not, however, elaborate on what type of measuring equipment is used. I’m only familiar with equipment used along with wind tunnels (i.e. LDA and PIV systems). Do you have any information on what equipment can be used to measure drag and investigate the boundary layer in water facilities? . I appreciate all of the feedback from members of your society and welcome anymore as it comes available. — Lauren Ihrig (Lauren_Ihrig@excite.com)

                                                                                        Response…[23 Nov 00, updated 2 Dec 00] I am very curious as to what prompted you to ask the question to include a hydrofoil with an electric field. There is good info on the reason for the electric field on a website entitled Control of Flow Separation in Weakly Conducting Liquids by Means of Electromagnetic Forces. The articles on the site show very good improvements in foil flow separation and therefore drag reduction, and lift improvement. Question is how practical is it, how much electrical power is required, and a host of other questions and clarifications. Have you access to any technical papers on theoretical or experimental work along this line? Are they available to us? Wouldn’t the tests have to be carried out in salt water? If so, tank tests are out. Testing of the foil system with and without the electric field would have to be done from an instrumented vehicle in a protected bay under calm conditions. Both lift and drag would have to be measured because the important issue is lift to drag ratio. This would not be the first time foils have been tested in open water. — John Meyer (president@foils.org)

                                                                                        [23 Nov 00] Just based on fundamentals, I suppose that there might be a problem. Lift and drag are functionally related so I imagine that if this EM field method would reduce drag it would also reduce lift. Jim King (KingJH@nswccd.navy.mil)

                                                                                        [2 Dec 00] I don’t know what is meant by an “electric field is produced (interacts with ions in the water)”. There’s been some work done on electromagnetic turbulence control where local EM fields have been produced that interact with the boundary layer (in sea water) to produce a Lorentz force. If done correctly this has been shown to lead to substantial reductions in friction drag. Scaling to high Reynolds numbers hasn’t been demonstrated although DNC computations suggest it should work. DARPA had funded some work in this area that was mostly proprietary. NUWC has done some work and could likely provide some published data that could be forwarded. In response to the comment about this affecting lift, the phenomena I described above all takes place in the boundary layer so lift is (to first order) unaffected. — Stan Siegel (stansiegel@aol.com)

                                                                                        Hong Kong Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [8 Sep 00] I have a couple of questions that your page does not answer. I’ve lived in Hong Kong, and I’ve seen the hydrofoil ferries, they looked pretty big (at least 500 tonnes) to me. Yet somewhere on the IHS page, it says those only weigh 35 tons. So I’m wondering if you know their displacement, and whether or not there had been a missing zero. With the current technology (composite material, new turbine engine, etc.), what is the maximum speed, weight and range for an hydrofoil? And what will the fuel economy of this ship be like, e.g. how many passengers can it take? (in other words, is it possible to build a 1000-tonne ship with max. speed of 60 knots that can go for 500 miles at 40 knots, and the ticket still cost half those of a jetliner? — Kenneth Chan (panzerkommand@hotmail.com)

                                                                                        Response…[8 Sep 00] Maybe the hydrofoil ferries you saw looked big, but they weren’t 500 tons. The largest hydrofoils to date were the Russian military built BABOCHKA at 400 + tons, and the US Navy built PLAINVIEW at 315 tons (long time out of commission). On the other hand, 35 tons would be a very small hydrofoil. You probably saw the Boeing built Jetfoil, which is about 100 tons. There are pictures on the IHS web site Photo Gallery. As to 1000 tons? That would take some doing and a VERY large investment. Also it would be more state of the art to stay with 50 knots and under. The 500 n miles at 40 knots should be no problem with hydrofoils 150 tons and up. Range is tied to payload or passengers carried, and one would have to set up a calculation to figure this all out. — John Meyer (president@foils.org)

                                                                                        Student Hydrofoil Project

                                                                                        [31 Aug 00] I am doing my Mech Eng. final year from V.I.T. under Pune Univ. As a part of curriculum, we have to present a seminar. I am very much interested in “Hydrodynamics” so I selected my topic as “Hydrofoils”. So could you please e-mail me the detailed info about Hydrodynamics giving stress on basics, mathematical relations, etc.? — Suraaj Doshi (suraaj_doshi@rediffmail.com)

                                                                                        Observations About Marquette’s Solar Powered Hydrofoil

                                                                                        [6 Mar 00] I was at the Solar Splash competitions against the Marquette boat. It was a good concept and based off of one of the entries by Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan. The only ironic thing is that the boat did better without the foils than with them. I have seen them race that boat 4 times and every time they had the same problems, dynamic stability when on foil. On the flip side the Kanazawa boat had a stability system that was rock solid. As a monohull alone the Marquette boat did fine though, in endurance. Most of the slender monohull types didn’t fare well in the sprint competition. If you want the hands down overall best design look at the KIT boat. Check out the Solar Splash Site . Over all, Marquette has probably one of the better all around teams at the competition. They regularly support multiple boats at the competition. Something that no other school does on a regular basis. Their entire university on the whole does a great job supporting the tech project cause. The tech teams are an active part of their curriculum. They are also one of the major reasons for the existence of the competition as they have been the host of the event since its inception. — Anthony Scott Daniels [adaniels@engin.umich.edu]

                                                                                        Cavitation

                                                                                        [25 Feb 00] I’m a French student working an a project, and I’m searching information about the phenomenon of cavitation or ventilation that occurs when a boat lifted with foil goes fast enough. Is there any solution for those problems, or could anyone tell me something about the subject? — L. Pério (loicmush@easynet.fr)

                                                                                        Spanish Student Develops a Project

                                                                                        [18 Feb 00] I am a Spanish student of naval engineering, and I want to do my final degree project about a hydrofoil. But I don’t know how and where I can start to do it. Could you guide me in this work? Could you advise me how I can do it and from which books can I get this information? — Belen Vega Mesa (bunny_d@email.com)

                                                                                        Response…[18 Feb 00] Please spend some time exploring our website, including the sections on links, references, and frequently asked questions. Then, if you have specific questions, IHS can find a better answer for you. Your question is so general that I can provide no better answer. After all, a hydrofoil could be a radio-controlled model weighing a few pounds up to a ferry or warship weighing hundreds of tons. Choices of power range from human-powered, to motor driven, to sail powered. As you realize, there is a variation in the information needed, depending on details of the hydrofoil that interests you. Note also that student membership in IHS costs only $US 2.50 per year. Click Here for information on how and why to join. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Solar Powered Hydrofoil Design Info Wanted

                                                                                        [19 Jan 00] I am a senior engineering major at Cedarville College. Part of my senior year is being devoted to developing a hydrofoil system for a solar powered boat. I am trying to research the pros and cons of a fully submerged system versus a self-stabilizing design. My Senior Design Team is modifying a 19′ canoe type hull to enter the Solar Splash competition. Our hope is to put hydrofoil on the boat in a manner that gives us the least amount of drag, adequate maneuverability, and good stability. Let me clarify me design constraints: Directly from the website: SOLAR SPLASH is the World Championship of Solar/Electric boating. It is an international intercollegiate competition which takes place over five days. The first two days are Technical Inspections and Qualifying and the final three days are on-the-water competitions. Points are awarded in 6 events including the newest which is called the SOLAR SLALOM. The various events stress system design and both short distance speed and long distance endurance. The Event this year will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana. SOLAR SPLASH is a practical educational experience which helps to develop teamwork and inter-disciplinary skills. In recent years, a few highly qualified High School teams have joined the Event as a natural educational path from secondary school to college. The Event combines the fun of competition with education in a way which is not a major disruption to the student’s academic schedule. The project can be accomplished at a relatively low cost. Feel free to look around on www.sunrayce.com for information about solar splash as well as other competitions. You can also check out www.cedarville.edu/student_org/solsplsh/ and find out about Cedarville’s past team and sponsors. It has not been updated for this year yet (2000 team). Would you be able to provide me with any information about various design concepts and their various characteristics? Perhaps there is a website featuring your papers and articles that I could reference? I would be grateful for any aid that you could provide. — Derek Chandler (S1178082@cedarnet.cedarville.edu)

                                                                                        Response…[21 Jan 00] I strongly recommend a self-stabilizing (surface piercing) foil system. Fully submerged requires technical sophistication (height sensors and automatic control system) that are not warranted for a recreational hydrofoil application. — Mark Bebar (bebar@foils.org)

                                                                                        2nd Response…

                                                                                        [21 Jan 00] I am afraid I must respectfully disagree with Mark Bebar here. Fully submerged hydrofoils need roll control and height control systems, but control systems are now so small and cheap that I feel that the benefits outweigh the costs. Fully submerged hydrofoils have better seakeeping than surface-piercing systems. On surface-piercing hydrofoils it is often necessary to have the foils set very far apart to give enough roll stability, while fully submerged foils can often be kept within the hull width. I would like to know more about what sort of boat you will be making. I think that one of the biggest problems will be getting enough power to overcome hull drag at take-off. Here the foil design is of little importance, except in the take-off speed required. — Malin Dixon (gallery@foils.org)

                                                                                        3rd Response…

                                                                                        [18 Feb 00] I worked on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology DECAVITATOR project, and I just wanted to respond to some of the questions that were being raised.

                                                                                        • We tried for 2 years to use a surface piercing V foil on our project. The obvious advantages of this configuration are automatic depth and roll stability. However, we found that there was no way to control ventilation. We tried fences and dramatic sweep angles with no avail. If you have lots of power to spare, then just plan on the foil cavitating all the time. Of course, with human power, we didn’t have this luxury. We ended up with a large and small foil directly under the pilot. The large foil could be retracted at higher speeds.
                                                                                        • Pitch stability came from the skimmer/small horizontal surface in front. Having one on each pontoon gave us enough roll stability by required serious bracing to keep the pontoon/cockpit frame rigid enough. The pilot controlled depth with a lever that set the angle of attack of the main foil.
                                                                                        • We used a 3-axis CNC machine to make our foil molds. The foils themselves were solid carbon fiber.
                                                                                        • Sizing the foils is pretty complicated. You have to be able to go fast enough to ‘take off’, but you don’t want them so big that your top speed suffers. There is a lot more information about our design available at: http://lancet.mit.edu/decavitator/.

                                                                                        I hope this helps. — Marc Schafer (spaceboy@sgi.com)

                                                                                        More Responses…[1 Mar 00] Regarding difference in surface-piercing foil effects on propulsion: This of course relates to lift/drag ratio for the particular size foils you would be using and the speed you will be running at. I and most of the hydrofoilers have dealt with much larger weights (like tons instead of pounds) than you are concerned with. There is an impact of the small scale you are designing with which I have had very little experience, but you can probably expect a small larger difference in power required from the surface-piercing foil. I would still like to know how much power you expect to be able to put into an electric motor from the sun. What efficiency do expect from the motor and prop? What is total weight of craft? Will it be manned? How fast do you expect it to go? It sounds like some students worked on this before, so you should have this information. — John Meyer (jmeyer@erols.com) ; [1 Mar 00] I would intend to agree with John on drag differences – it will depend on the number of elements in the surface piercing foil geometry. Doing a quick wetted area comparison might tell you something. A fully submerged system will generally yield a higher aspect ratio foil overall which should have a better lift/drag ratio. — Mark Bebar (bebar@foils.org)

                                                                                        Follow-Up Question…

                                                                                        [18 Feb 00] Would a hydrofoil system consisting of a fully-submerged rear hydrofoil and a surface piercing front foil be subject to porpoising? Would the surface-piercing foil naturally damp that out? — Derek Chandler S1178082@cedarnet.cedarville.edu

                                                                                        Responses…[18 Feb 00] I see no reason that such a system would be prone to porpoising. There will be an influence based on the weight distribution. Will you have an airplane configuration with a majority of the craft’s weight on the forward foils or a canard arrangement with most of the weight on the aft foils? One of the issues with an airplane configuration is making sure the aft system has enough weight on it to keep the foil fully loaded. Also, how do you intend to maintain control of the aft foil submergence? — Mark Bebar (bebar@foils.org)

                                                                                        [18 Feb 00] I realize this is a far cry from a solar powered hydrofoil, but you might find it interesting to know that a combination of surface- piercing and fully-submerged foil has been done before – by the Russians. Here is an extract from my book, Ships That Fly about the SARANCAHA. I’m also attaching a two-view drawing. However, for a solar powered hydrofoil with severe weight limitations, a surface-piercing system for and aft (without the need for an automatic control system) would be preferred in my mind. Please tell us more about the size of the vehicle that you plan to build. How much power are you counting on from the sun? We would like to hear more about the project which might make a good article for the IHS Newsletter. — John Meyer (jmeyer@erols.com)

                                                                                        [25 Feb 01] As well as the large Russian SARANCAHA hydrofoil, towards the other end of the size scale the 11.45m long Supramar PT 4 hydrofoil with a passenger capacity of around 12 was another example of a hydrofoil craft with a surface piercing bow foil and fully submerged aft foil. There is a photo of one on the IHS website. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au).

                                                                                        Student Project in Glasgow

                                                                                        [24 Dec 99] I am a student of Naval Architecture at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland. My current final year project involves the design of a detachable hydrofoil kit for the Hobie 16. I wondered whether you currently have overseas members, and also whether I would be able to gain anything toward this project by joining the International Hydrofoil Society? Furthermore, I wondered if there may be any opportunities opened up by joining the society, for work as a trainee naval architect when I graduate, with any companies currently involved in the design and/or production of sailing hydrofoils? I also hope to be able to offer a new invention as an addition to the aeroplane configuration, which I am currently developing, which I hope will further smooth out the wave interaction characteristics of the aeroplane configuration. I feel that the IHS would be a good starting point to look for some partnership from an experienced foil designer, who may be able to aid me in the development of this device as a saleable product. — Michael Mirfield (michael@mmirfield.freeserve.co.uk)

                                                                                        HYDROPTÈRE Lessons Learned

                                                                                        [13 Oct 99] I’m a Fench student in classes which prepare me to become an engineer, and I have to search information about the hydrofoil system of HYDROPTÈRE. I already checked out the hydroptere homepage, but I couldn’t find what I was really searching for: technical grahics and explanation of the system. I’m looking everywhere for scientific studies of the foil and the detail of how in hell it’s working!!:) What I’d like is: (1) equations, (2) hydrodynamics lessons, (3) in-depth explanation of the phenomena. I’m looking forward to get this important information within the month. — loicmush@easynet.fr

                                                                                        Solar Powered Hydrofoil, Student Project

                                                                                        [26 Sep 99] We are mechanical engineering students at the College of New Jersey and are currently working on a hydrofoil design for a monohull solar powered boat (approximately 16ft long, 2ft wide). We are starting the calculations but are a little confused on where to start. If we know the approximate velocity, weight, and power, what calculations can we use to determine the size of the hydrofoils. Also are there any good software programs out there that might help us in our design. — Gregg Bonstein (bonstei2@tcnj.edu) and Mandy Newman (newman@tcnj.edu)

                                                                                        Propulsion System For Solar

                                                                                        [19 Aug 99] I’m a Mechanical Engineering student at the College of New Jersey and I’m helping design and hopefully build a solar electric boat. My personal design is of the propulsion system. I’m looking into counter rotating propellors in a sleeve (a sort of jet propulsion system) but I’m not sure if this system would greatly increase efficiency at such low speeds. We (as a team) are at the primary stages of our design and would greatly appreciate any advice, brochures, technical documents, etc. that may help us in our project. — Oliver Cueff (cueff2@tcnj.edu)

                                                                                        Response…[23 Aug 99] The least expensive and most available CR propellers are available from Volvo Penta on their outdrive units. These are relatively simple designs that might be adapted for your application. You will need to look at the mechanical losses in such systems as they are designed for much higher powers than you will have in a solar application. You may not see a big gain in propulsive coefficient in this low power application since there is not much swirl in the wake of a relatively large diameter low speed propeller. Whatever gains may exist could be offset by mechanical losses in the CR drive. — Mark Rice (mrice@mapcorp.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Efficiency

                                                                                        [7 Aug 99] As a part of my engineering degree I am conducting a study into “greener” transportation. Do you have any information to support any claims that hydrofoil boats could be more efficient than a boat without hydrofoils? The type of information I would be interested would be power loadings and travelling speeds for the 2 types of boat with the same load so that a direct efficiency comparison can be made. It seems that most boats with hydrofoils are built for performance and not efficiency. I am wondering whether with the underside of the boat lifted out of the water it may be that drag could be reduced to use less fuel. — Martin Crotty (martin.crotty@balliol.oxford.ac.uk)

                                                                                        Response…[7 Aug 99] Sorry, but there is no free lunch. Best ship efficiency is a huge length-to-beam ratio… slo-o-o-w, make that VERY SLOW ship (e.g. supertanker). Although hull drag on a foilborne ship is low, foil drag (induced, friction, flow, wave, etc., is high). — Nat Kobitz (Hynat@aol.com)

                                                                                        Building a Bigger Wake. (link only; click here)

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Student Project – Foil Calculations

                                                                                        [31 Jul 99] I am a senior at New Jersey Institute of Technology. I am trying to find equations for calculating the most efficient hydrofoil for my senior project, specifically for lifting forces and wave coefficients. Do you know of any book or publication that has these formulas? — Scott Spinoso (d.spinoso@worldnet.att.net)

                                                                                        Student Needs Advice on Engine Installation Design

                                                                                        [26 Feb 99] I am a student at the University of New Orleans. I’m working on my senior design project. I am interested in knowing more information about the LM6000 Gas Turbine. we are trying to build a fast sea lift with the dimensions of: L=950 ft, D=65, T= 27, B=110, Vk= 36 knots. I chose the LM6000 to be my engine but I have to go from this to sizing the intake and the out take system for the engine and all the Auxiliaries for the ship. I looked all over to see or to have a look at a ship with the LM6000 in it but there was no luck. GE Marine were not that helpful. Please provide me with the information needed to design my machinery. — Hamad A (SmQQthxyz@aol.com)

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [14 Mar 99, updated 3 Nov 02] First, take a look at the Fast Sea Lift design described by Chris McKesson at www.hurricane.net/~chrism/sealift1.html (this design uses several LM6000 engines. Then, since you are in New Orleans, how about contacting the public relations departments at Avondale Shipbuilding and also Ingalls Shipbuilding (in Pascagoula MS) to see if they can get one of their engineers to spend a few minutes on the phone with you to help: Avondale Industries, Inc.; 5100 River Rd.; Avondale, LA 70094; http://www.avondale.com; Phone: 504-436-2121; Fax: 504-436-5304; Litton Ingalls, P.O. Box 149, Pascagoula, MS USA 39568-0149; Physical address: 1000 Access Road, Pascagoula, MS USA 39567; http://www.ingalls.com; Telephone: 228-935-1122; Fax: 228-935-1126 — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                         Student Needs Advice For Market Research

                                                                                        [21 Feb 99] Hello, I am a student of Enschede University in the Netherlands and I am currently doing a market research for hydrofoils on (sailing)-catamarans and trimarans. I would like to know some things for which I think at this address I’ll get the most response. I trust ;->. In my search for hydrofoils on the market I only found the Hobie Trifoiler and the Windrider. Can anybody tell me how many people sail these crafts in the US (and worldwide)? Are there other manufacturers, because I find two models on a whole world to be very view! From a Duth catamaran-importer I heard that most catamaran-sailers are not too keen on the cockpit-style Trifoiler and Windrider because they don’t have to ‘work so hard’. Could this be the reason why so few hydrofoils are on the market? Surely, the higher speeds will make up for a lot! Browsing through the IHS-pages I stumbled on the add-on-hydrofoils like the DAK-Hydrofoils. I asked myself whether maybe manufacturers of catamarans offer add-ons themselves, for the types of catamarans they sell. Can somebody help me with an answer to this question? I know some people are making great efforts to construct hydrofoils themselves (Of course for some people constructing hydrofoils may be as much fun as sailing them) but I can imagine that many more people just want to click them on their catamarans and sail away. Would there be many people who are interested in this? Now for a more technical note: Going through some patents I saw some interesting hydrofoils, mostly they are surface-piercing or otherwise surface-bound (floater to control pitch of hydrofoil). Just a few patents had manual pitch-control; for example patent US 4,027,614 by Jones Clyde. I can imagine that with manual pitch drag can be lower because for lower speeds you can choose the pitch to be zero (low drag). When a sufficiently high speed has been achieved the pitch can be altered manually, triggering the lift-working of the hydrofoil. Much better than surface-bound hydrofoils which have more trouble coming to speed before the hydrofoils work as they are meant to work! Are there some drawbacks to the use of these manually-controlled hydrofoils so that not everybody is using this system! Please help me out with any information! Thank you, Piet Kamma (edward@e-co.nl)

                                                                                        Photos, Drawings, and Basics

                                                                                        [19 Feb 99] I need pictures and drawings of water, wind, and human powered hydrofoils as I have to improve on existing designs and then make a model ( is it possible to make a functional model because I am already a model aircraft enthusiast and am very interested in hydrofoils). I would like to know about how a hydrofoil works and how the density of the water affects the size of the foils. I would like to concentrate on smaller designs of hydrofoils as my main interest is to use hydrofoils for recreation purposes. I have already found the drawings on the decavitator and have found them very interesting. — Mark Manley in Zimbabwe (jamanley@usa.net)

                                                                                        Response…

                                                                                        [19 Feb 99] Suggest you explore the IHS website thoroughly… there is quite a bit of information there. Specifically, try the photo gallery for pictures, especially the model section. Also, try the links page to other sites for models, for hydrofoils you can build yourself, and for hydrofoil tutorials. Also, IHS has a tutorial on basics. Multihull Magazine and the Amateur Yacht Racing Society (AYRS) publish technical articles on hydrofoil design, and back issues are available. IHS has a link to them. Also, the IHS site has lists of popular and technical references, books, journal and magazine articles about hydrofoils. Finally, look through the posted messages section to find people with similar interests as well as answers to frequently (and not-so-frequently) asked questions. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)


                                                                                        [6 Dec 98] I am contacting you regarding membership of your society, with a view to sourcing the latest hydrofoil technology and developments. I am currently studying for a BEng Marine Engineering at Plymouth University in the UK, and am looking for up to date hydrofoil technology information for my final year dissertation. — Jonathan Morley [jemorley@plymouth.ac.uk or r.morley@virgin.net]


                                                                                        [7 Nov 98] I’m studying a degree in product design at Swansea Institute, in the UK, and my final year project is a conceptual jetski based on the hydrofoil. Can you could send me some information on the Yamaha OU-32 hydrofoil jetski or any other info that could help me develop my project? — Eoin Richard Bailey (P27190@exchange.sihe.ac.uk)

                                                                                        Response…[24 Oct 02] Yamaha has a webpage devoted to the OU-32. It includes photos and a movie clip. Go to: http://www.yamaha-motor.co.jp/cp/challenge/expansion/ou32/ou32.html. – Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS) [Unfortunately Yamaha updated their website and in so doing deleted the OU-32 information – Webmaster, 9 Sep 03]


                                                                                        [19 Oct 98] I am a student at the National Institute of Applied Sciences in Toulouse (France) and I am finishing my studies in mechanical engineering. Presently, I lead a project based on the study of wave effects and on the dimensioning of a yacht hull structure for Guy Couach Plascoa. This interesting study leads me to seek an internship in naval design and construction. I will be able to bring you my passion for boats and my specific technical knowledge. Lastly, my working period (internship) would start on 15 June 1999 and will be 6 months long. If you are interested in my proposal, please contact me for a résumé. — Bertrand LARRIEU (blarrieu@etud.insa-tlse.fr); 116, rue Manon cormier; 33000 Bordeaux ; France; Phone: +33 (0)5 62 17 17 20 (Answer phone); Fax: +33 (0)5 61 55 97 00


                                                                                        Modeling HYDROPTÈRE

                                                                                        [15 Oct 98] Hello I’m a student in model making.I’d like to do the HYDROPTÈRE for my end of year project.That’s why I need some informations on the subject.I’ll be very happy if you could help me. I hope you will answer me. — Sébastien CLARKE (0951810b@Versailles.men.fr)

                                                                                        Response…[16 Oct 98] IHS has no information “in house” about Hydroptère. I do know of one website devoted to this sailing vessel. The URL is http://perso.wanadoo.fr/terrasse.web/. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        HYDROPTÈRE Website

                                                                                        [21 Sep 98] I send you this message to give you the address of my web-page about the HYDROPTÈRE (http://perso.wanadoo.fr/terrasse.web). It’s a famous French hydrofoil which was built by Eric Tabarly and Alain Thébault. Please send me your comments! — Gabriel Terrasse (gabriel.terrasse@wanadoo.fr)


                                                                                        [18 Aug 98] Subject: Can a student cooperate with you? Hello everybody, I am an italian student of mechanical engineering at the University of Modena. During my five years of studing I have been concentrating on structural mechanics, and in this last year I have been dealing with fluid dynamics. In particular I have been working with the software package FLUENT. For my final thesis I would be very interested in working with a project of yours. If there are projects that could be developed and carried out by a young and enthusiastic student, please just send me some more information. — Paolo Levoni (levolevo73@hotmail.com).


                                                                                        [01 Oct 98] I am doing a dissertation at Liverpool John Moore University on hydrofoils. I would be grateful for any info, contacts, or advice you may have. The following is a draft proposal for the dissertation:

                                                                                        Summary of Aims. 1. Investigate current practice in assessing strength, stability, and performance of sail powered Multi-Hulls. 2. Compare and contrast design and performance of sail powered Multi-Hulls and Monohulls. 3. Determine possible influences of recent European Community Recreational Craft Directive. Examine legislation’s assessment of requirements for different EC categories, e.g. Ocean. Offshore, Inshore. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of safety requirements which are specific to Multi-Hulls, e.g. means of escape after capsize. 4. Look at key variances, between standard and assumptions used for sail powered craft and commercial vessels. Examine the rational behind these variances. 5. Examine how European , United States and other nations standards may vary, and the implications of this. 6. Many Multi-Hulls are built by amateurs for their own use. Determine what influence legislation may have on them.

                                                                                        Summary of Proposed Work: 1. Obtain technical data and relevant information from specific craft, books and journals, ECRC Directive, Multi-Hull designers, Clubs and Societies, and Underwriters. 2. Compare and contrast data from above sources. 3. Apply this information to the six aims of the project. 4. General Conclusions. 5. Identify areas for further investigation. — Chris Edgar(ETMCEDG1@livjm.ac.uk)


                                                                                        [29 Jul 98] This is a request for help on behalf of Dimitri Lehner, who is currently writing his thesis at the University of Sports at Cologne. The subject he’s researching is “Sailing on Catamarans”, especially “Offshore sailing and Cruising on Beach Cats”. To get deeper into the matter – and to experience himself – he sailed from Scharbeutz (North of Luebeck) to Saint Petersburg in Russia in May and June this year. He converted a serial Nacra 6.0 to meet all expected circumstances, as strengthening of hulls, bulkheads, adding wings, reefs, safety and navigation aids as used in cruising. Dimitri kindly asks to get more info on:

                                                                                        • cruising and long distance sailing with beach cats
                                                                                        • beach cats used for extreme tours
                                                                                        • converting of beach cats to meet the above requirements.

                                                                                        So far he researched on the following:

                                                                                        • Crossing the U.S. North-West Passage on a Hobie 18 in 1986-88,
                                                                                        • Duncan Roos sailed to the Amazonas source (no literature found),
                                                                                        • Charity race on HC 16 from Durban to Cape Town in ’96 (no literature)
                                                                                        • Atlantic crossing of Bourgnon-Giraldi in 1986 (no literature found)
                                                                                        • Several “raids” in France and the annual “Worrell 1000” race.

                                                                                        His theory is, that cat sailing is subject to ongoing variations, as cat-safaris, club-races, freestyle sailing as the “Bacardi Blast” during the Tornado Worlds on the Bermudas, etc., similar to canoeing on rough waters, oceans, para-gliding, cross-country skiing, etc. According to Dimitri (and I second that …), there’s very little specific literature, videos and reports available on the above topics. He will receive “Multihull Magazine’s” book and video catalogue, and the list with every article published since foundation in 1975. As a journalist I am sure, more has happened than the multihull press has ever heard of – Dimitri needs that ! On behalf of Dimitri I kindly ask you to check your mind, files, archives and computer hard disks for info on his studying subject “Cruising and long-distance sailing on beach cats”. His address is: Dimitri Lehner; Gutenbergstrasse 2; 50823 Koeln, Germany; Phone and Fax +49-221-522 457. I shall be very pleased, if the worldwide multihulled community could give Dimitri a little help to reach his studies aim. No question, all your expenses will be covered. For your convenience, you may also use my email address. — Chris Plaass (plaass@foni.net) phone: +49-431-36 800


                                                                                        [12 Jun 98, updated 24 Feb 01] I am the Technology Instructor at the Topeka Education Center a school in the Topeka Public School System Unified School District (USD) – 501. The center was established to help kids at risk. In the past five years sense we opened the technology program we have done some exciting activities. Due to our limited budget, our students have donated their time and effort to build all of the cabinets and furniture in the Technology Center. Local companies have donated computers and other hardware. For the 1998 – 1999 school year we will be planning to build a hydrofoil sail boat. As you can imagine this will be a large undertaking. If you or your organization would be capable of offering technical assistance or materials it would be greatly appreciated. We have in the past taken on such projects with success; check it out at http://www.networksplus.net/elliott/jetengine. Our student population is made up of inner city youth many of which have had a brush or two with the law and many of the females are parents or are pregnant. The goal of our little school is to help these students become useful people in today’s society. Thus a lot of time is spent on teaching social skills, not only that it is important to get along with others but to be responsible for yourself. This includes holding down a job and paying taxes. Many of our students receive social assistance, and it is also our goal to help these student become self supporting. We have started a program in which students are paid by local companies to work in their businesses two or three hours a night doing a variety of jobs to gain experience. We are very proud of this program because when a student has a job that is meaningful to that student usually we see a jump in the student’s morals and quality of school work. Although many of these students are not college bound, it is important to help them be all that they are capable of being. — James Elliott ( elliott@networksplus.net), Technology Instructor, Topeka Education Center, Topeka, KS 66604; Home Page: http://199.240.184.3/elliott [Editor’s Note: unfortunately the web and email links cited here have ceased to work. There is no mention of of the Topeka Education Center on the website of the Topeka Public School System, so we have been unable to find a current status and address for Mr. Elliott or the Topeka Education Center.]


                                                                                        [21 Mar 98] I would like to build a hydrofoil for science class. My grandmother said she saw a man on TV who was showing a fairly inexpensive project that could support the weight of one person. It used a motor from a vacuum cleaner and required an electrical supply (Big Extension cord) and 2 plywood circles. She could not remember what else but I thought you might be able to help me with this info or perhaps tell me where I can find it. I don’t have a lot of money but I can pay your dues if you have this info I just don’t want to spend on something that cannot help. ( I hope you understand) — R. Fisher, 8th grade (rlfisher@kih.net)


                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] I am a French student in engineering and I am going to make studies about the fences of the foiler catamaran TECHNIQUES AVANCÉES. So it would be kind from you if you could tell me where I can look for information (websites, books, articles …) And if you need information about our catamaran, I would be pleased to give you some. — (marly@ensta.fr), website of the catamaran: http://www.ensta.fr/~dsim/.

                                                                                        Response…[20 Mar 98, updated 28 May 01] The best source of technical information on sailing foil designs is reprints of articles from the Amateur Yacht Racing Association and Multi-Hull Magazine. For a full index, go to http://www.webstrand.org/yachts/aindex/index.shtml. [Note: this index site is no longer active — anyone who knows where it went is invited to submit the new website URL… thank you! – Webmaster] You should also explore the links on the IHS website — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)


                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] I’m French and my English is poor. I’m 19 years old and I’m in a scientific university to become an engineer. To pass my exam, I need your help! With my friend, we want to do some research about hydrofoils. Please, can you give us some technical and scientific research about this. — Julien Mabille (jmabille@nordnet.fr)


                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] I was searching through the net for some info on the “Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Design of a Hydrofoil” and your page came up. I am doing an in depth discussion of the design and operation of a Hydrofoil for my aerodynamics course. I have never really looked at hydrofoils until now. They are really interesting machines. If you have any other info not posted on your site that may help me I’d really appreciate it. Keep up the good work! — Tristan Lee Andrew (tlandrew@learn.senecac.on.ca)


                                                                                        HYSWAS Roll Stability

                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] I’m a 2nd Year Naval Architecture student in UCL. I’m interested in the control systems for the HYSWAS roll stability. I would be grateful if you could send me some references that I could refer to. — Yama (c.seow@ucl.ac.uk)

                                                                                        Response…[21 Mar 98] Our specific HYSWAS control algorithms were developed under U.S. Navy funding and are not available for release. However, I can tell you the following:

                                                                                        1. Everything in the transverse direction is driven by the loads that you calculate based upon your hull geometry. For example, your strut area projected in the athwartship direction will have a large influence on the loads.
                                                                                        2. Your roll control algorithms must be fast as you want to counter the applied moment before inertial loads become a big factor.
                                                                                        3. Calculation of the roll center is critical and this should include added mass effects.

                                                                                        — Mark Rice (mapc@access.digex.net) Maritime Applied Physics Corp., 9010 Maier Road; Laurel, MD 20723


                                                                                        Supercavitating Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [2 Dec 97] I am a Ph.D. Student at the University of Stellenbosch.  I am looking for information on super cavitating hydrofoils (base ventilated and fully cavitating) for possible application to hydrofoil supported catamarans.  Could you provide me with references if you know of some?   — Günther Migeotte (gunther@cae.co.za)

                                                                                        [2 Dec 97] We do not have a handy long list of the many papers written on this subject, but a good place to start is the IHS References Page. Reference no. 62 refers you to Young Shen (shen@oasys.dt.navy.mil). He is an expert in this field and can lead you to a lot more material. He is at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock. Perhaps you could contact him and give him more specifics regarding your particular project. — John Meyer (jmeyer@erols.com)

                                                                                        [8 Feb 98] Re: super-cavitating hydrofoils. The best effort in this field in my opinion was undertaken at Grumman when we designed transiting foils for testing on FRESH 1. The big problem was to make a smooth transition from sub-cavitation to super. We thought we had a solution but it was never really tested. Our lead hydrodynamist was Ray Wright. He is now retired and living up in Georgia. If you like we could probably contact him and see what he remembers about this effort. — Bob Johnston


                                                                                        Developing a Regional Ferry Transportation Management Plan

                                                                                        [14 Oct 97] I am a student in an English university, and my Strategic Management Project is about passenger hydrofoils; I would like info about the advantages and disadvantages compared to other means of transport, analysis, specific magazines about hydrofoils, and how I can join IHS. — Mike Koronaios (kg758027@stmail.staffs.ac.uk)

                                                                                        [18 Oct 97] 1. Fast Ferry International in England is the premier source of information about fast ferries. You may be able to find the FFI magazine in a library such as at a university with marine-related programs. FFI’s email address is info@fastferry.co.uk. Their phone is +44 1580 766960. Their mailing address is FFI, Milrose House, Sayers Lane; Tenterden, Kent TN36BW; UK. The URL of their web site is http://www.fastferryinfo.com. 2. Marine Log’s magazine is another source, and recently they have had better coverage of hydrofoils than FFI. Their web page location is http://www.marinelog.com. 3. To find out how to become an IHS member, go to //archive.foils.org/member.htm. 4. For an example of a study, take a look at the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Report “Regional Ferry Plan For the San Francisco Bay Area.” This is available on the world wide web at URL: http://www.fta.dot.gov/library/planning/RF/RF.html. The study will not apply to you specifically, but you can see what the questions and trade-offs are. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)


                                                                                        [20 Mar 98] I am going to America soon, maybe in July. I am admitted to Ph.D. program by University of Michigan Ann Arbor (Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering), California Institute of Technology (Mechanical Engineering), UC San Diego (Oceanography), Johns Hopkins University (Mechanical Engineering) and some others. Caltech is the most famous, but University of Michigan is very attracive too. Do you know what is the situation in shipbuilding industry in the USA? Could I find a job having a Ph.D. degree from University of Michigan? — Konstantin Matveev [15 Aug 99 UDATE: Konstantin Matveev has arrived in the USA and is attending California Institute of Technology (CALTECH).] email: (matveev@cco.caltech.edu) (website: www.hydrofoils.org).

                                                                                        [updated 16 Mar 98; originally 2 Sep 97] I have decided to receive Ph.D. degree at American university. Earlier I planned to make a career in Russia. 70% of hydrofoils were produced in USSR and here were many opportunities for work. But now situation has changed and there is practically no production of hydrofoils due to lack of finance. In August activity of High-Speed Ships Bureau (with which I worked) stopped. Prospective projects exist, but they will not be accomplished. To continue working in the sphere of hydrofoils I will apply to some American university. Maybe you have connections with professors. I would be very grateful if you advise me several professors and universities where are programs on high-speed ships. Now most Russian designers and managers of high-speed ships believe that the USA will become the world leader in this sphere in the nearest future. I agree with them. There is money in development of high speed ships, and there are geographic features (Great Lakes, Caribbean Islands, sea coastline) which enable to hydrofoil to be the fastest and cheapest kind of transport in some areas. — Konstantin Matveev, Moscow, Russia [15 Aug 99 UDATE: Konstantin Matveev has arrived in the USA and is attending California Institute of Technology (CALTECH).] email: matveev@cco.caltech.edu (website: www.hydrofoils.org)

                                                                                        [3 Sep 97] There is some limited high speed ship research in the US at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department XIII (Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture at the graduate level and Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT) in Hoboken, New Jersey has a history of supporting high speed planing hull research. Currently, the center of high speed craft (wave piercing catamaran) development for commercial ferries is in Australia. The University of New South Wales has had some research efforts; I’m not sure of the details. I’m including Dr. Colen Kennell, of U. S. Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division (the ‘model basin’) on copy of this message. He may be able to add some additional information and send it to you. Best of luck in your academic pursuits! — Mark R. Bebar, Director, Surface Ship Concepts Division, Naval Sea Systems Command (Code 03D1) (Bebar_Mark@hq.navsea.navy.mil).


                                                                                        [24 Aug 97] I am a naval architecture student at the Technical University of Berlin, Germany. At the moment I am working with an engineer in Australia, far away from all my smart books. We have a problem designing a hydrofoil assisted catamaran ferry. We would be interested to gain wisdom on standard profiles selected, design procedures, and cavitation and performance prediction. It would be very helpful, if you could name some websites or other sources dealing with these problems. — Sebastian Bade (bade@cadlab.tu-berlin.de).


                                                                                        [5 Nov 97] I ‘m looking for all informations about hydrofoils. I’m a French student leading a project about the “Hydroptère.” The title of the project is “The Hydroptère, Hydrodynamics of Foils.” Because this project has to be done in a scientific way, my task is to do some calculus with these foils. So please help me in finding this information (I can’t locate it anywhere!) — Sebastien Thellier (sebastien.thellier@hol.fr)

                                                                                        [5 Nov 97] According to veteran IHS member Sumi Arima (arimas1@juno.com): In answer to your question on text books, there is no one good book on foils. Most of the hydro types use Horner’s books Fluid Dynamic Lift and Fluid Dynamic Drag. When we bought a set, the only source was from Horner’s widow. College libraries generally have it, but local libraries do not.” There is also Principles of Naval Architecture, which is a two volume set published by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME). IHS maintains a list of hydrofoil-related articles and papers, but most are hard to find. Another suggestion, the Amateur Yacht Research Society publishes quite a few technical papers, and there is an index of titles on their site… you may see something that addresses your specific need and can contact them for a back issue of the journal containing articles in which you have interest. You should also explore the extensive technical links at the Links for Yacht Designers web site. Finally, if you have specific questions, I can try to forward them to technically oriented members that can discuss them with you. Also I can post questions on the IHS website and solicit responses from all who visit the site. — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                         


                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society

                                                                                        PO BOX 51 – CABIN JOHN MD 20818 – USA

                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org

                                                                                        <Back to Top of Page > <Return To IHS Front Page> <Return to Posted Messages Bulletin Board>

                                                                                        HELP!!! Report Broken Links and Bad E-Mail Addresses to webmaster@foils.org!


                                                                                         



                                                                                        This board has been viewed 21683 times since Apr-20-2002 .
                                                                                        (Total Views Since Board Creation on Mar-21-2002 is 22417.)


                                                                                        Questions about this board, email: bbs@foils.org
                                                                                        System Support, Email: support@bulletinboards.com

                                                                                        To Learn About Bulletin Boards:  Click Here
                                                                                        Bulletin Board Management Site: Click Here

                                                                                        (321) 984-9080
                                                                                        © 1997 – 2004 P.A. Corp. V7.1

                                                                                        Wind Powered

                                                                                        Wind Powered

                                                                                         


                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                        The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Message: Chats, Info Sharing, Networking


                                                                                        The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Correspondence Archives

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Updated last August 20, 2006

                                                                                        Hydrofoils: Sailboats
                                                                                         

                                                                                        Hydrofoils: Sailboats      Top

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Archived Messages

                                                                                        Count,MessageID,category,ShortTitle,Message,Date,UserName,MsgPswd,Phone,Email,ParentMsgId

                                                                                        “1”,”946256″,”9″,”Re; Foilboard Video||946256″,”OK, all you technical types out there – take a look at this video and then try to explain how it’s balanced about each axis! http://www.neilprydemaui.com/img/item/foilboards/windsurf/rush_foil_%20windsurf.mov

                                                                                        Furthermore, if the foiler had been more balanced, he could have focused on speed and the non-foiler might not have overtaken him at the end of the video.

                                                                                        I’m guessing the Miller foil sailboard ( //archive.foils.org/miller.htm ) has better pitching stability.”,”2005-12-12″,”Mac Stevens”,”nopswd”,” “,”stevensm@earthlink.net”,”945786″

                                                                                        “2”,”946245″,”9″,”Re; Foilboard Video||946245″,”OK, all you technical types out there – take a look at this video and then try to explain how it’s balanced about each axis! http://www.neilprydemaui.com/img/item/foilboards/windsurf/rush_foil_%20windsurf.mov Ok, I’ll try:

                                                                                        I challenge your premise that it is balanced about each axis. The board appeared quite unbalanced.

                                                                                        I think it is balanced the same way a unicycle or an ordinary sailboard is balanced, i.e., the operator’s control of weight and other forces.

                                                                                        The rear hydrofoil probably adds some pitching stability.”,”2005-12-12″,”Mac Stevens”,”nopswd”,” “,”stevensm@earthlink.net”,”945786″

                                                                                        “3”,”946241″,”9″,”Re; Foilboard Video||946241″,”OK, all you technical types out there – take a look at this video and then try to explain how it’s balanced about each axis! http://www.neilprydemaui.com/img/item/foilboards/windsurf/rush_foil_%20windsurf.mov Ok, I’ll try:

                                                                                        I challenge your premise that it is balanced about each axis. The board appeared quite unbalanced.

                                                                                        I think it is balanced the same way a unicycle or an ordinary sailboard is balanced, i.e., the operator’s control of weight and other forces.

                                                                                        The rear hydrofoil probably adds some pitching stability.”,”2005-12-12″,”Mac Stevens”,”nopswd”,” “,”stevensm@earthlink.net”,”945786″

                                                                                        “4”,”945786″,”9″,”Foilboard Video||945786″,”OK, all you technical types out there – take a look at this video and then try to explain how it’s balanced about each axis!

                                                                                        http://www.neilprydemaui.com/img/item/foilboards/windsurf/rush_foil_%20windsurf.mov”,”2005-12-10″,”Tom Speer”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”9”

                                                                                        “5”,”873505″,”9″,”Re; Hydrofoil Voyager David Keiper Book||873505″,”I have just listed a copy of David A. Keiper’s book Hydrofoil Voyager on eBay. The item number to search for is 4567171188. This is a 10-day listing. This item is out of print and scarce. The book is (mostly) about design, construction, and sailing in the Pacific in the first hydrofoil sailing yacht WILLIWAW. See the listing for more details. There is a review of this book at: //archive.foils.org/williwaw.pdf. There is info about Dave Keiper at: //archive.foils.org/dak.htm. There is a short video clip of WILLIWAW in action at www.exigent.info/willi.mpg (this is an 11 meg file, so don’t dare go there if you have a slow internet connection!) Questions about this book may be submitted via the listing on the eBay website.
                                                                                        “,”2005-08-08″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,”bblack11@cox.net”,”9″

                                                                                        “6”,”862912″,”9″,”Hydrofoil Voyager David Keiper Book||862912″,”I have just listed a copy of David A. Keiper’s book Hydrofoil Voyager on eBay. The item number to search for is 4563256226. This is a 10-day listing. This item is out of print and scarce. The book is (mostly) about design, construction, and sailing in the Pacific in the first hydrofoil sailing yacht WILLIWAW. See the listing for more details. There is a short video clip of WILLIWAW in action at www.exigent.info/willi.mpg (this is an 11 meg file, so don’t dare go there if you have a slow internet connection!)”,”2005-07-18″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “7”,”851283″,”9″,”Re; Re; Surface piercing hydrofo||851283″,”Jake,

                                                                                        The foiler moths that I have seen don’t have fences fitted and seem to be able to get away without them. In the first instance, in your position, I wouldn’t bother to fit fences and just test the board to see how it goes. After experimenting, if you have the feeling that air is being drawn down on the low pressure face, then you can always retrofit a fence or two later. Any fence will normally add drag, and that is the last thing you need if you are trying to speed sail. “,”2005-06-26″,”Martin Grimm”,”nopswd”,” “,”seaflite@alphalink.com.au”,”0″

                                                                                        “8”,”830684″,”9″,”Rave Hydrofoil for Sale||830684″,”WindRider RAVE Hydrofoil Trimaran Sailboat, 1999, Main and Jib, yellow hulls, custom galvanized trailer. Dealer display boat. $4000

                                                                                        Bob Rundus Sailboats
                                                                                        36 East Green Street
                                                                                        Champaign, IL 61820
                                                                                        Phone 217-359-3000
                                                                                        “,”2005-05-18″,”Robert Rundus”,”nopswd”,” “,”brundus@insightbb.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “9”,”821336″,”9″,”Re; Re; Surface piercing hydrofo||821336″,”Thanks Tom,
                                                                                        I have just re-read my posting and I have been somewhat confusing. I am not looking at bi-directional foils. I am wishing to build a pair of asymetric windsurfer fins suitable for surface piercing usage, as the fin will be fitted behind or to the side of the board, not sticking out of the bottom of it, and may be canted to provide some lift. As I have fitted the device to a speed board and intend to take it to Weymouth speed week this year, low drag and no ventillation at high speeds are important factors. I have also conceived a system that enables the two separate fins, one port , one starboard profiled to be swapped while sailing. I just need to get the test rig working on one tack so that the optimum fin position, cant, rake, attack angle etc. can be discovered.
                                                                                        Could I just use one of the profiles you recommend for foiler moth lift foils and fit a couple of fences?
                                                                                        Rich Miller, by using a long symetrical root foil with fence, ended up with his asymetric foils submerged all the time, so the demands on his foils were slightly different to mine. “,”2005-04-30″,”Jake Frith”,”nopswd”,” “,”jakefr@southamptonrowing.org”,”0″

                                                                                        “10”,”821326″,”9″,”Re; Re; Surface piercing hydrofoil||821326″,”I don’t think ogival sections are a great idea. The sharp leading edge leads to separation unless the angle of attack is in a narrow range of ideal angles of attack. When separation occurs, you have all the ideal conditions for ventilation. So everything can be fine, and then suddenly change dramatically with just a small difference in loading.

                                                                                        It’s possible to design bi-directional sections that have rounded edges instead of sharp ones. With attached flow at the leading edge, you can maintain a good run of laminar flow, while still controlling the location and extent of the laminar separation bubble. And separation begins at the trailing edge, where it can progress smoothly and predictably as you load the foil.

                                                                                        For an example of such bi-directional sections, see http://www.basiliscus.com/ProaSections/Paper/ProaSections.htm. These are predicted to have comparable performance to conventional NACA sections, but no experimental data are available to confirm this yet.”,”2005-04-30″,”Tom Speer”,”nopswd”,” “,”me@tspeer.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “11”,”819881″,”9″,”Corection to address||819881″,”Hi Jake,

                                                                                        Here’s a quick correction to the web site given previously. It is: boatdesign.net and the tread you are looking for is “foiler design”. You will probably be required to register, but you should find the site to be useful.

                                                                                        If you reply and need a response, use this temporary address: rvell7829@yahoo.com. “,”2005-04-28″,”Ray Vellinga”,”nopswd”,” “,”rvell@san.rr.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “12”,”819877″,”9″,”Re; Surface piercing hydrofoil||819877″,”Jake,

                                                                                        If you are not already reading boatdesign.com, you should try it. There you will find a running dialog about designing hydrofoil sailing moths.

                                                                                        If you design a sailing board that reverses direction, look at the Ogival sections. They are symetrical fore and aft, ie, they have sharp leading edges coming and going. They are a segment of a circle on top with a flat underside.

                                                                                        Hope this helps.

                                                                                        Ray Vellinga”,”2005-04-28″,”Ray Vellinga”,”nopswd”,” “,”rvell@san.rr.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “13”,”819373″,”9″,”Re; Surface piercing hydrofoil||819373″,”You raise quite a few thought provoking questions in your posting. Hopefully one of the design-oriented people in IHS will answer you. Meanwhile you might want to take a look at Rich Miller’s successful design, if you have not already seen it. Check these two pages:
                                                                                        //archive.foils.org/miller.htm
                                                                                        http://www.exigent.info/miller.pdf

                                                                                        I doubt that Rich follows the IHS BBS, so if you want to talk to him, you could certainly give him a call or send him an email. The last contact info I have for him is: Rich Miller (rich@ski.org); 640 Colusa Avenue; Berkeley CA 94707 USA; phone: 510-525-8006. I am not sure if all that is still good.”,”2005-04-27″,”Barney C Black”,”nopswd”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “14”,”819015″,”9″,”Surface piercing hydrofoil||819015″,”I would be enormously grateful for any advice IHS membes can give on the following:
                                                                                        I am nearing completion of a sailboard based test rig which I intend to use to attempt to achieve a semi hydrofoiling single tack sailboard. In short, the system uses a conventional board, truncated aft of the back strap with finbox removed and filled in flat. There is a mechanism that allows the fin to be adjusted in pitch, cant, angle of attack, depth, and -within the constraints of the position of the board and the sailor’s back foot- position. (In other words infinitely adjustable)
                                                                                        I propose to carry out the following test schedule:

                                                                                        1) Fix a conventional symetrical fin centrally as far forward as the back of the board will allow, ie., so it is in the same position as it would have been slid right to the back of the finbox, except it will no longer have the endplate effect of the board. The task here will be just to get the thing sailing. First barage of questions… Will a conventional fin just spin out due to the loss of the endplate effect allowing air to be sucked down? If I wish to fit fences to the fin, how big should they be, should they entirely surround the chord or just be around the leading edge? Should the fences be angled up or down, if so by how much? When I travel at high speed in choppy water on a standard board and the tail of the board frequently leaves the water I don’t immeadiately spin out, so would I even need to modify the fin at all?

                                                                                        Part ii)Fit asymetric foil/s (single tack use obviously) so that the fin will attempt to provide lift, rather than just lateral resistance, and start playing with angles of attack and canting the fin (tip to windward) to provide a more accurate counter to the forces from the sailor’s feet and the mastfoot. I have been looking at the horizontal lift foils that Moths are using, but am not sure if they will work in the context of surface pircing and at the higher speeds. (anything over 50 knots will do:) Once again, will it need fences?
                                                                                        Essentially my problem is that I have spent far too much time actually windsurfing etc. to learn how to design my own bespoke range of foils for this craft. I am capable however of drawing a series of chords from foil coordinates and building a simple foil.
                                                                                        Does anybody have a good idea what foil already designed (and at what scale of chord) might work for these purposes (both the symetrical and asymetrical), and where I might find the coordinates. For ease of fabrication I would like to try a straight untapered foil, perhaps just with a bit of finishing at the business ends that could also be end for ended for the different tacks on the asymetric foil.
                                                                                        Any other comments on whether this has been done before etc. most welcome.
                                                                                        Final inventor’s rant… I believe that the recent regaining of the outright speed sailing record has largely been due to Finian Maynard’s adoption of a single sided rig. After all Yellow Pages’ foils only allowed it to sail on one tack. Why, when water is some 800 times denser than air and fairly primitively rigged ice yachts have bettered 100mph, is the windsurfing world wasting time developing rigs while still sailing on fins that are hugely compromised by having to work on both tacks?
                                                                                        Secondly, Think why a windsurfer has a fin mounted in the middle sticking out of the bottom of the board at the back. I think it might be lazy thinking – the evolution from surfboards which do not have to cater for the same loads, and ease of manufacture. There are two seperate forces delivered by a windsurfer: planing lift of the board and lateral lift of the fin. by sticking the fin out of the board, surely you are introducung all sorts of strange immeasureable vortices at its base. The stuff I am doing at the moment is attempting to divorce as much as possible the two different goals of board and fin. It may of course not work…
                                                                                        Any ideas, help gratefully received here or on jakefr@southamptonrowing.org”,”2005-04-26″,”Jake Frith”,”nopswd”,” “,”jakefr@southamptonrowing.org”,”0″

                                                                                        “15”,”817494″,”9″,”New Book on Hydrofoil Sailboat MONITOR||817494″,”The auction is now closed. However, the book can still be purchased direct from the author. The closed eBay listing can be viewed for 90 days to get details about the book and some copies of the illustrations. Just used the advanced search function on the ebay site to search for the item number among the completed auctions.”,”2005-04-23″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “16”,”814200″,”9″,”New Book on Hydrofoil Sailboat MONITOR||814200″,”There is a new book for sale on eBay about the hydrofoil sailboat MONITOR developed in the mid-1950s by Baker Manufacturing Co with US Navy backing. Go to www.ebay.com and search for item # 4542861342. The listing expires in five days.

                                                                                        The 61 page soft cover book includes 19 drawings and sketches of various elements of the MONITOR design covering the foils, hull, sail and control arrangements. Also contained in the book are 25 photos of MONITOR and other Baker hydrofoil craft. The back cover features a screen shot from a simulation by Hanno Smits. This book is undoubtedly the most definitive single source of information describing the MONITOR design.

                                                                                        MONITOR Principal Characteristics:

                                                                                        Sail area: 230 square feet
                                                                                        Length of hull: 26 feet
                                                                                        Overall width: 21 feet
                                                                                        Weight 1014 lbs plus operator(s)
                                                                                        Wind velocity required to fly: approx 13 knots
                                                                                        Automatic trim regulation with varying thrust
                                                                                        Steering by rotation of rear foil
                                                                                        Foil incidence angles adjustable in flight
                                                                                        Rolling moment partially compensated by differential adjustment of foil angles

                                                                                        This book will be of interest to designers and engineers who want to know the details of MONITOR’s design and construction. It is also of interest to hydrofoil historians and model makers. People intrigued by David Keiper’s hydrofoil yacht WILLIWAW and hydrofoil sailboat STORMY PETREL may also be interested in this book about an earlier sailing hydrofoil craft.

                                                                                        “,”2005-04-16″,”Barney C Black”,”poopdeck”,” “,” “,”0”

                                                                                        “17”,”789894″,”9″,”Telestar foil conversion||789894″,”Michael

                                                                                        Go to our primary web site at

                                                                                        HOME

                                                                                        Then go to our Pico search at the bottom of the page and enter

                                                                                        Sailing Foils or ladder foils

                                                                                        You will find tons of information addressing your conversion.

                                                                                        It has been a long time since I saw a working Telestar. Good Luck

                                                                                        Bill White
                                                                                        Web master”,”2005-03-02″,”William White”,”nopswd”,” “,”whitewn@speakeasy.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “18”,”782452″,”9″,”Telstar 28||782452″,”Intersted in building a ledder hydrofoil on my Telstar 28 (simmiler to dak hydrofoil).
                                                                                        looking for information/blueprints/etc that can help me with this.
                                                                                        Thanks,
                                                                                        Michael
                                                                                        “,”2005-02-16″,”Micael”,”nopswd”,” “,”mizkoviz@yahoo.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “19”,”764795″,”9″,”Re: Bruce’s Foil||764795″,”The best information is by Edmond Bruce himself – “Design for Fast Sailing,” The Amateur Yacht Research Society, 1976. I think there’s also some information on Bruce foils in the AYRS book, “Sailing Hydrofoils.”

                                                                                        (Some background: the Bruce foil is like a daggerboard or centerboard placed on an outrigger instead of on the centerline of the boat. The foil is canted to provide a stabilizing vertical force as well as a horizontal force to counter the side force from the rig. This greatly reduces the heeling of the boat, using the hydrodynamic moment from the foil for lateral stability instead of the hydrostatic moments from hull form stability or keel ballast.)

                                                                                        Bruce typically canted the foils at 45 degrees from the vertical (tip inward). The outrigger beams were sized such that the center of laeral resistance of the foils was located the same distance from the centerline as the height of the center of effort of the sail rig. Both low aspect ratio foils and moderate aspect ratio foils were used. His small scale tank tests showed an aspect ratio of 1 gave him the best performance, although he only tested aspect ratios of 3 or less and at low Reynolds numbers. I believe in later publications he used a planform with a circular arc (ogival) leading edge and straight trailing edge.

                                                                                        In his moderate aspect ratio sailing experiments, he mounted the foil on a small outrigger float with a pivot so that it could be raked aft like a centerboard when the foil was to windward. One needs to have the center of lateral resistance aft with the foil to windward and forward with the foil to leeward to get the same directional balance as a centerboard, because the force from the sail is inclined forward.

                                                                                        As for sizing the foil, I’d be inclined to use 40% more area than you’d use for a conventional foil. I’d also go with a high aspect foil rather than the low aspect ratio that proved best in his tow tank tests. Naturally, a symmetrical section is required because the foil has to operate on both tacks.”,”2005-01-15″,”Tom Speer”,”nopswd”,” “,”me@tspeer.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “20”,”762800″,”9″,”Bruce’s Foil||762800″,”Can anyone supply design criteria for an Edmond Bruce foil?”,”2005-01-12″,”B.Rowe”,”nopswd”,” “,”krowe@hit.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “21”,”738445″,”9″,””Monitor Hydrofoil Sailboat“||738445”,”The book “Monitor Hydrofoil Sailboat Design in Review” is now available. The cost is $25.00 plus $5.00 S&H in the US. S&H for Europe is $10.00 USD and for Australia is $12.00 USD. Please include mailing address.
                                                                                        Orders are to be made thru: Neil C. Lien
                                                                                        424 Meadow Lane
                                                                                        Evansville, WI 53536
                                                                                        “e”mail address: nlien@inwave1.com
                                                                                        phone 608-882-5551″,”2004-11-15″,”Neil C. Lien”,”nopswd”,” “,”nlien@inwave1.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “22”,”732074″,”9″,”Trimaran stability||732074″,”I have a Sea Pearl trimaran and am looking for ways to reduce weight. The boat is 21′ with a beam of 14′. The center hull is 5’6″. Would it be feasible to replace the amas with foils to provide lift? They would either skim the surface or be out of the water in light air, but would gradually submerge as the wind picked up, eventually balancing the design force from the sails. The center hull will provide adequate form stability at rest. Thank you.”,”2004-11-02″,”Bruce Rowe”,”nopswd”,” “,”krowe@hit.net”,”0″

                                                                                        “23”,”722690″,”9″,”Re: hydro foils for kiteboard||722690″,”Hi Rich,

                                                                                        I am French so excuse me if my English is poor.

                                                                                        Congratulations for your kitesurf performance. I am not sure that the solution to go faster is an hydrofoils system.
                                                                                        The limit speed could be caused by the very strong drift force due to the kite.
                                                                                        If you want to experiment hydrofoils, you have to study very seriously these systems ( I think there is not a good “ready to use” system which can be fitted on a kitesurf )

                                                                                        You can use composite material (fibreglass, carbon fibre, epoxies resin) to make hydrofoils (not only metal). You can buy, for example, long sailboard fins (about 50 cm) to begin tests (symmetrical profiles, but it can be used)

                                                                                        Good luck and contact me if you want more information.

                                                                                        Gerard Delerm

                                                                                        http://gerard.delerm.free.fr
                                                                                        “,”2004-10-13″,”Gerard Delerm”,”nopswd”,” “,”gerard.delerm@free.fr”,”0″

                                                                                        “24”,”721718″,”9″,”hydro foils for kiteboard||721718″,”I have recently competed in Weymouth speed week on a kitesurf kite and standard board and have posted a speed of 30.97 knots.
                                                                                        I wish to increase the speed and the only thing I believe is stopping me is the boards resistance. I wish to try out hydrfoils on my board that will lift the board approx 5-10 cm off the surface of the water. I have thoght about using hydrfoils off model boats.
                                                                                        The hydrofoils will have to be made of metal I think. Has anyone got any suggestions of where I could get such things from or made?
                                                                                        The board I am using is 130cm long and 37cm wide.
                                                                                        I look forward to your suggestions
                                                                                        Richard Gowers
                                                                                        Uk”,”2004-10-11″,”Rich Gowers”,”nopswd”,” “,”info@surf-skate-ride.co.uk”,”0″

                                                                                        “25”,”715101″,”9″,”T Foils||715101″,”Please send me a sample 2004 newsletter and information about joining your org. I am a small sailboat builder in the USA and I want to learn about T-foils for daggerboards and rudders. To date I know almost nothing, could you recommend a book or books that could teach me about foils. I build a moth boat and the Europe Dinghy (which is a moth boat but has a more advanced sail) Anything you can do to help me get started will be greatly appreciated.
                                                                                        Thank You,
                                                                                        Charles Graves
                                                                                        Graves Little Boatyard
                                                                                        1675 Riahardson Road
                                                                                        Merritt Island, Florida
                                                                                        USA 32952
                                                                                        www.graveslittleboatyard.com”,”2004-09-27″,”Chas @ Graves Little Boatyard”,”nopswd”,” “,”ChasMo77@aol.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “26”,”699955″,”9″,”catlift foils||699955″,”I don’t know about the catlift foils. I do have some of the Dak foil sections, if you need to see a section profile. Sorry, no plans or complete kits, although they do turn up rarely the internet.”,”2004-08-26″,”Scott Smith”,”nopswd”,” “,”ssmith@syntheon.com”,”0″

                                                                                        “27”,”692423″,”9″,”Re; Catlift information?||692423″,”Gordon,
                                                                                        I can’t say I have heard about the “Catlift” foils but certainly many years ago David A. Keiper (DAK Hydrofoils) developed a “Dak-foil” conversion kit for Hobie 16 catamarans. A photo of a Hobie fitted with such foils appears in the 1978 issue of Jane’s Surface Skimmers. You can find other information related to David’s work on our website. Unfortunately, he passed away a number of years ago.”,”2004-08-10″,”Martin Grimm”,”nopswd”,” “,”seaflite@alphalink.com.au”,”0″

                                                                                        “28”,”692419″,”9″,”,Re; Catlift information?||692419″,”Gordon”,”2004-08-10″,”Martin Grimm”,”nopswd”,” “,”seaflite@alphalink.com.au”,”0″

                                                                                        “29”,”685487″,”9″,”Catlift information?||685487″,”Hi,

                                                                                        Does anyone have any information on a device called a Catlift. It can supposedly be attached to a Hobie Cat or Top Cat and lift if up using a small hydrofoil.

                                                                                        Any information you may be able to provide would be appreciated.

                                                                                        Thank you,

                                                                                        Gordon Swift

                                                                                        Gordon@softwarecharts.com”,”2004-07-27″,”Gordon Swift”,”nopswd”,” “,”Gordon@softwarecharts.com”,”0″

                                                                                         

                                                                                        Forum Header data(Only needed if restoring to a BulletinBoards.com message board)

                                                                                         



                                                                                        This board has been viewed 21682 times since Apr-20-2002 .
                                                                                        (Total Views Since Board Creation on Mar-21-2002 is 22416.)


                                                                                        Questions about this board, email: bbs@foils.org
                                                                                        System Support, Email: support@bulletinboards.com

                                                                                        To Learn About Bulletin Boards:  Click Here
                                                                                        Bulletin Board Management Site: Click Here

                                                                                        (321) 984-9080
                                                                                        © 1997 – 2004 P.A. Corp. V7.1

                                                                                        PRIOR TO 2002:

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society Correspondence Archives…

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Sailboards, Windsurfers, Surfboards
                                                                                        Descriptions, Advice, Sources of Information, and Requests For HelpGo to Posted Messages Bulletin Board (BBS)
                                                                                        See also: The Miller Hydrofoil and <new!> Rich Miller’s 28-page Illustrated Technical Paper on his Hydrofoil Sailboard <new!>

                                                                                        (Last Update 8 Jun 03)

                                                                                         


                                                                                        Correspondence

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Surfboard Source

                                                                                        [27 Apr 02] Please forward all inquiries for hydrofoil surfing to www.hydrofoilsurfing.com — Daniel Elias (xmandan@extractorsled.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Windsurfer “Parabolic Design”

                                                                                        [16 Dec 01] I am designing a hydrofoil windsurfer. Your site has been most informative and inspirational. I’ve been in contact with Rich Miller and Gerard Delerm, two of your foiling windsurfing enthusiasts. They’ve been excellent sources of info. My project is finally moving forward. I’ve been trying to design a prototype of a “parabolic wing hydrofoil”. I saw one once in an Industrial Design Magazine six years ago, I liked the idea but have been unsuccessful in locating the necessary technical information to actually create one from scratch. As you’ll see, “Parabolic Hydrofoil” does not a good key-word search make. By Parabolic, I mean as if we took a straight wing form, held it at both ends and bent or bowed it downward into the water. I may be calling the curved wing by the wrong name etc. If you know what I mean and have any leads please contact me. — Eric Dixon, Designer/Builder/Inventor (wetpaintinc@earthlink.net)

                                                                                        Responses…[16 Dec 01] At one time about 25 years ago, I sat through a presentation by a fellow in Seattle who built a tow model of a four-legged hydrofoil using parabolic disks as foils. Since he towed the model with his pleasure craft, I cannot attest to his success since almost anything that is towed can create enough lift to skim on top of the water. I don’t have any more details or who may be of help in tracing down this individual. — Sumiyasu Arima (arimas1@juno.com)

                                                                                        [16 Dec 01] I am not familiar with the term parabolic when applied to a hydrofoil. From your description as to what you mean by “parabloc”, it looks like “negative” dihedral. Or am I misinterpreting your statement? I wouldn’t advise using negative dihedral. Although it was used on the tips of the aft foil of PHM (but the center section, which was much larger, had positive dihedral). If anything, you want positive dihedral as a stabilizing effect. Not many airplanes flying around with negative dihedral. Note that there is a hydrofoil document by Gibbs and Cox (although very old) on the AMV CD ROM that has a discussion of effects of dihedral and will tell what you want to know. — John Meyer (president@foils.org)

                                                                                        [16 Dec 01] My only comment is that the reason PHM had negative dihedral (anhedral?) on the outboard sections of the aft foil is that the ship had a very high turning rate (degrees/second) when foilborne at design speed and, as a result, in fully coordinated turns, the roll angle of the ship was very large (on the order of 20 degrees as I recall. The negative dihedral was needed to keep the outboard tips of the foil submerged in turns. It also contributed to increased roll control authority at oblique headings in waves. Bill O’Neill could expound on this further, I’m sure. If Eric isn’t looking for such high performance, then positive dihedral is the way to go. — Bebar Mark R NSSC (bebar@foils.org)

                                                                                        [16 Dec 01] I’m not certain that we’re discussing the same concept. If you could go to the Hydrofoil Society’s web site and look in the photo gallery under “what’s next?”, find Luigi Colani’s site. There is a concept model from 1973. It looks like a fish with a push prop. and it has an “external observation/control cabin. This model has two foils each with curving profiles. Another image from the photo gallery shows the ship “Katran-1” from the Volga shipyard, this working vessel has curved foils as well. This is the concept I wish to employ. Where do I find technical info on these types of foils? — Eric Dixon, Designer/Builder/Inventor (wetpaintinc@earthlink.net)

                                                                                        [16 Dec 01] I checked the material you referred to, so now I understand the foil configuration you have been talking about. Such a foil has been referred to as a “Hoop Foil” and was first used by Prof. Oscar Tietjens in 1931. I described this briefly in a draft of a book (Ships That Fly) I put together some years ago. I am attaching the brief discussion here as an Adobe Acrobat file. As to analysis of such a foil, my guess is that you could approximate it as a V-foil with an appropriate dihedral angle and end plates, and go from there. Tom Speer may have looked at this, so I am cc’ing him on this in case he can help. — John Meyer (president@foils.org)

                                                                                        [16 Dec 01] I’ve not looked at hoop foils. I agree that they would be somewhat similar to V-foils. My guess is the flatter center section would have less wetted area than the V-foil but possibly more induced drag due to its closer proximity to the surface. Perhaps this is what he had in mind: http://www.geocities.com/aerohydro/Seafliertext.htm — Tom Speer, F-24 Ama Deus, website: www.tspeer.com; email: (me@tspeer.com)

                                                                                        [3 Feb 02] I partly fabricated such parabolic / hoop foils for my own windsurfer once but never finished that project, and earlier last year my windsurfer broke in half so now there is even less reason to finish those hoop foils off. I may reply at some time with more details and photos of my attempt. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Surfboard Hydrofoils

                                                                                        [29 Sep 01] Hello, can you please assist me with information about Laird Hamilton and hydrofoils on surfboards? — Graham East (soupbonesurfer@xtra.co.nz)

                                                                                        Response…[11 Nov 01] A little late but the following url www.tim-mckenna.com/ has a photo of Laird Hamilton on a hydrofoil surfboard. That sums up my knowledge — Bill White (linksout@foils.org)

                                                                                        [27 Apr 02] See this website: www.hydrofoilsurfing.com — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                        Planing Sailboard

                                                                                        [10 Aug 01] I am from the University of Natal and need assistance on the theory of planing. I am doing a dissertation on the hydrodynamics of planing sailboards. If you have any information on this it would be greatly appreciated. Would a copy of the 1994 Shanghai Conference proceedings be of any use? — Gordon Cook (981189683@stu.und.ac.za)

                                                                                        Responses…[10 Aug 01] Try the following two websites:

                                                                                        Tom Speer (tspeer@tspeer.com) website: www.tspeer.com

                                                                                        [13 Aug 01] Planing theory has been covered in depth by many papers authored by Dan Savitsky at Stevens Institute. “High Speed Small Craft” by Peter Du Cane (Temple Press, London – 1964) is a good reference. The Heller-Jasper paper on this subject is a classic (SNAME, late 50s I believe). Joe Koelbel has also published some good basic small planing craft design guidance – in papers and magazine articles. — Ken Spaulding (secretary@foils.org)

                                                                                        Speed Record

                                                                                        [4 Jan 01] According to the 2000 Guinness Book of World Records, prior to the Yellow Pages ENDEAVOUR gaining the sailing speed record, it was held by a windsurfer. Thierry Bielak of France rode his windsurfer to a speed of 45.34 knots (84.02 km/h or 51.21 mph) at Camargue, France. — Martin Grimm (seaflite@alphalink.com.au)

                                                                                        Response…[3 Feb 01] A few years ago I saw a photo in a windsurfing shop purporting to show the setting of a windsurfing record of 54+ mph. I can’t recall where the shop was. There is a sailor named Mike Delahanty who runs Gorge Sails (in Washington state, near Hood River) who was the speed champion about that time. Perhaps he could tell you the current situation. — Rich Miller (rich@mail.ski.org)

                                                                                        Sailboard Success in France

                                                                                        [3 Oct 00] I am French, and I built a homemade sailboard with hydrofoils. I named it “Le Foilboard.” To show my work I made a little home page about it. There is a French version and an English one. — Gérard Delerm (gerard.delerm@free.fr) website: http://gerard.delerm.free.fr

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Surfboards

                                                                                        [17 Aug 99] Do you know if anyone has worked on hydrofoil surfboards? For waves? I’m looking for info, as I surf, and spend way too much time on crazy ideas, so I don’t want to duplicate someone else’s work. — Doug (directaudio@surfside.net)

                                                                                        Response…[17 Jan 99] Go to the IHS Links page and look for links to the Miller Hydrofoil Windsurfer and the Air Chair hydrofoil water ski. Those two examples are the closest to what you are talking about.

                                                                                        Small Foil Design Info Wanted

                                                                                        [24 Jul 99] Has anyone that you know of designed or produced a hydrofoil windsurfer? I had the idea to design one, but need to know more about the characteristics of foils, i.e. how much surface area required for x amount of weight and speed over the foil, etc. Any help you could give would be appreciated. — Dr. David Miller (Dboncraka@aol.com)

                                                                                        Hydrofoil Sailboard Design Problem

                                                                                        [14 May 99] I’m a student in my first year in the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, And I’m just beginning to work on a project : I’d like to try to make a windsurf board with hydrofoils. I know this is not very original, and I have seen the links to ” Miller hydrofoil,” but I don’t know how to contact him. Moreover, I don’t know which solution I am going to chose (number and type of foils). I’d like to have some advice on this issue. I already have some contact with Hugues de Turckeim, a French shaper who is working on the TECHNIQUES AVANCÉES, the catamaran of Ensta, also a French engineering school. — Yannig-François le Roux (98leroux@paris.ensmp.fr); PARIS

                                                                                        Another Hydrofoil Sailboard Design Problem

                                                                                        [17 May 99] I’m working in the design of a windsurf board with the hydrofoil concept. Do you have some information regarding this idea? — Juan Carlos Santilli. (jcsantilli@email.msn.com)

                                                                                        Response…[19 May 99] There is magazine article that describes the Miller hydrofoil wind surfer in detail… this description will give you plenty of ideas for your project. Please note that Miller’s design is patented and may not be copied for profit! — Barney C. Black (Please reply via the BBS)

                                                                                         

                                                                                         


                                                                                        This Page Prepared and Maintained By…

                                                                                        International Hydrofoil Society

                                                                                        PO BOX 51 – CABIN JOHN MD 20818 – USA

                                                                                        webmaster@foils.org

                                                                                        <<Back to Top of Page>> <<Return To IHS Front Page>> <<Return to Posted Messages Bulletin Board>>

                                                                                         


                                                                                         

                                                                                        The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Message: Chats, Info Sharing, Networking


                                                                                        The International Hydrofoil Society (IHS) Hydrofoil Correspondance Archives

                                                                                        Updated last August 20, 2006

                                                                                        Hydrofoils: Sailboats
                                                                                         

                                                                                        Hydrofoils: Sailboats      Top

                                                                                        Latvian CATRI Sailing Hydrofoil
                                                                                        Latvian CATRI Sailing Hydrofoil (Aldis Eglajs)

                                                                                            • [17 Feb 99] I received some further information from Aldis Eglais in Latvia (Lettland), the designer of the Catri 26R MicroFoiler. At the moment I’m still in the planning phase of my project but I intend to build the boat this summer here in Switzerland. Aldis is offering the plans for a very good price (US$ 1,300), and I’m very close to ordering them. I’m waiting now for his study plans. I will keep you informed. His E-Mail:

                                                                                        aldis@catri.apollo.lv

                                                                                            • . — Phil Schlund (

                                                                                        106641.71@compuserve.com

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • Response…
                                                                                            • [17 Feb 99] There is a short article about the Catri 26 Trimaran on page 48 of Multihulls Magazine Mar/April 1998 edition. The address given is Aldis Eglajs; Maskavas 291/5-26; Riga LV-1063, Latvia; Tel/fax : +371 7258427. -editor
                                                                                            • 2nd Response…
                                                                                            • [17 Feb 99] In Winter 1997-98 I did a project for a Dutch company called PJPC Multihulls. They wanted to build the Catri 26 for the European market to sell for about US$50,000. There were complete plans for making the (eastern European) ship suitable ( more comfortable) for the rest of Europe, which was part of my study (I was asked to design a mechanical device to lift the two swords). Unfortunately the Dutch company stopped their activities due to health problems of the owner, so I am at the moment looking for other tri-builders who could use my design. If you want to know more, contact me. — Maarten de Jong (

                                                                                        m.t.dejong@wbmt.tudelft.nl

                                                                                            • )
                                                                                            • 3rd Response…
                                                                                            • [21 Feb 99] We are working out two types of Catri Foilers — trailerable cabin boat range (22′ 26′ 30′) and offshore cruising & racing range (35′ 39′ 45′). After very successful prototype tests in the Netherlands there are two shipyards in Latvia started with 22′ and 26′ and one in San Francisco starting with 26′. The first boats will be delivered this Summer. The 30′ will be started in March for delivery beginning 2000. There are some homebuilders in Australia and elsewhere. You can find our presentation and description of Catri 22, 26R, 30 as well as the draft price list in the attachment. — Aldis Eglajs, Catri Marine (

                                                                                        aldis@catri.apollo.lv

                                                                                            • )

                                                                                        [Date/Time=03-21-2002 – 10:52 PM]

                                                                                          Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=236662]
                                                                                          Sailing Hydrofoils
                                                                                          Wants World Speed Record in Sailing

                                                                                              • [13 Jan 02] This looks exactly like the site I need. I want to have a crack at the wind-powered water speed record, and I reckon the only way we’re going to get the thing fast enough is up on a foil. The only problem is I have absolutely no idea. If anyone has info. it really would be appreciated (formulas/heights anything to help me build the hull) — Ian Montgomery (

                                                                                          primuscroydon@lineone.net

                                                                                              • )
                                                                                              • Response…
                                                                                              • [13 Jan 02] The world sailing speed record was once held by a hydrofoil – Greg Ketterman’s LONGSHOT. This boat has since been adapted for production as the Hobie TRIFOILER . A used TRIFOILER would be a good way to get experience in high speed sailing. In my opinion, the world speed record has risen out of the reach of subcavitating hydrofoils. The current record holder used planing hulls, which you can think of as fully ventilated supercavitating foils operating at the surface, which is where a supercavitating foil is most efficient. Cavitation proved to be a barrier to Ketterman’s pushing his hydrofoil to today’s speeds, and I doubt if there’s much you can do with section shaping to raise the cavitation speed much higher. Designing a supercavitating hydrofoil system that had a lift/drag ratio adequate for a sailing craft is just feasible, but requires very sophisticated hydrodynamics design. Hydronautics’ experience with their supercavitating helicopter-towed sled demonstrated drag reductions on the order of 40% -60% just by doing a more sophisticated type of analysis of the spanwise hydrodynamics of their design. You’d have to do the same for a sailing hydrofoil. Something like the Windjet LANDYACHT adapted for the water might be a starting point for the hull and rig design. — Tom Speer (

                                                                                          me@tspeer.com

                                                                                              • ); website:

                                                                                          http://www.tspeer.com

                                                                                          Monohull Dinghy…

                                                                                              • [5 Mar 01] Is there any website on a leeward-foil assisted faaast monohull dinghie, say an IC, Contender or 505 with a Bruce on a 3m lever ? — Claus-C. Plaass – Pickert 10 – 24143 Kiel – Germany – email  (

                                                                                          plaass@foni.net

                                                                                              • ), ph +49-431-36 800
                                                                                              • Responses…
                                                                                              • [5 Mar 01] Not only foil assisted, full flying:

                                                                                          http://imca-wa.freeyellow.com/index.html

                                                                                              • . — Tom Speer (

                                                                                          tspeer@tspeer.com

                                                                                              • ); website:

                                                                                          www.tspeer.com

                                                                                              • ; fax: +1 206 878 5269
                                                                                              • [6 Mar 01] I have designed a 16′ 100lb 2-person monohull foiler using two(only) fully submerged foils; should be sailing in 2-3 months. Take a look at the Hanno Smits website (listed under websites of IHS members) for info on his work with SP foils and a FLYING DUTCHMAN. Personally, the Aussie work on their Moths is most inspirational and should lead to light weight production monohull foilers that while not as fast (top end) as some multihull foilers will provide the thrill of flying to a much wider audience. — Doug Lord (

                                                                                          lorsail@webtv.net

                                                                                              • )

                                                                                          Hydrofoils Excluded From TheRace2000…

                                                                                              • [9 May 00] TheRace headquarters has admitted that they limited the entry of our hydrofoiler for the No Limits Race around the world. Their discrimination against foils has seriously impeded the development of effective offshore sailing hydrofoils. Our potential sponsor withdrew when our entry was denied. If they reverse the decision now, there is still a chance to pull it off. The prototype is complete. Our nine foot wide horizontal spans are designed to retract when we hit the inevitable obstacles. Please email

                                                                                          kevin.church@disney.com

                                                                                              • with a copy to

                                                                                          stephanie.schroeder@therace.org

                                                                                              • and ask them why they are discriminating against hydrofoils and why they still call this a “no limits” event. You can make a difference. Thank you for your support. Peter Murray

                                                                                          therace2000@hotmail.com

                                                                                              • Tel.#(1)561-286-2643

                                                                                          VOLANTIS 60′ Sailing Trimaran…

                                                                                              • [12 Feb 00] I just attended a meeting of the Northwest Multihulls in Seattle where Duff Sigurdson of Canada presented the latest news on the 60 foot trimaran planned to be built in Hawaii. Sam Bradfield has designed the foils thus she will have inverted T-foils and small amas. Nigel Irens is the designer. They plan a solid wing with reefable/furlable center section, and a hard vertical tab on the lower leech of the rig for depowering. It looks like a more delicate Rave Trifoiler, with a single CF gull-wing crossbar. I was impressed, even considering that Queen Elizabeth II is supposed to christen it. It is not immediately clear that “Volantis” is meant for The Race. Burt Rutan will build the foils in his “Composites” shop in the Mohave Desert, and the majordomo is Adm. Stuart F. Plott, formerly head of seaborne infiltration efforts during the late unpleasantness in Vietnam. Duff also talked about aquatic satellites- small versions of the hardsail trifoiler that would be permanently at sea, monitoring the shipping lanes and seaport accesses, video-monitoring incoming ships for oil dumping/bilge pumping. Solid wings again? Please contact Duff Sigurdson for more accurate news- he is the new publicist: formerly associated with the Ronin project for The Race. — Dave Carlson (

                                                                                          dacarls@nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu

                                                                                              • ) website:

                                                                                          www.fastsail.com/catcobbler/

                                                                                          Moth Class Sailboat Races With Foils…

                                                                                              • [25 Feb 00] In a world first, Western Australian International Moth Class dinghy sailor Brett Burville has cracked it with a Foiler Moth, winning outright two heats of the World International Moth Class Championships held in Perth last week and finishing a creditable 10th place overall. The International Moth class is one of the few truly development International sailing classes and also allows foil development. At times Brett was travelling at up to 1-1/2 times the speed of the top existing designs and easily won the races in which he stayed upright. This is no mean feat, keeping in mind that an existing Moth can outpace a 505 and is already the fastest 11′ monohull in the world. Brett’s boat is a standard Moth, with a larger-than-usual T-foil on the rudder and forward V-foils mounted at the end of the wings. It appears he showed bursts of incredible speed in the stronger winds, punctuated by many capsizes. Clearly there is scope for further development, perhaps with some form of sensor control. He was foilborne above about 8-10kts of wind and sailed both downwind and also upwind on the foils. In the light wind races he removed the foils from the simple mountings in a couple of minutes. This is a major achievement, as most foilers to date are only reaching speed machines, like sailboards. This is the first time ever for a foilborne craft to compete successfully around the buoys in all conditions in a truly international standard sailing competition. It is hoped that Brett will produce some further details and it is expected a lot of further development will now proceed, as it is possible to take any existing Moth and truly revolutionise its speed in winds over 10 knots! Who will be first to take it further?? — Ian Ward (

                                                                                          ianward@ozemail.com.au

                                                                                              • )
                                                                                              • Response…
                                                                                              • [25 Feb 00] See also the article and photos in the Jan 25, 2000 Sailing News from Boating Oz. Also, information and photos from various sources was reprinted in the Spring 2000 edition of the IHS newsletter.

                                                                                          Racing Boat Design Source…

                                                                                              • [2 Apr 99] Does anyone know where you can get designs for jet boats (sport/racing versions – not fishing/commercial)? Please email me. — Mathew Davies (

                                                                                          porsche@porsche-enthusiasts-club.freeserve.co.uk

                                                                                              • )
                                                                                              • Response…
                                                                                              • [3 Apr 99] The following groups run both propeller boats and JET (impeller) boats in various classes. The prop boats are quicker but both achieve speeds in excess of 200 mph regularly. Contacts (Hope the phone numbers are current.):
                                                                                              • Liquid Quarter Mile magazine (909) 989-1169
                                                                                              • IHBA International Hot Boat Assoc. (714) 634-4422
                                                                                              • ADBA American Drag Boat Assoc. (216) 543-9647
                                                                                              • NJBA National Jet Boat Assoc. (714) 993-2664
                                                                                              • SDBA Southern Drag Boat Assoc. (817) 662-0774
                                                                                              • — Ken Cook (

                                                                                          kencook@hydrofoil.com

                                                                                              • )

                                                                                          [Date/Time=03-23-2002 – 12:58 AM]

                                                                                            Name:Webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237130]
                                                                                            Archive; G Baker Hydrofoil MONITOR
                                                                                            Click below to Open.

                                                                                            //archive.foils.org/monitor.htm
                                                                                            [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 2:01 AM]

                                                                                              Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237508]
                                                                                              Archive; Add Hydrofoils to Sailboats
                                                                                              Click below to Open.

                                                                                              http://archive.foils.org/sailfoil.htm
                                                                                              [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 12:16 PM]

                                                                                                Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237618]
                                                                                                Archive; Sailboards, Windsurfers, Surfboard
                                                                                                Click below to Open

                                                                                                http://archive.foils.org/sailbord.htm
                                                                                                [Date/Time=03-24-2002 – 3:26 PM]

                                                                                                  Name:webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=237691]
                                                                                                  Archive; Hydrofoil Racers – Sail/Power
                                                                                                  Click Below to Open this Archive.

                                                                                                  //archive.foils.org/racers.htm


                                                                                                  [Date/Time=03-25-2002 – 4:09 PM]

                                                                                                    Name:Webmaster@foils.org [Msgid=238105]
                                                                                                    Flying Keelboat

                                                                                                      ViewThread

                                                                                                          • Has any one any knowledge of a monohull KEELBOAT using hydrofoils in a full flying manner?My company at microsail.com is about to introduce a canting keel model 42″ in length that I believe may be the first fully flying hydrofoil keelboat called the aeroSKIFF. Any comments with substantiated information would be very helpful.I amm working on a version of this design for full size sailboat applications particularly in the Open 60 Class..

                                                                                                      [Date/Time=04-20-2002 – 4:44 PM]

                                                                                                        Name:Doug Lord lorsail@webtv.net, [Msgid=249625]
                                                                                                        Flying Keelboat

                                                                                                            • Doug
                                                                                                            • I have seen many multihulled sailing Hydrofoils and a few Centerboard/daggerboard/leeboard Monohulled sailing Hydrofoils. I have also seen Cantable Daggerboards and keels. I have never seen the combination you describe.
                                                                                                            • Are the Foils fully submerged and attached to the keel or are the foils separate from the keel?
                                                                                                            • At 42 inches, you might want to also post this message in the Sailing model section.

                                                                                                        [Date/Time=04-20-2002 – 4:59 PM]

                                                                                                          Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=249626]
                                                                                                          Flying Keelboat

                                                                                                              • Doug,
                                                                                                              • When you say Keelboat, I understand that to mean a sailboat with a centre keel? I am not aware of any such boat adapted to run foilborne. Looking though a publication by AYRS on sailing hydrofoils indicates that most experiments with sailing hydrofoils have tended to use hydrofoils mounted on outriggers or catamarans. In the case of monohulls, the foils are usually mounted off wide crossbeams and there is no keel below the hull in those case. The nearest I can come up with compared to what you outlined are a number of International Moth class sailboats that have been designed with hydrofoils fitted rather than the usual centreboard. Photos of these craft can be seen on the International Moth Class Association of Western Australia website at:

                                                                                                          http://imca-wa.freeyellow.com/index.html

                                                                                                              • I am curious about your own concept so I hope we will hear more about it from you down the track?

                                                                                                          [Date/Time=04-25-2002 – 7:47 AM]

                                                                                                            Name:Martin Grimm seaflite@alphalink.com.au, [Msgid=251569]
                                                                                                            Adding foils to 27-ft catamaram

                                                                                                              ViewThread

                                                                                                                  • I am interested in adding hydrofoils to a 27-foot stiletto catamaran. Can you send me any information on how to start designing the foils and how they could be installed?

                                                                                                              [Date/Time=05-04-2002 – 8:24 AM]

                                                                                                                Name:John Thomason newboats@quik.com, [Msgid=255277]
                                                                                                                Adding foils to 27-ft catamaram

                                                                                                                    • There are resources for you on the IHS website, but no quick and easy answer. Some thoughts that occur to me include:
                                                                                                                    • Take a look at our books page

                                                                                                                //archive.foils.org/popbook.htm

                                                                                                                    • . There are some titles on this subject, all out of print I believe. However they can be obtained with a bit of effort from a library, used bookstore or the eBay on line auction site.
                                                                                                                    • The Amateur Yacht Research Society has published a number of technical papers on the subject of hydrofoils, and these are all still available. There is a link to AYRS from our links page at

                                                                                                                //archive.foils.org/linksout.htm

                                                                                                                    • The IHS has for sale the set of David Keiper files on adding foils to cats, however this design work was aimed at much smaller Beach Cats. Info on these files is at

                                                                                                                //archive.foils.org/ihspubs.htm

                                                                                                                    • . After David Keiper died, his work was continued and perfected by Dave Carlson. His email and website addresses can be found on our site by using the search engine on the main page. He is a good source of practical as well as theoretical information.
                                                                                                                    • You might want to consider getting a boat that is already foil equipped and was designed for it. The Catri is such a vessel. Information is on our site at

                                                                                                                http://archive.foils.org/catri.htm

                                                                                                                    • and at

                                                                                                                https://foils.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/catri.pdf

                                                                                                                    • . When the designer Aldis Eglais first corresponded with us, he was offering to sell just the plans or the plans plus kit as an alternative to buying and shipping a fully manufactured vessel… don’t know if this is still an option.
                                                                                                                    • Anyway, just some thoughts that may be of use to you.

                                                                                                                [Date/Time=05-04-2002 – 8:27 AM]

                                                                                                                  Name:Barney C. Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=255279]
                                                                                                                  Adding foils to 27-ft catamaram

                                                                                                                      • John
                                                                                                                      • Over the years I have seen many mods made to Stiletto Cats. The Stilletto has always seemed to draw out the adventurers in the sailing world due to their High performance and rasonable price. They have very light foam sandwich hulls which might be very difficult to attach foils to, if you can not entirely use the crossbeams.
                                                                                                                      • I have not seen any Hydrofoil conversions but many other Stilletto projects can be found in back issues of Multihull Magazine, Quincy Mass.
                                                                                                                      • They have a web site and their owner publisher is very user friendly.
                                                                                                                      • Best of Luck
                                                                                                                      • Bill White

                                                                                                                  [Date/Time=05-04-2002 – 9:23 PM]

                                                                                                                    Name:Bill White asst Webmaster whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=255479]
                                                                                                                    PK – A Small Hydrofoil Sailboat

                                                                                                                        • Dear IHS members,
                                                                                                                        • Bill White of IHS asked if I would share my experiences in developing and sailing a small sailing hydrofoil. I am happy to do so. Below is a brief account of my 10 year adventure with PK.
                                                                                                                        • Thanks to my web site (and the International Hydrofoil Society site), I look forward to and receive a lot of e-mails on PK Hydroptère de loisirs (Small Hydrofoil Sailboat. The address of this site changed last month.
                                                                                                                        • The new address is:

                                                                                                                    http://membres.lycos.fr/monsonnec/

                                                                                                                        • (Editors note: This is an extensive personal site of sailing hydrofoils)
                                                                                                                        • PK History:
                                                                                                                        • I started the design of PK in 1992 and the construction in 1993.
                                                                                                                        • This boat is exclusively made with some “Recycled materials”! For example the rail of the “rotary bench”, is an old bicycle wheel! As a result, I designed and built PK for approximately $800 £.
                                                                                                                        • PK flew the first time in 1997 without the system for the modification of the incidence and with a classical cat boat sail. When I sail I don’t want to have some spectators chuckle (if PK don’t fly!) and that’s the reason why, I just have bad photos of PK in flight!
                                                                                                                        • The latest version, (it’s the same hull and floats since the start, but I changed all the other parts), has been ready since last summer (July 2001). Unfortunately I have had a problem with my backbone since the same date! As a result, I don’t know if I am going to sail soon and I don’t have photos of this version on the sea!
                                                                                                                        • The particular points of this latest version of PK are:
                                                                                                                        • Rotary bench
                                                                                                                        • Rigid rig and sailboard sail
                                                                                                                        • T foils with ” incidence control system”
                                                                                                                        • Rotary floats (to protect the foils)
                                                                                                                        • Main dimensions:
                                                                                                                        • Length Overall 5 m
                                                                                                                        • Length Hull 3.85 m
                                                                                                                        • Beam 4.8 m
                                                                                                                        • Sail area 7.5 m2
                                                                                                                        • Weight 70 Kg
                                                                                                                        • Built For Only $800.00£!
                                                                                                                        • Please note that I cannot send the plans of PK, because I am not a naval architect and I think PK is not perfect, it’s just a prototype! However, I would be happy to discuss her design and construction over the IHS Bulletin Board.
                                                                                                                        • Thank you very much
                                                                                                                        • Best regards
                                                                                                                        • Frédéric Monsonnec
                                                                                                                        • PS:
                                                                                                                        • I have enclosed different photos of PK at diverse ages below:
                                                                                                                        • Before the first test of the fifth version in 1997: PK5 Stern-97

                                                                                                                        • and PK5 Bow view-97:

                                                                                                                        • Central hull during the first flight in 1997:

                                                                                                                        • First test of the “incidence control system” in 2000:

                                                                                                                        • PK6 in my garden last year! :

                                                                                                                    [Date/Time=07-04-2002 – 4:22 PM]

                                                                                                                      Name:Raiola Giancarlo raiola.roberto@tin.it, [Msgid=278825]
                                                                                                                      Attached File  “PKxICS-00~jpg.zip” – size 40357   Click Here To Download
                                                                                                                      Kite Sail Possibilities

                                                                                                                        ViewThread

                                                                                                                            • Last week I read an article about hydrofoils on yahoo’s boomerangtalk… Besides building rangs I like driving my kitebuggy. Unfortunately the beaches here are small, but…. with a lake nearby, such an article and an interest in foils……. ;-). Modern powerkites are very efficient sails with some great advantages over
                                                                                                                            • normal sails. I wonder if one could power some sort of lightweight 1-seater hydrofoilbuggy. It’s obvious though (after finding the IHS-site ;-), that I still have quite some reading to do… Thanks to everyone at the IHS for making that possible ! — Bart Derks,
                                                                                                                            • the Netherlands

                                                                                                                        [Date/Time=07-12-2002 – 7:57 PM]

                                                                                                                          Name:Bart Derks bderks@zeelandnet.nl, [Msgid=281893]
                                                                                                                          Kite Sail Possibilities

                                                                                                                              • There have been several articles on kite sails in the Amateur Yacht Research Society publications. You can get back issues, but you will have to pay for them! It might be possible to find back issues in a library somewhere. There is an index of the articles mentioning kites on the web at:

                                                                                                                          http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~fsinc/yachts/aindex/ai08.htm

                                                                                                                              • .

                                                                                                                          [Date/Time=07-12-2002 – 7:59 PM]

                                                                                                                            Name:Barney C Black webmaster@foils.org, [Msgid=281897]
                                                                                                                            Kite Sail Possibilities

                                                                                                                                • The leading proponent of kite sails is Dave Culp (email:

                                                                                                                            dave@dcss.org

                                                                                                                                • ), who’s also the AYRS webmaster.

                                                                                                                            [Date/Time=07-12-2002 – 8:01 PM]

                                                                                                                              Name:Tom Speer me@tspeer.com, [Msgid=281901]
                                                                                                                              Kite Sail Possibilities

                                                                                                                                  • Scott
                                                                                                                                  • There is a lot of Kite Board sailing on the Outer Banks at Cape Hatteras where I vacationed a few weeks ago. The boards are short versions of windsurfers boards or more like snow boards.
                                                                                                                                  • If I had the time and was a bit younger I think one could add a set of Hydrofoils to these kite boards and about double the speed. The foils would be similar to the ones that have been adapted for water skiing. There are several on our IHS web site at

                                                                                                                              http://archive.foils.org/linksout.htm#buyit

                                                                                                                                  • A good example is the sky ski

                                                                                                                              http://www.skyski.com/home.htm

                                                                                                                                  • Best of luck
                                                                                                                                  • Bill White

                                                                                                                              [Date/Time=07-13-2002 – 12:00 AM]

                                                                                                                                Name:Bill White whitewn@speakeasy.net, [Msgid=281938]
                                                                                                                                Windrider Rave Top Speeds

                                                                                                                                  ViewThread

                                                                                                                                      • Very nice website, lots of interesting and useful information! I’m interested in sailing hydrofoils, since I saw a Windrider Rave sailing near Toronto, Canada a few weeks ago.